Classical Philosophy

A History of Philosophy Without Any Gaps

Author: Peter Adamson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199674531

Category: History

Page: 368

View: 9392

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Classical Philosophy is the first of a series of books in which Peter Adamson aims ultimately to present a complete history of philosophy, more thoroughly but also more enjoyably than ever before. In short, lively chapters, based on the popular History of Philosophy podcast, he offers an accessible, humorous, and detailed look at the emergence of philosophy with the Presocratics, the probing questions of Socrates, and the first full flowering ofphilosophy with the dialogues of Plato and the treatises of Aristotle. The story is told 'without any gaps', discussing not only such major figures but also less commonly discussed topics. Within the thought of Platoand Aristotle, the reader will find in-depth introductions to major works, such as the Republic and the Nicomachean Ethics, and Adamson also looks at fascinating but less frequently read Platonic dialogues. This full coverage allows him to tackle ancient discussions in all areas of philosophy, including epistemology, metaphysics, philosophy of language, philosophy of science, ethics and politics. This is a new kind of history which will bring philosophy to life for allreaders, including those coming to the subject for the first time.
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Medieval Philosophy

A History of Philosophy Without Any Gaps

Author: Peter Adamson

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0198842406

Category: Philosophy

Page: 672

View: 8793

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Peter Adamson presents a lively introduction to six hundred years of European philosophy, from the beginning of the ninth century to the end of the fourteenth century. The medieval period is one of the richest in the history of philosophy, yet one of the least widely known. Adamson introduces us to some of the greatest thinkers of the Western intellectual tradition, including Peter Abelard, Anselm of Canterbury, Thomas Aquinas, John Duns Scotus, William of Ockham, and Roger Bacon. And the medieval period was notable for the emergence of great women thinkers, including Hildegard of Bingen, Marguerite Porete, and Julian of Norwich. Original ideas and arguments were developed in every branch of philosophy during this period - not just philosophy of religion and theology, but metaphysics, philosophy of logic and language, moral and political theory, psychology, and the foundations of mathematics and natural science.
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Classical Indian Philosophy

A History of Philosophy Without Any Gaps, Volume 5

Author: Peter Adamson,Jonardon Ganeri

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0198851766

Category: Philosophy

Page: 448

View: 5923

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Peter Adamson and Jonardon Ganeri present a lively introduction to one of the world's richest intellectual traditions: the philosophy of classical India. They begin with the earliest extant literature, the Vedas, and the explanatory works that these inspired, known as Upani.sads. They also discuss other famous texts of classical Vedic culture, especially the Mahbhr=ar=ata and its most notable section, the Bhagavad- G=ita, alongside the rise ofBuddhism and Jainism. This opening section emphasizes the way that philosophy was practiced as a form of life in search of liberation from suffering. From there, Adamson and Ganeri move on to the explosion of philosophicalspeculation devoted to foundational texts called 'sutras,' discussing such traditions as the logical and epistemological Ny=aya school, the monism of Advaita Ved=anta, and the spiritual discipline of Yoga. The final section charts further developments within Buddhism, highlighting Nag=arjuna's radical critique of 'non-dependent' concepts and the no-self philosophy of mind found in authors like Dign=aga, and within Jainism, focusing especially on its 'standpoint' epistemology. Adamson and Ganerithen conclude by considering much-debated question of whether Indian philosophy may have influenced ancient Greek philosophy and the impact that this area of philosophy on later Western thought. Unlikeother introductions that cover the main schools and positions, consider philosophical themes such as non-violence, political authority, and the status of women, while also covering textual traditions typically left out of overviews of Indian thought, like the C=arv=aka school, Tantra, and aesthetic theory.
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Philosophy in the Islamic World

A History of Philosophy Without Any Gaps

Author: Peter Adamson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199577498

Category: Philosophy

Page: 544

View: 6297

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Peter Adamson presents the first full history of philosophy in the Islamic world for a broad readership. He traces its development from early Islam to the 20th century, ranging from Spain to South Asia, featuring Jewish and Christian thinkers as well as Muslim. Major figures like Avicenna, Averroes, and Maimonides are covered in great detail, but the book also looks at less familiar thinkers, including women philosophers. Attention is also given to thephilosophical relevance of Islamic theology (kalam) and mysticism--the Sufi tradition within Islam, and Kabbalah among Jews--and to science, with chapters on disciplines like optics and astronomy. The first partof the book looks at the blossoming of Islamic theology and responses to the Greek philosophical tradition in the world of Arabic learning, the second discusses philosophy in Muslim Spain (Andalusia), and a third section looks in unusual detail at later developments, touching on philosophy in the Ottoman, Mughal, and Safavid empires.
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Philosophy in the Hellenistic and Roman Worlds

