The Retina and Circadian Rhythms

Author: Gianluca Tosini,P. Michael Iuvone,Douglas G. McMahon,Shaun P. Collin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461496136

Category: Medical

Page: 238

View: 2772

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Daily rhythms are a ubiquitous feature of living systems. Generally, these rhythms are not just passive consequences of cyclic fluctuations in the environment, but instead originate within the organism. In mammals, including humans, the master pacemaker controlling 24-hour rhythms is localized in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus (SCN). This circadian clock is responsible for the temporal organization of a wide variety of functions, ranging from sleep and food intake, to physiological measures such as body temperature, heart rate and hormone release. Moreover, accumulating evidence suggests that dysfunction of the circadian rhythms due to genetic mutations or environmental factors (i.e., jet-lag or shift work) contribute to the development of many pathologies, including sleep disorders, mood and affective disorders such as major depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, as well as the risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders.
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Circadian Rhythms and Their Impact on Aging

Author: S. Michal Jazwinski,Victoria P Belancio,Steven M Hill

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319645439

Category: Medical

Page: 361

View: 7723

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Biological rhythms time the ebb and flow of virtually every physiological process, and their mutual coordination guarantees the integrity of the organism over space and time. Aging leads to the disintegration of this coordination, as well as to changes in the amplitude and/or frequency of the underlying rhythms. The results of this are accelerated loss of health during aging, and in experimental model systems curtailed lifespan occurs. This book will examine the machinery that constitutes circadian systems and how they impact physiologic processes. It will also discuss how disturbances of circadian rhythms can lead to complex diseases associated with aging. Much of this treatment will focus on metabolism and genome stability. Importantly, the chapters in this book will encompass work in several different models, in addition to human. The book will conclude with a discussion of modeling approaches to biologic cycles and chronotherapy, for future research and translation.
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The Circadian Clock

Author: Urs Albrecht

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1441912622

Category: Science

Page: 300

View: 7032

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With the invitation to edit this volume, I wanted to take the opportunity to assemble reviews on different aspects of circadian clocks and rhythms. Although most c- tributions in this volume focus on mammalian circadian clocks, the historical int- duction and comparative clocks section illustrate the importance of various other organisms in deciphering the mechanisms and principles of circadian biology. Circadian rhythms have been studied for centuries, but only recently, a mole- lar understanding of this process has emerged. This has taken research on circadian clocks from mystic phenomenology to a mechanistic level; chains of molecular events can describe phenomena with remarkable accuracy. Nevertheless, current models of the functioning of circadian clocks are still rudimentary. This is not due to the faultiness of discovered mechanisms, but due to the lack of undiscovered processes involved in contributing to circadian rhythmicity. We know for example, that the general circadian mechanism is not regulated equally in all tissues of m- mals. Hence, a lot still needs to be discovered to get a full understanding of cir- dian rhythms at the systems level. In this respect, technology has advanced at high speed in the last years and provided us with data illustrating the sheer complexity of regulation of physiological processes in organisms. To handle this information, computer aided integration of the results is of utmost importance in order to d- cover novel concepts that ultimately need to be tested experimentally.
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Symmetry of Biorhythms and Reactivity

Author: Aleksandr Petrovich Dubrov

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9782881246920

Category: Science

Page: 268

View: 2506

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One of the fundamental problems in biology and medicine is that of individual differences in biorhythms and reactivity. Dubrov (Library of Natural Sciences, USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow) considers the problem from the point of view of symmetry and harmony, applying the new discipline of functional biosymmetrics to explore the functioning of an organism and its reactivity. Translated from the Russian 1987 original, which presumably has something to do with the high cost. The type is double-spaced (for added bulk?). Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
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Sleep, wakefulness and circadian rhythm

Author: North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development. Aerospace Medical Panel,North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development. Consultant and Exchange Programme

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 284

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Circadian Rhythms and Health Research Trends

Author: Alfredo V. Lignelli

Publisher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated

ISBN: 9781600218750

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 222

View: 5394

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A circadian rhythm is a roughly-24-hour cycle in the physiological processes of living beings, including plants, animals, fungi and cyanobacteria. The term 'circadian', comes from the Latin circa, 'around', and dies, 'day', meaning literally 'about a day'. The formal study of biological temporal rhythms such as daily, weekly, seasonal, and annual rhythms, is called chronobiology. In a strict sense, circadian rhythms are endogenously generated, although they can be modulated by external cues such as sunlight and temperature. Most of a person's body systems demonstrate circadian variations. The body systems with the most prominent circadian variations are the sleep-wake cycle, the temperature regulation system, and the endocrine system. The malfunctioning of a person's circadian system, or biological clock, causes circadian rhythm disorders. Circadian rhythms and their relation to health outcomes in the globalised hyper world of the 21st century are now understood to be extremely important.
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Membranes and circadian rhythms

Author: Thérèse Vanden Driessche

Publisher: Springer Verlag

ISBN: 9783540601012

Category: Medical

Page: 226

View: 4678

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The book shows that cell membranes vary according to the 24h cycle: it deals with circadian changes in membrane composition, principally the plasma membrane and with structural organization changes in some chloroplast thylakoids. The book deals with changes in activity or efficiency of pumps, channels, photo- and hormone receptors, in sensitivity towards external signals, in sensitivity to some drugs, including anaesthetics and in changes in signal transduction. The cell cycle is discussed on theoretical and experimental grounds, as well as its gating by circadian rhythmicity. The rhythm generating mechanism is modelized. The circadian oscillation of the plasma membrane confers a temporal parameter.
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Equine Genomics

Author: Bhanu P. Chowdhary

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118522125

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 9813

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Analysis of the equine genome began just over a decade ago, culminating in the recent complete sequencing of the horse genome. The availability of the equine whole genome sequence represents the successful completion of an important era of equine genome analysis, and the beginning of a new era where the sequence information will catalyze the development of new tools and resources that will permit study of a range of traits that are economically important and are significant to equine health and welfare. Equine Genomics provides a timely comprehensive overview of equine genomic research. Chapters detail key accomplishments and the current state of research, as well as looking forward to possible applications of genomic technologies to horse breeding, health, and welfare. Equine Genomics delivers a global overview of the topic and is seamlessly edited by a leading equine genomics researcher. Equine Genomics is an indispensible source of information for anyone with an interest in this increasingly important field of study, including equine genomic researchers, clinicians, animal science professionals and equine field veterinarians.
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