This edited collection of works by leading climate scientists and philosophers introduces readers to issues in the foundations, evaluation, confirmation, and application of climate models.
Author: Elisabeth A. Lloyd
This edited collection of works by leading climate scientists and philosophers introduces readers to issues in the foundations, evaluation, confirmation, and application of climate models. It engages with important topics directly affecting public policy, including the role of doubt, the use of satellite data, and the robustness of models. Climate Modelling provides an early and significant contribution to the burgeoning Philosophy of Climate Science field that will help to shape our understanding of these topics in both philosophy and the wider scientific context. It offers insight into the reasons we should believe what climate models say about the world but addresses the issues that inform how reliable and well-confirmed these models are. This book will be of interest to students of climate science, philosophy of science, and of particular relevance to policy makers who depend on the models that forecast future states of the climate and ocean in order to make public policy decisions.
Reprinted in Climate Modeling: Philosophical and Conceptual Issues, edited by
Elisabeth A. Lloyd and Eric Winsberg. 2018. Palgrave McMillan. 2015. “Model
Robustness as a Confirmatory Virtue: The Case of Climate Science.” Studies in ...
Author: Eric Winsberg
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
There continues to be a vigorous public debate in our society about the status of climate science. Much of the skepticism voiced in this debate suffers from a lack of understanding of how the science works - in particular the complex interdisciplinary scientific modeling activities such as those which are at the heart of climate science. In this book Eric Winsberg shows clearly and accessibly how philosophy of science can contribute to our understanding of climate science, and how it can also shape climate policy debates and provide a starting point for research. Covering a wide range of topics including the nature of scientific data, modeling, and simulation, his book provides a detailed guide for those willing to look beyond ideological proclamations, and enriches our understanding of how climate science relates to important concepts such as chaos, unpredictability, and the extent of what we know.
Fundamental Concepts, Methodological Frameworks, and Philosophical
Perspectives Claus Beisbart, Nicole J. Saam. Mayo, D. G. ... In E. A. Lloyd & E.
Winsberg (Eds.), Climate modelling: Philosophical and conceptual issues.
Author: Claus Beisbart
This unique volume introduces and discusses the methods of validating computer simulations in scientific research. The core concepts, strategies, and techniques of validation are explained by an international team of pre-eminent authorities, drawing on expertise from various fields ranging from engineering and the physical sciences to the social sciences and history. The work also offers new and original philosophical perspectives on the validation of simulations. Topics and features: introduces the fundamental concepts and principles related to the validation of computer simulations, and examines philosophical frameworks for thinking about validation; provides an overview of the various strategies and techniques available for validating simulations, as well as the preparatory steps that have to be taken prior to validation; describes commonly used reference points and mathematical frameworks applicable to simulation validation; reviews the legal prescriptions, and the administrative and procedural activities related to simulation validation; presents examples of best practice that demonstrate how methods of validation are applied in various disciplines and with different types of simulation models; covers important practical challenges faced by simulation scientists when applying validation methods and techniques; offers a selection of general philosophical reflections that explore the significance of validation from a broader perspective. This truly interdisciplinary handbook will appeal to a broad audience, from professional scientists spanning all natural and social sciences, to young scholars new to research with computer simulations. Philosophers of science, and methodologists seeking to increase their understanding of simulation validation, will also find much to benefit from in the text.
Author: Isabelle F. PeschardPublish On: 2018-10-02
Highlighting the mediating role of models and the model-dependence (as well as theory-dependence) of data measurement, this volume proposes a normative and conceptual innovation in scientific modeling—that the phenomena to be investigated ...
