An effort to achieve the same has been undertaken in this book. The book is sure to stimulate further discussions on China s navy and its ambitions. Foreword by Srikanth Kondapalli
Author: Sandeep Dewan
Publisher: Vij Books India Pvt Ltd
Category: Political Science
China s Maritime Power dates back thousands of years. China has one of the oldest naval traditions in the world, dating from at least the end of the Warring States period in 221 BC. Nonetheless, China has historically been a continental state with a large ground force and only a coastal navy with limited blue water capability. The rise of modern day China raises considerable regional and security concerns, besides economic and political competition towards finding a rightful place in power politics of the South Asian Region and hence needs a critical analysis. There is a need to focus future strategies to deal with such challenges, both in the medium and long term. An effort to achieve the same has been undertaken in this book. The book is sure to stimulate further discussions on China s navy and its ambitions. Foreword by Srikanth Kondapalli
What are the implications for the U.S. Navy? To address these critical, complex issues, this volume brings together some of the world’s leading experts and linguistic analysts, often pairing them in research teams.
Author: Andrew S. Erickson
Publisher: Naval Institute Press
One of this century’s most significant events, China’s maritime transformation is already making waves. Yet China’s course and its implications, including at sea, remain highly uncertain—triggering intense speculation and concern from many quarters and in many directions. It has never been more important to assess what ships China can supply its navy and other maritime forces with, today and in the future. China’s shipbuilding industry has grown more rapidly than any other in modern history. Commercial shipbuilding output jumped thirteen-fold from 2002-12. Beijing has largely met its goal of becoming the world’s largest shipbuilder by 2015. Yet progress is uneven, with military shipbuilding leading overall but with significant weakness in propulsion and electronics for military and civilian applications alike. Moreover, no other book has answered three pressing questions: What are China’s prospects for success in key areas of naval shipbuilding? What are the likely results for China’s navy? What are the implications for the U.S. Navy? To address these critical, complex issues, this volume brings together some of the world’s leading experts and linguistic analysts, often pairing them in research teams. These sailors, scholars, analysts, industry experts, and other professionals have commanded ships at sea, led shipbuilding programs ashore, toured Chinese vessels and production facilities, invested in Chinese shipyards and advised others in their investment, and analyzed and presented important data to top-level decision-makers in times of crisis. In synthesizing their collective insights, the book fills a key gap in our understanding of China, its shipbuilding, its navy, and what it all means. Their findings will fascinate and concern you. While offering different perspectives, they largely agree on several important points. Through a process of “imitative innovation,” China has been able to “leap frog” some naval development, engineering, and production steps and achieve tremendous cost and time savings by leveraging work done by the U.S. and other countries. China’s shipbuilding industry is poised to make the PLAN the second largest Navy in the world by 2020, and—if current trends continue—a combat fleet that in overall order of battle (i.e., hardware-specific terms) is quantitatively and even perhaps qualitatively on a par with that of the U.S. Navy by 2030. Already, Chinese ship-design and -building advances are helping the PLAN to contest sea control in a widening arc of the Western Pacific. China continues to lack transparency in important respects, but much is knowable through the interdisciplinary research approach pioneered by the Naval War College China Maritime Studies Institute in the series “Studies in Chinese Maritime Development,” of which this is the sixth volume.
This is a fascinating insight into China’s strategic abilities and ambitions, probing the real depths of its plans for the twenty-first century.
Author: Peter Howarth
This is a fascinating insight into China’s strategic abilities and ambitions, probing the real depths of its plans for the twenty-first century. China's Rising Sea Power explores similarities between China’s strategic outlook today and that of earlier continental powers whose submarine fleets challenged dominant maritime powers for regional hegemony: Germany in two World Wars and the Soviet Union during the Cold War. Using insights from classical naval strategic theory, Peter Howarth examines Beijing’s strategic logic in making tactical submarines the keystone of China’s naval force structure. He also investigates the influence of Soviet naval strategy and ancient Chinese military thought on the PLA Navy’s strategic culture, contending that China’s increasingly capable submarine fleet could play a key role in Beijing’s use of force to resolve the Taiwan issue. This book will be of great interest to all students and scholars of security and strategic studies, Asian politics, geopolitics and military (naval) strategy.
Chapter 3 The offensive Turn of China's naval strategy and Doctrine as east
asian dynamics and China's regional ... for a regional hegemonic bid, offensive
realism suggests that China will produce growing maritime ambitions that will aim
, first ...
