What is going wrong and what should be done about it? In Children and Number Martin Hughes proposes a new perspective on children's early attempts to understand mathematics.
Author: Martin Hughes
The importance of learning mathematics is constantly stressed by educationalists and employers alike. Yet survey after survey shows that large numbers of children leave school lacking both competence and interest in mathematics. What is going wrong and what should be done about it? In Children and Number Martin Hughes proposes a new perspective on children's early attempts to understand mathematics. He describes the surprisingly substantial knowledge about number which children acquire naturally before they start school, and contrasts this with the difficulties presented by the formal written symbolism of mathematics in the classroom. He argues that children need to build links between their informal and their formal understanding of number, and shows what happens when these links are not made. Children and Number describes many novel ways in which young children can be helped to learn about number. The author shows that the written symbols children often invent for themselves are more meaningful to them than the symbols that they are taught. He presents simple number games for introducing children to mathematical symbols in ways they can appreciate and understand. Dr. Hughes also describes how the computer language LOGO can be adapted for young children, and shows the dramatic effect that LOGO can have on their mathematical understanding.
Microeconomic models based on the early work of Becker (1960) and
Leibenstein (1957) postulate a household choosing the number of children to
produce in order to maximize utility subject to its production functions and budget
and time ...
Author: Mark Montgomery
Publisher: World Bank Publications
Category: Social Science
Annotation World Bank Living Standards Measurement Study No. 112. Assesses evidence of a negative correlation between the number of children born and levels of child schooling by examining their determinants. In many developing countries, as parents have fewer children, they invest more in the health, education, and welfare of each child. This "quantity-quality tradeoff" is vividly illustrated in the recent economic development of Southeast Asia and Latin America. In Sub-Saharan Africa, however, the existence of such a tradeoff has not been established. The few studies conducted to date reveal either no correlation or a slightly positive one, whereby higher fertility rates are linked to greater schooling per child. This study examines the determinants of fertility and of child schooling in C te d'Ivoire and Ghana to assess evidence of a tradeoff, using data from three surveys conducted between 1985 and 1987. The results are mixed. In C te d'Ivoire, there is evidence of such a tradeoff in urban areas but not rural ones. In urban areas, female schooling, higher income, and improved child survival are associated with lower fertility and higher child schooling. In both rural and urban areas of Ghana, there is a tradeoff between fertility and child schooling with higher incomes, and, in rural Ghana, with increases in mothers' schooling. Also available in French ("La relation entre le nombre des enfants et de la scolarisation: Le cas de la C te d'Ivoire et du Ghana"): (ISBN 0-8213-3374-7) Stock No. 13374.
A Percentage and Number ( in thousands ) of Children Under Age 18 in Families
Receiving AFDC or General Assistance , 1979-1995 1979 1989 1993 1994 1995
7,228 Number ( in thousands ) Percent 7,116 11 9,440 14 9,463 13 8,656 12 ...
Table Page Percent of public libraries reporting how the ethnic diversity of children and young adults has changed in the last 5 years , by library
characteristics : 1994 . . . . N Mean number of weekly patrons in public libraries , number of hours ...
As of 2005, 133 million children around the world had lost one or both parents
due to all causes, including AIDS,28 and the number of orphans continues to
increase. Sub-Saharan Africa is the region hardest hit by the epidemic (see
Figure 11, ...
Category: Health & Fitness
This second stocktaking report reviews advances over the year of 2007, assesses some of the most important actions and changes for children affected by AIDS. It also finds important gains in the areas of the "Four Ps" - the goals of the Unite for Children, Unite against AIDS initiative: prevent mother-to-children transmission of HIV; provide paediatric treatment; prevent infection among adolescents and young people; and protect and support children affected by HIV and AIDS. In addition, it also focuses on three major themes: strengthening communities and families; strong health, education and social welfare systems; and the challenge of measurement
--Contemporary Psychology Reviews of this book: Here at last is the book we have been waiting for, or at any rate known we needed, on the young child and number.