Author: Isabelle F. Peschard
Publisher: U of Minnesota Press
An innovative, multifaceted approach to scientific experiments as designed by and shaped through interaction with the modeling process The role of scientific modeling in mediation between theories and phenomena is a critical topic within the philosophy of science, touching on issues from climate modeling to synthetic models in biology, high energy particle physics, and cognitive sciences. Offering a radically new conception of the role of data in the scientific modeling process as well as a new awareness of the problematic aspects of data, this cutting-edge volume offers a multifaceted view on experiments as designed and shaped in interaction with the modeling process. Contributors address such issues as the construction of models in conjunction with scientific experimentation; the status of measurement and the function of experiment in the identification of relevant parameters; how the phenomena under study are reconceived when accounted for by a model; and the interplay between experimenting, modeling, and simulation when results do not mesh. Highlighting the mediating role of models and the model-dependence (as well as theory-dependence) of data measurement, this volume proposes a normative and conceptual innovation in scientific modeling—that the phenomena to be investigated and modeled must not be precisely identified at the start but specified during the course of the interactions arising between experimental and modeling activities. Contributors: Nancy D. Cartwright, U of California, San Diego; Anthony Chemero, U of Cincinnati; Ronald N. Giere, U of Minnesota; Jenann Ismael, U of Arizona; Tarja Knuuttila, U of South Carolina; Andrea Loettgers, U of Bern, Switzerland; Deborah Mayo, Virginia Tech; Joseph Rouse, Wesleyan U; Paul Teller, U of California, Davis; Michael Weisberg, U of Pennsylvania; Eric Winsberg, U of South Florida.
This book is a critical appraisal of the status of the so-called Climate Sciences (CS). These are contributed by many other basic sciences like physics, geology, chemistry and as such employ theoretical and experimental methods.
Author: Guido Visconti
This book is a critical appraisal of the status of the so-called Climate Sciences (CS). These are contributed by many other basic sciences like physics, geology, chemistry and as such employ theoretical and experimental methods. In the last few decades most of the CS have been identified with the global warming problem and numerical models have been used as the main tool for their investigations. The produced predictions can only be partially tested against experimental data and may represent one of the reasons CS are drifting away from the route of the scientific method. On the other hand the study of climate faces many other interesting and mostly unsolved problems (think about ice ages) whose solution could clarify how the climatic system works. As for the global warming, while its existence is largely proved, scientifically it can be solved only with a large experimental effort carried out for a few decades. Problems can arise when not proved hypotheses are adopted as the basis for public policy without the recognition that they may be on shaky ground. The strong interactions of the Global Warming (GW) with the society create another huge problem of political nature for the CS. The book argues that the knowledge gained so far on the specific GW problem is enough for the relevant political decisions to be taken and that Climate Science should resume the study of the climate system with appropriate means and methods. The book introduces the most relevant concepts needed for the discussion in the text or in appropriate appendices and it is directed to the general public with upper undergraduate background. Each chapter closes with a debate between a climate scientist and a humanist to reflect the discussions between climate science and philosophy or climate scientists and society.
She works on scientific objectivity, on the theory and practice of evidence, and on
methodological issues in the social ... Her research interests include the
epistemology of computer simulation (especially climate modelling), concepts of
Author: Nancy Cartwright
Publisher: OUP Oxford
This is a much-needed new introduction to a field that has been transformed in recent years by exciting new subjects, ideas, and methods. It is designed both for students with central interests in philosophy and those planning to concentrate on the social sciences, and it presupposes no particular background in either domain. From the wide range of topics at the forefront of debate in philosophy of social science, the editors have chosen those which are representative of the most important and interesting contemporary work. A team of distinguished experts explore key aspects of the field such as social ontology (what are the things that social science studies?), objectivity, formal methods, measurement, and causal inference. Also included are chapters focused on notable subjects of social science research, such as well-being and climate change. Philosophy of Social Science provides a clear, accessible, and up-to-date guide to this fascinating field.
These theories reflect a concern with understanding the causes of soil formation,
primarily the role of climate. Latitudinal and ... Deviations from these 'model' forms
are viewed as oddities within specific developmental sequences and are treated
as such. ... Viewed in this way an event has the same philosophical and conceptual issues as individual entities with the added problem of its relational
Author: Robert Inkpen
This accessible and engaging text explores the relationship between philosophy, science and physical geography. It addresses an imbalance that exists in opinion, teaching and to a lesser extent research, between a philosophically enriched human geography and a perceived philosophically empty physical geography. The text challenges the myth that there is a single self-evident scientific method that can, and is, applied in a straightforward manner by physical geographers. It demonstrates the variety of alternative philosophical perspectives and emphasizes the difference that the real world geographical context and the geographer make to the study of environmental phenomenon. This includes a consideration of the dynamic relationship between human and physical geography. Finally, the text demonstrates the relevance of philosophy for both an understanding of published material and for the design and implementation of studies in physical geography. This edition has been fully updated with two new chapters on field studies and modelling, as well as greater discussion of ethical issues and forms of explanation. The book explores key themes such as reconstructing environmental change, species interactions and fluvial geomorphology, and is complimented throughout with case studies to illustrate concepts.