A History of Philosophy Without Any Gaps

Author: Peter Adamson

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0198728026

Category: History

Page: 360

View: 2379

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Peter Adamson offers an accessible, humorous tour through a period of eight hundred years when some of the most influential of all schools of thought were formed. He introduces us to Cynics and Skeptics, Epicureans and Stoics, emperors and slaves, and traces the development of early Christian philosophy and of ancient science. A major theme of the book is in fact the competition between pagan and Christian philosophy in this period, and the Jewish traditionappears in the shape of Philo of Alexandria. Ancient science is also considered, with chapters on ancient medicine and the interaction between philosophy and astronomy. Considerable attention is paid also tothe wider historical context, for instance by looking at the ascetic movement in Christianity and how it drew on ideas from Hellenic philosophy. From the counter-cultural witticisms of Diogenes the Cynic to the subtle skepticism of Sextus Empiricus, from the irreverent atheism of the Epicureans to the ambitious metaphysical speculation of Neoplatonism, from the ethical teachings of Marcus Aurelius to the political philosophy of Augustine, the book gathers together all aspects of later ancientthought in an accessible and entertaining way.
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Animals

A History

Author: Peter Adamson,G. Fay Edwards

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199375968

Category: Philosophy

Page: 472

View: 1663

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Philosophical controversy over non-human animals extends further back than many realize -- before Utilitarianism and Darwinism to the very genesis of philosophy. This volume examines the richness and complexity of that long history. Twelve essays trace the significance of animals from Greek and Indian antiquity through the Islamic and Latin medieval traditions, to Renaissance and early modern thought, ending with contemporary notions about animals. Two main questions emerge throughout the volume: what capacities can be ascribed to animals, and how should we treat them? Notoriously ungenerous attitudes towards animals' mental lives and ethics status, found for instance in Aristotle and Descartes, are shown to have been more nuanced than often supposed, while remarkable defenses of benevolence towards animals are unearthed in late antiquity, India, the Islamic world, and Kant. Other chapters examine cannibalism and vegetarianism in Renaissance thought, and the scientific testing of animals. A series of interdisciplinary reflections sheds further light on human attitudes towards animals, looking at their depiction in visual artworks from China, Africa, and Europe, as well as the rich tradition of animal fables beginning with Aesop.
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Health

A History

Author: Peter Adamson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190921285

Category: Medical

Page: 288

View: 2468

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From antiquity to the early modern period, many philosophers also studied anatomy and medicine, or were medical doctors themselves -- yet the history of philosophy and of medicine are pursued as separate disciplines. This book departs from that practice, gathering contributions by both historians of philosophy and of medicine to trace the concept of health from ancient Greece and China, through the Islamic world and to modern thinkers such as Descartes and Freud. Through this interdisciplinary approach, Health demonstrates the synchronicity and overlapping histories of these two disciplines. From antiquity to the Renaissance, contributors explore the Chinese idea of qi or circulating "vital breath," ideas about medical methodology in antiquity and the middle ages, and the rise and long-lasting influence of Galenic medicine, with its insistence that health consists in a balance of four humors and the proper use of six "non-naturals" including diet, exercise, and sex. In the early modern period, mechanistic theories of the body made it more difficult to explain what health is and why it is more valuable than other physical states. However, philosophers and doctors maintained an interest in the interaction between the good condition of the mind and that of the body, with Descartes and his followers exploring in depth the idea of "medicine for the mind" despite their notorious mind-body dualism. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, scientific improvements in public health emerged along with new ideas about the psychology of health, notably with the concept of "sensibility" and Freud's psychoanalytic theory. The volume concludes with a critical survey of recent philosophical attempts to define health, showing that both "descriptive," or naturalistic, and "normativist" approaches have fallen prey to objections and counterexamples. As a whole, Health: A History shows that notions of both physical and mental health have long been integral to philosophy and a powerful link between philosophy and the sciences.
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Philosophy in the Islamic World

Volume 1: 8th-10th Century

Author: Ulrich Rudolph,Peter Adamson,Rotraud Hansberger

Publisher: Handbook of Oriental Studies

ISBN: 9789004323162

Category: Philosophy

Page: N.A

View: 521

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A comprehensive reference work covering all figures of the earliest period of philosophy in the Islamic world. Both major and minor thinkers are covered, with details of biography and doctrine as well as detailed lists and summaries of each author s works."
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