Author: Dr Yves-Heng Lim
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Category: Political Science
The rapid modernization of the Chinese Navy is a well-documented reality of the post-Cold War world. This book makes sense of Chinese priorities in its naval modernization and argues that the orientation of Beijing's choices concerning its naval forces can essentially be explained by China's position as a potential regional hegemony. Lim highlights how a rising state develops naval power to fulfil its security objectives, a theoretical perspective that goes further than the sole Chinese case.
China. interprets. Mahan. Past maritime powers interpreted Mahanian sea-power
theory in light of their unique political and ... vision and naval strategy that set the
stage for his successors to advocate a new and ambitious role for the navy.
Author: James R. Holmes
Alfred Thayer Mahan has been called America’s nineteenth-century ‘evangelist of sea power’ and the intellectual father of the modern US Navy. His theories have a timeless appeal, and Chinese analysts now routinely invoke Mahan’s writings, exhorting their nation to build a powerful navy. Economics is the prime motivation for maritime reorientation, and securing the sea lanes that convey foreign energy supplies and other commodities now ranks near or at the top of China’s list of military priorities. This book is the first systematic effort to test the interplay between Western military thought and Chinese strategic traditions vis-à-vis the nautical arena. It uncovers some universal axioms about how theories of sea power influence the behaviour of great powers and examines how Mahanian thought could shape China’s encounters on the high seas. Empirical analysis adds a new dimension to the current debate over China’s ‘rise’ and its importance for international relations. The findings also clarify the possible implications of China’s maritime rise for the United States, and illuminate how the two powers can manage their bilateral interactions on the high seas. Chinese Naval Strategy in the 21st Century will be of much interest to students of naval history, Chinese politics and security studies.
NAVAL. POWER. Symbolic gestures are most often a mix of intent and ambition. China's recent success in its bid for a bloc ... China's longstanding bid to secure a
presence in the Indian Ocean has not been deterred by the recent escalating ...
Publisher: KW Publishers Pvt Ltd
This book seeks to afford an objective, incisive insight into China. Written by a veteran Indian analyst with over 25 years of experience monitoring developments relating to contemporary China, it is an attempt to inform and promote understanding of China’s policies and actions and, especially, the implications for India. The 32 essays that comprise the book present a comprehensive tour de horizon of presentday China ranging across a variety of subjects. Each of the aspects touched upon have direct relevance for the international community and particularly for India and the AsiaPacific region. The 1 section deals exclusively with China’s currently evolving internal political situation. The outline sketches of China’s two top leaders suggest their personalities influence Beijing’s policies and that China’s domestic and foreign policies will undoubtedly bear their imprimatur. Other articles examine the equally important and rapidly evolving political scenario in China, especially concerning the selection of cadres to the Chinese Communist Party’s highest echelons. The absence of veteran leaders of preeminence and unquestioned authority has accentuated competition within the Chinese Communist Party and indicators of potential discord, like the political upheaval involving exPolitburo member Bo Xilai, have been identified. The book notes the attempt by China’s leadership to rearrange national economic developmental priorities to remain competitive in a changing international environment and includes a debate centering on the Yuan rivaling the US dollar. Two articles assess the implications of China’s maritime ambitions and Cyber strategy, both of which are centerpieces of China’s military strategy. Other articles discuss in some detail the IndiaChina relationship, China’s relations with some of India’s neighbours, and SinoUS relations described by Beijing as China’s single, most important relationship. A subject usually less focused upon though of vital strategic importance to India, namely China’s strategy regarding Tibetan Buddhists and the Dalai Lama, is scrutinized in the book’s concluding section. This includes the developmental activity in Tibet and plans to divert the waters of the Brahmaputra, both of which have a serious potential to impact on India. For the facility of easy reading, this book contains no citations or references.
This book concludes with a forecast of what Xi’s vision of a “world-class navy” might look like in the next fifteen years when the 2035 deadline is reached.