Author: Rochel GELMAN
Publisher: Harvard University Press
The authors report the results of some half dozen years of research into when and how children acquire numerical skills. They provide a new set of answers to these questions, and overturn much of the traditional wisdom on the subject. Table of Contents: 1. Focus on the Preschooler 2. Training Studies Reconsidered 3. More Capacity Than Meets the Eye: Direct Evidence 4. Number Concepts in the Preschooler? 5. What Numerosities Can the Young Child Represent? 6. How Do Young Children Obtain Their Representations of Numerosity? 7. The Counting Model 8. The Development of the How-To-Count Principles 9. The Abstraction and Order-Irrelevance Counting Principles 10. Reasoning about Number 11. Formal Arithmetic and the Young Child's Understanding of Number 12. What Develops and How Conclusions References Index Reviews of this book: The publication of this book may mark a sea change in the way that we think about cognitive development. For the past two decades, the emphasis has been on young children's limitations... Now a new trend is emerging: to challenge the original assumption of young children's cognitive incapacity. The Child's Understanding of Number represents the most original and provocative manifestation to date of this new trend. --Contemporary Psychology Reviews of this book: Here at last is the book we have been waiting for, or at any rate known we needed, on the young child and number. The authors are at once sophisticated in their own understanding of number and rich in psychological intuition. They present a wealth of good experiments to support and guide their intuitions. And all is told in so simple and unalarming a manner that even the most pusillanimous will be able to read with enjoyment. --Canadian Journal of Psychology
Number of children in need receiving ART • Albania (2006), Armenia (2006),
Bulgaria (2006) and Croatia (2006): Data source is WHO, Sexually Transmitted
Infections and HIV/AIDS Programme, WHO/Europe Survey on HIV/ AIDS and ...
Category: Health & Fitness
This Stocktaking Report, the third since the Unite for Children, Unite against AIDS initiative was launched in 2005, examines data on progress, emerging evidence, and current knowledge and practice for children as they relate to four programme areas known as the Four Ps: preventing mother-to child transmission of HIV, providing paediatric HIV care and treatment, preventing infection among adolescents and young people, and protecting and supporting children affected by HIV and AIDS.
Table 4.14: OLS Regression Model of Number of Minutes per 52 SCHOOL CHILDREN AND SPORT IN IRELAND. Variable Estimate Standard Error
Estimate Standard Error Year in School -0.20*** 0.03 -0.08*** 0.03 Hours of
Author: Tony Fahey
Category: Physical education for children
Examines children's participation in sport, through physical education (PE) in schools, extra-curricular sport played in school, and sport played outside the school in sports clubs or other organised contexts. This report assesses the impact of a range offactors affecting participation and draws implications for public policy.
1 These statistics, however, must be treated with caution as they are almost
certainly overestimating childlessness in Germany. The reason is the way in
which the number of children is determined. Only children of married couples are
CHILDREN'S CONTENT An additional area of research addresses Children's
Content. Kunkel, D. & Gantz, W. (1992), in Children's Television Advertising in the
Multicultural Environment, examined the nature and number of commercials ...
Author: Samuel Joshua Friedman
Publisher: University Press of America
The emergence of the Internet as a global form of communication has raised issues regarding advertising to children. Is the Internet a broadcaster or a publisher? How does the First Amendment relate to Mass Communication? How do Internet technology and games modify children's development? Children and the World Wide Web examines both the legal issues, specifically the regulation of the Internet, and the behavioral issues that are central to a discussion of children and the Internet.
Gillian Bird and Sue Buckley Summary- Children and adults with Down
syndrome vary widely in their interest and achievements in number skills and
mathematics. There is only a small amount of research in the area and little that
Author: National Research CouncilPublish On: 2001-02-16
TABLE D-9 Mean Absolute and Algebraic Percentage Errors for Children Aged 5-
17 in Families in Poverty, Various Methods, ... aControls are imposed at the state
level so that the number of poor children and number of children in the school ...
Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
Category: Social Science
The Panel on Estimates of Poverty for Small Geographic Areas was established by the Committee on National Statistics at the National Research Council in response to the Improving America's Schools Act of 1994. That act charged the U.S. Census Bureau to produce updated estimates of poor school-age children every two years for the nation's more than 3,000 counties and 14,000 school districts. The act also charged the panel with determining the appropriateness and reliability of the Bureau's estimates for use in the allocation of more than $7 billion of Title I funds each year for educationally disadvantaged children. The panel's charge was both a major one and one with immovable deadlines. The panel had to evaluate the Census Bureau's work on a very tight schedule in order to meet legal requirements for allocation of Title I funds. As it turned out, the panel produced three interim reports: the first one evaluated county-level estimates of poor school-age children in 1993, the second one assessed a revised set of 1993 county estimates; and the third one covered both county- and school district-level estimates of poor school-age children in 1995. This volume combines and updates these three reports into a single reference volume.