Four. Philosophical. Challenges. In this appendix I examine a model argument,
invoking human rights in defense of the duties to future persons to mitigate ... I
present what I think are satisfactory responses to the three conceptual challenges
Author: Darrel Moellendorf
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This book examines the threat that climate change poses to projects of poverty eradication, sustainable development, and biodiversity preservation. It discusses the values that support these projects and evaluates the normative bases of climate change policy. It regards climate change policy as a public problem that normative philosophy can shed light on and assumes that the development of policy should be based on values regarding what is important to respect, preserve, and protect. What sort of policy do we owe the poor of the world who are particularly vulnerable to climate change? Why should our generation take on the burden of mitigating climate change caused, in no small part, by emissions from people now dead? What value is lost when species go extinct, because of climate change? This book presents a broad and inclusive discussion of climate change policy, relevant to those with interests in public policy, development studies, environmental studies, political theory, and moral and political philosophy.
Convention on Biological Diversity ) and of growing interest in global climate modelling . For a number of ... Achard , F . , Eva , H . & Mayaux , P . 2001 Tropical
forest mapping from coarse spatial resolution satellite data : production and
accuracy assessment issues . Int . J . Remote ... Appl . Di Gregorio , A . & Jansen ,
L . 2000 Land cover classification system , classification concepts and user
Each issue of Transactions B is devoted to a specific area of the biological sciences, including clinical science. All papers are peer reviewed and edited to the highest standards. Published on the 29th of each month, Transactions B is essential reading for all biologists.
We conclude that social understanding of climate change and its prioritization as
a public policy problem is co - constructed through an ... Science , society and
climate change interactions : a conceptual perspective Theory regarding
interactions between science ... key research findings in areas ranging from
physical climate modelling to economic dimensions of the problem and possible
The book describes what these models are, what they are based on, how they function, and then, most innovatively, how they can be used to generate new useful knowledge about the environmental system.
Author: Peter K. Müller
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This textbook is about quasi-realistic models in atmospheric and oceanic sciences. Understanding the basis and limitations of these models is important since far reaching decisions about the environment are based on these models. It is novel in that it goes beyond a technical discussion of these quasi-realistic models and emphasizes their role and utility in generating new useful knowledge about the system. The book is written in a generally understandable way, with technical details relegated to a set of comprehensive appendices. The line of reasoning is illustrated by numerous examples, from both applied and fundamental research. It is a source of information for graduate students and scientists alike working in the field of environmental sciences.
Approaches and Issues Robert Frodeman, Carl Mitcham ... set group of WG I climate scientists and modelers , establish conceptual hegeA Situated Science -
Looking to Science in mony over ... incomplex forms of communal work between
terpretation of these models is dominated by a scientific and bureaucratic
This book provides a critical reflection on automated science and addresses the question whether the computational tools we developed in last decades are changing the way we humans do science.
Author: Marta Bertolaso
Publisher: Springer Nature
This book provides a critical reflection on automated science and addresses the question whether the computational tools we developed in last decades are changing the way we humans do science. More concretely: Can machines replace scientists in crucial aspects of scientific practice? The contributors to this book re-think and refine some of the main concepts by which science is understood, drawing a fascinating picture of the developments we expect over the next decades of human-machine co-evolution. The volume covers examples from various fields and areas, such as molecular biology, climate modeling, clinical medicine, and artificial intelligence. The explosion of technological tools and drivers for scientific research calls for a renewed understanding of the human character of science. This book aims precisely to contribute to such a renewed understanding of science.
Madsen, H. (2000) Automatic calibration of a conceptual rainfall–runoff model
using multiple objectives. Journal of ... May, W. and Roeckner, E. (2001) A time-
slice experiment with the ECHAM 4 AGCM at high resolution: the impact of
horizontal resolution on annual mean climate change. ... Oreskes, N. and Berlitz,
K. (2001) Philosophical issues in model assessment, in Model Validation:
Perspectives in ...