Author: Michael McDevitt
Publisher: Naval Institute Press
Xi Jinping has made his ambitions for the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) perfectly clear, there is no mystery what he wants, first, that China should become a “great maritime power” and secondly, that the PLA “become a world-class armed force by 2050.” He wants this latter objective to be largely completed by 2035. China as a Twenty-First-Century Naval Power focuses on China’s navy and how it is being transformed to satisfy the “world class” goal. Beginning with an exploration of why China is seeking to become such a major maritime power, author Michael McDevitt first explores the strategic rationale behind Xi’s two objectives. China’s reliance on foreign trade and overseas interests such as China’s Belt and Road strategy. In turn this has created concerns within the senior levels of China’s military about the vulnerability of its overseas interests and maritime life-lines. is a major theme. McDevitt dubs this China’s “sea lane anxiety” and traces how this has required the PLA Navy to evolve from a “near seas”-focused navy to one that has global reach; a “blue water navy.” He details how quickly this transformation has taken place, thanks to a patient step-by-step approach and abundant funding. The more than 10 years of anti-piracy patrols in the far reaches of the Indian Ocean has acted as a learning curve accelerator to “blue water” status. McDevitt then explores the PLA Navy’s role in the South China Sea and the Indian Ocean. He provides a detailed assessment of what the PLAN will be expected to do if Beijing chooses to attack Taiwan potentially triggering combat with America’s “first responders” in East Asia, especially the U.S. Seventh Fleet and U.S. Fifth Air Force. He conducts a close exploration of how the PLA Navy fits into China’s campaign plan aimed at keeping reinforcing U.S. forces at arm’s length (what the Pentagon calls anti-access and area denial [A2/AD]) if war has broken out over Taiwan, or because of attacks on U.S. allies and friends that live in the shadow of China. McDevitt does not know how Xi defines “world class” but the evidence from the past 15 years of building a blue water force has already made the PLA Navy the second largest globally capable navy in the world. This book concludes with a forecast of what Xi’s vision of a “world-class navy” might look like in the next fifteen years when the 2035 deadline is reached.
was able to escape back out to the open sea.29 The naval battle was over and
the big guns were un able to save the Dutch ... Had Japan not given up its maritime ambitions and had there been more Hideyoshis, then China might have
Author: Kaushik Roy
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
A substantial amount of work has been carried out to explore the military systems of Western Europe during the early modern era, but the military trajectories of the Asian states have received relatively little attention. This study provides the first comparative study of the major Asian empires' military systems and explores the extent of the impact of West European military transition on the extra-European world. Kaushik Roy conducts a comparative analysis of the armies and navies of the large agrarian bureaucratic empires of Asia, focusing on the question of how far the Asian polities were able to integrate gunpowder weapons in their military systems. Military Transition in Early Modern Asia, 1400-1750 offers important insights into the common patterns in war making across the region, and the impact of firearms and artillery.
This book offers an assessment of the naval policies of emerging naval powers, and the implications for maritime security relations and the global maritime order.
Author: Peter Dutton
This book offers an assessment of the naval policies of emerging naval powers, and the implications for maritime security relations and the global maritime order. Since the end of the Cold War, China, Japan, India and Russia have begun to challenge the status quo with the acquisition of advanced naval capabilities. The emergence of rising naval powers is a cause for concern, as the potential for great power instability is exacerbated by the multiple maritime territorial disputes among new and established naval powers. This work explores the underlying sources of maritime ambition through an analysis of various historical cases of naval expansionism. It analyses both the sources and dynamics of international naval competition, and looks at the ways in which maritime stability and the widespread benefits of international commerce and maritime resource extraction can be sustained through the twenty-first century. This book will be of much interest to students of naval power, Asian security and politics, strategic studies, security studies and IR in general.
China's naval modernization and maritime strategy In the early 1980s, under the
direction of Admiral Liu Huaqing ('China's ... operations in support of PLA ground
forces, to a limited war doctrine extending to ambitions for a 'blue water' fleet, ...
Author: Euan Graham
Category: Political Science
This is the first major English-language study to explore the broad and longstanding connections between Japan’s national security and the safety of its sea lanes. Tracing issues from pre-and post-1945 eras, the book explores how Japan’s concerns with sea lane protection have developed across such diverse fields as military strategy, diplomacy, trade policy, energy security, and law enforcement. Drawing upon case study material and primary research including interviews with officials and security analysts, the book presents a chronological analysis of Japan’s sea lane security. While Japan’s security policies have recently undergone relatively rapid change, a historical treatment of sea lane security issues reveals long-term continuity in security policymakers’ perceptions and responses regarding Japan's defence and foreign policy. Revealing a neglected but important aspect of Japan’s military and economic security, the book investigates why officials and analysts continue to portray the defence of Japan’s sea lanes as ‘a matter of life and death’.
For example, China's national interests, maritime rights, and energy security can
be enhanced by combining an ... and domestic legitimacy”—rather than security
drives China's naval ambitions and shapes evaluation of the policy-making ...