The amount of information that children can hold and process in this system in a
limited time increases with age. Children ... e.g. mental arithmetic will be based
on a child's knowledge of numbers and number facts, and if these are available
Using NDAS requires selection of preexisting topics (adoption, agency
administration, child care, out of home care, and ... include the following
information: number of children waiting to be adopted, number of children
adopted in the current ...
Author: Amy J. L. Baker
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Category: Social Science
Social service agencies are facing the same expectations in quality management and outcomes as private companies, compelling staff members and researchers to provide and interpret valid and useful research to stakeholders at all levels in the field. Child welfare agencies are particularly scrutinized. In this textbook, two highly experienced researchers offer the best techniques for conducting sound research in the field. Covering not only the methodological challenges but also the real-life constraints of research in child welfare settings, Amy J. L. Baker and Benjamin J. Charvat present a volume that can be used both for general research methods and as a practical guide for conducting research in the field of child welfare. Baker and Charvat devote an entire chapter to ethical issues involved in researching children and their families and the limits of confidentiality within this population. They weave a discussion of ethics throughout the book, and each chapter begins with a scenario that presents a question or problem to work through, enabling readers to fully grasp the methods in the context of a specific setting or area of concern. Special sections concentrate on the value of continuous quality-improvement activities, which enable the collection and analysis of data outside of the strictures of publishable research, and the implementation of program evaluations, which can be helpful in obtaining further research and programmatic funding.
Then, apply the appropriate percentage, based on the number of children
involved. The result is what the monthly support payment should be under the
guidelines. What happens if a parent is already paying child support for another child?
Author: Ramona Freeman John
Publisher: University of Texas Press
Can a girl get an abortion in Texas without her parent's consent? Are parents liable for damages when their teenager crashes the family car into a neighbor's Mercedes? What happens when grandparents help a noncustodial parent hide a child from the parent with legal custody? Ramona John tells it like it is in this non-lawyer's guide to all areas of Texas law affecting children. Using layman's language and a quick-reference, question-and-answer format, she offers expert advice about dealing with lawyers and judges and about using the law to protect and serve children. Texas parents, grandparents, teachers, and health care and social service providers will find this an authoritative guide to their legal rights and responsibilities regarding children.
Pacific division—number and per cent of wage-earners at each amount of
classified earnings, by states: 1905. 71 Table 61.-Pacific division—per cent of all
wage-earners, and of men, women, and children, in establishments according to
Each word or phrase has an associated number. • Children are asked to select a
single word or phrase that best represents their level of pain intensity and the
score is the number associated with the chosen word. • One example of a VRS is
Author: Dr Jim Richardson
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
nurse for life – electronic access only Get to all of the high-quality content from Elsevier faster than ever! Your favourite textbooks are now available as e-books through nurse for life, allowing you to: Electronically search the book Create and share notes and highlights Save time with automatic referencing Load it up and change the way you learn! What do I get? You will be emailed a PIN code that will give you perpetual access to the electronic version of the book through nurse for life. Book description This title is directed primarily towards health care professionals outside of the United States. Covering the full age and specialty spectrum this text brings together for the first time, individual chapters from among the most respected children's nurses. This textbook is rooted in child-centred health care within a family context and draws upon best contemporary practice throughout the UK and further afield. This innovative text harnesses new design parameters in enquiry-based/problem-based learning, providing up-to-date information on a wide range of topics. In an exciting addition each chapter offers readers additional material on an Evolve website. Full Microsoft PowerPoint presentations augment the written chapters and provide extra information that includes case studies, moving image, photographs and text. Each chapter offers readers additional material on an Evolve website. Full Microsoft PowerPoint presentations augment the written chapters and provide extra information that includes case studies, moving image, photographs and text. Aims, objectives, learning outcomes, a summary box in each chapter and key points assist learning and understanding Professional conversation boxes enliven the text on the page and make it more interesting to dip into Suggestions for seminar discussion topics to help teachers Case studies help to relate theory to practice Prompts to promote reflective practice Activity boxes/suggested visits Evidence based practice boxes which highlight key research studies, annotated bibliographies including details of web-sites and full contemporary references to the evidence base Resource lists including recommended web-site addresses
6.3.1,5 Number concept The number concept is mastered during the concrete
operational period because children now understand the ordinal ( e.g. that 2 < 3
< 4 ) and the cardinal ( the absolute numerical size ) characteristics of numbers