Author: John Wainwright
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Category: Technology & Engineering
Simulation models are an established method used to investigate processes and solve practical problems in a wide variety of disciplines. Central to the concept of this second edition is the idea that environmental systems are complex, open systems. The authors present the diversity of approaches to dealing with environmental complexity and then encourage readers to make comparisons between these approaches and between different disciplines. Environmental Modelling: Finding Simplicity in Complexity 2nd edition is divided into four main sections: An overview of methods and approaches to modelling. State of the art for modelling environmental processes Tools used and models for management Current and future developments. The second edition evolves from the first by providing additional emphasis and material for those students wishing to specialize in environmental modelling. This edition: Focuses on simplifying complex environmental systems. Reviews current software, tools and techniques for modelling. Gives practical examples from a wide variety of disciplines, e.g. climatology, ecology, hydrology, geomorphology and engineering. Has an associated website containing colour images, links to WWW resources and chapter support pages, including data sets relating to case studies, exercises and model animations. This book is suitable for final year undergraduates and postgraduates in environmental modelling, environmental science, civil engineering and biology who will already be familiar with the subject and are moving on to specialize in the field. It is also designed to appeal to professionals interested in the environmental sciences, including environmental consultants, government employees, civil engineers, geographers, ecologists, meteorologists, and geochemists.
students to assume different points of view, to identify conflicts and to develop
possible problem-solving strategies. ... students learn that ethics is not an old-
fashioned sub-discipline of philosophy or theology but rather an approach to deal
with everyday issues. ... In relation to these questions, it is crucial to introduce
students to certain concepts or positions in environmental ethics. ... Is the
interaction of the three pillars – economy, ecology and society – a relevant
Author: Thomas Potthast
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Climate change is a major framing condition for sustainable development of agriculture and food. Global food production is a major contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions and at the same time it is among the sectors worst affected by climate change. This book brings together a multidisciplinary group of authors exploring the ethical dimensions of climate change and food. Conceptual clarifications provide a necessary basis for putting sustainable development into practice. Adaptation and mitigation demand altering both agricultural and consumption practices. Intensive vs. extensive production is reassessed with regard to animal welfare, efficiency and environmental implications. Property rights pay an ever-increasing role, as do shifting land-use practices, agro-energy, biotechnology, food policy to green consumerism. And, last but not least, tools are suggested for teaching agricultural and food ethics. Notwithstanding the plurality of ethical analyses and their outcome, it becomes apparent that governance of agri-food is faced by new needs and new approaches of bringing in the value dimension much more explicitly. This book is intended to serve as a stimulating collection that will contribute to debate and reflection on the sustainable future of agriculture and food production in the face of global change.
Author: Kenneth D. FrederickPublish On: 2012-12-06
Quantitative measures of uncertainty in model parameters and model results are
needed. ... Modular modeling systems need to be developed to facilitate
interdisciplinary research on the full range of modeling problems and to provide a
framework in which to ... History and Philosophy of a Physically-Based,
Distributed Modeling System', J. Hydrol. ... Bergstrom, S.: 1976, 'Development
and Application of a Conceptual Runoff Model for Scandinavian Catchments',
Department of Water ...
Author: Kenneth D. Frederick
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This volume characterizes the current state of natural science and socioeconomic modeling of the impacts of climate change and current climate variability on forests, grasslands, and water. It identifies what can be done currently with impact assessments and suggests how to undertake such assessments. Impediments to linking biophysical and socioeconomic models into integrated assessments for policy purposes are identified, and recommendations for future research activities to improve the state of the art and remove these impediments to model integration are provided. This book is for natural and social scientists with an interest in the impacts of climate change on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and their socioeconomic impacts, and policy makers interested in understanding the status of current assessment capabilities and in identifying priority areas for future research.
concepts of animal ecology, including resource use, home range and dispersal,
and population dynamics. ... robust inferences for complex, multi-factorial
phenomena, such as meta-analyses of the effects of climate change on animal
behaviour and distribution.” Cagnacci and colleagues published their study in Philosophical Transactions (Animal ecology meets GPS-based ... “A few recent models sought to describe lethal mutagenesis but they often relied on restrictive
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