Author: Øystein Tunsjø
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Category: Political Science
China has developed sophisticated hedging strategies to insure against risks in the international petroleum market. It has managed a growing net oil import gap and supply disruptions by maintaining a favorable energy mix, pursuing overseas equity oil production, building a state-owned tanker fleet and strategic petroleum reserve, establishing cross-border pipelines, and diversifying its energy resources and routes. Though it cannot be "secured," China's energy security can be "insured" by marrying government concern with commercial initiatives. This book comprehensively analyzes China's domestic, global, maritime, and continental petroleum strategies and policies, establishing a new theoretical framework that captures the interrelationship between security and profit. Arguing that hedging is central to China's energy-security policy, this volume links government concerns about security of supply to energy companies' search for profits, and by drawing important distinctions between threats and risks, peacetime and wartime contingencies, and pipeline and seaborne energy-supply routes, the study shifts scholarly focus away from securing and toward insuring an adequate oil supply and from controlling toward managing any disruptions to the sea lines of communication. The book is the most detailed and accurate look to date at how China has hedged its energy bets and how its behavior fits a hedging pattern.
Invoking the G-7 as an analog, the notion was that, given their respective sizes, if
the United States and China could agree on ... Dean Cheng, “Sea Power and the Chinese State: Chain's Maritime Ambitions,” Backgrounder 2576 (Washington: ...
Author: Bruce D. Jones
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
Category: Political Science
Is the United States still a "superpower"? How are the rising powers establishing themselves in international politics and security? What is the future of global stability? For over a decade, Bruce Jones has had a front-row seat as the emerging powers—principally China, India, and Brazil, but also Turkey, Indonesia, Korea, and others—thrust themselves onto the global stage. From Delhi to Doha to Beijing to Brasilia, he's met with the politicians, diplomats, business leaders, and scholars of those powers as they craft their strategies for rising influence—and with senior American officials as they forge their response. In Still Ours to Lead, Jones tells a nuanced story of American leadership. He artfully examines the tension between the impulse to rival the United States and the incentives for restraint and cooperation among the rising powers. That balance of rivalry and restraint provides the United States with a continued ability to solve problems and to manage crises at roughly the same rate as when American dominance was unquestioned. Maintaining the balance is central to the question of whether we will live in a stable or unstable system in the period to come. But it just so happens that this challenge plays to America's unique strength—its unparalleled ability to pull together broad and disparate coalitions for action. To succeed, America must adapt its leadership to new realities.
27 The 2008 Defense White Paper states that China continues to develop its
ability to conduct “offshore” operations ... 43 Li, Nan and Christopher Weuve, “ China's Aircraft Carrier Ambitions: An Update,” Naval War College Review,
Author: Geoffrey Till
With particular focus on the Asia-Pacific region, this book examines the rise and fall of sea powers. In the Asia-Pacific region there has been significant expansion of sea-based economies together with burgeoning naval power. Many claim that these processes will transform the world’s future economic and security relationships. The book addresses the question of to what extent the notion of ‘Asia rising’ is reflected by and dependent on its developing sea power. A central theme is the Chinese challenge to long-term Western maritime ascendency and what might be the consequences of this. In order to situate current and future developments this book includes chapters which analyse what sea power means and has meant, as well as its role, both historic and contemporary, in the rise and fall of great powers. This book will be of much interest to students of naval power, Asian politics, strategic studies, war and conflict studies, IR and security studies.
This book examines the broader strategic threads that are at play in this grand and ambitious trans-regional initiative unveiled by China.
Author: Vijay Sakhuja
Publisher: Vij Books India Pvt Ltd
Category: Political Science
The 21st Century Maritime Silk Road (MSR) can be considered as the most significant strategic outreach by China. It stretches across the large oceanic geography comprising the Western Pacific, the Indian Ocean, the Mediterranean and the North-Western Atlantic. The initiative, founded on historic recall, aims to build a flourishing multi-sectoral maritime economic network across the entire region with land corridors connecting to the terrestrial Silk Road Economic Belt (SREB). It is premised on monetary integration, infrastructure development, connectivity and, people-to-people contacts. It is also an accepted fact that such a vast enterprise would have politics and security as attendant factors. This book examines the broader strategic threads that are at play in this grand and ambitious trans-regional initiative unveiled by China.
This report evaluates China's maritime infrastructure investment goals in the Indo-Pacific within the context of both policy from official documents and analyses from state- and Communist Party-affiliated publications.
Author: Devin Thorne
Category: Economic assistance, Chinese
This report evaluates China’s maritime infrastructure investment goals in the Indo-Pacific within the context of both policy from official documents and analyses from state- and Communist Party-affiliated publications. The authors find that Chinese analysts unofficially discussing port investments routinely prioritize China’s national security interests over the objective of mutually beneficial economic development, contradicting the position of official policy documents. Chinese analysts argue that the BRI’s Maritime Silk Road component can help ensure Beijing’s access to vital sea lines of communication. Port investments are viewed as vehicles with which China can cultivate political influence to constrain recipient countries and build dual-use infrastructure to facilitate Beijing’s long-range naval operations. This report also analyzes a sample of 15 China funded port projects to assess the behavior of the Chinese state and the Chinese companies involved using open-source data and, in some cases, on-the-ground investigation. The characteristics of China-funded commercial ports throughout the Indo-Pacific and the behavior of Chinese companies indicate that these investments are not principally driven by the concept of win-win development as Beijing claims. Rather, the investments appear to generate political influence, stealthily expand China’s military presence, and create an advantageous strategic environment in the region. These strategic characteristics and behaviors fall along dimensions that, together, constitute a useful analytical framework through which to assess Chinese infrastructure investments globally.
In contrast to its relatively conciliatory approach to the South China Sea dispute
in the early to mid-2000s, Beijing has ... of the dispute and raises concerns over China's ultimate ambitions over the strategically important South China Sea.
Author: Leszek Buszynski
Category: Social Science
The South China Sea is a major strategic waterway for trade and oil shipments to Japan, Korea as well as southern China. It has been the focus of a maritime dispute which has continued now for over six decades, with competing claims from China, Vietnam, the Philippines, Indonesia and Brunei. Recently China has become more assertive in pressing its claims – harassing Vietnamese fishing vessels and seizing reefs in the Philippine claim zone. China has insisted that it has "indisputable sovereignty" over the area and has threatened to enforce its claim. All of this is unsettling and draws in the United States which is concerned about freedom of navigation in the area. The US has been supporting the Philippines and has been developing security ties with Vietnam as a check upon China. This book examines the conflict potential of the current dispute, it discusses how the main claimants and the United States view the issue, and assesses the prospects for a resolution of the problem.
Author: Ming-chin Monique ChuPublish On: 2014-11-27
or. coherent. naval. strategy? China's. aircraft. carrier. program. and. what. it.
means. for. Taiwan. Andrew Scobell and Cortez ... The earliest explanation
posited for driving the PRC's maritime ambitions was bureaucratic interests (
Author: Ming-chin Monique Chu
This book presents an interdisciplinary examination of cross-Taiwan Strait relations and the complex dynamics at play in the region. Since the election of Ma Ying-jeou as Taiwan’s president in 2008, the relationship across the Taiwan Strait—long viewed as one of Asia’s most volatile potential flashpoints—has experienced a remarkable détente. Whether the relationship has been truly transformed, however, remains an open question and the Taiwan Strait remains a central regional and global security issue. A return to turbulence in the Taiwan Strait could also add a new dimension of instability in the already tense maritime disputes in the East and South China Seas. While the relationship across the Taiwan Strait remains critically important, it is also changing rapidly, and the chapters in this volume present new thinking to help make sense of complex cross-Strait dynamics. Specifically, these essays explore different security and/or globalization dimensions of China-Taiwan ties as well as the globalization-security linkages that have emerged. As the balance of power in Asia shifts dramatically, several chapters in this volume explore how traditional security forces are evolving. At the same time, there are new dynamics emerging as a consequence of globalization forces, such as the tremendous economic and social integration across the Taiwan Strait, and several chapters in this volume consider some of these new problems. Finally, several chapters consider the often under-researched dynamics associated with the globalization/security interface such as cyber threats, transnational criminal networks and the security spill-over impact of production globalization. This book will of much interest to students of Chinese Politics, Asian Security, globalisation, diplomacy and International Relations.
It would be shaped also by 'Sinicizing' influences sweeping across the South China Sea and, later on, the impact of other ... Was this merely a zone contested
by great power rivalries and colonial ambitions, which having churned the waters
Author: Sam Bateman
This book examines the emerging maritime security scene in Southeast Asia. It considers highly topical implications for the region of possible strategic competition between China and India - the rising naval powers of Asia - with a possible naval "arms race" emerging between these countries both with naval force development and operations. As part of its "Look East" policy, India has deployed naval units to the Pacific Ocean for port visits and exercises both with East Asian navies and the US Navy, but India is also concerned about the possibility of the Chinese Navy operating in the Indian Ocean. Even as the US-India defence relationship continues to deepen, the US and China are struggling to build a closer links. China’s and India’s strategic interests overlap in this region both in maritime strategic competition or conflict – which might be played out in the Bay of Bengal, the Malacca and Singapore Straits and the South China Sea. The sea lines of communication (SLOCs) through Southeast Asian waters constitute vital "choke points" between the Indian and Pacific Oceans carrying essential energy supplies for China and other Northeast Asian countries. Any strategic competition between China and India has implications for other major maritime players in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, especially Australia, the Republic of Korea and Japan, as well as the US. This book identifies possible cooperative and confidence-building measures that may contribute to enhanced relations between these two major powers and dampen down the risks associated with their strategic competition.