Cerebral Lateralization and Cognition: Evolutionary and Developmental Investigations of Behavioral Biases

Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128146729

Category: Medical

Page: 457

View: 8721

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Cerebral Lateralization and Cognition: Evolutionary and Developmental Investigations of Motor Biases, Volume 238, the latest release in the Progress in Brain Research series, discusses interdisciplinary research on the influence of cerebral lateralization on cognition within an evolutionary framework. Chapters of note in this release include Evolutionary Perspectives: Visual/Motor Biases and Cognition, Manual laterality and cognition through evolution: An archeological perspective, Laterality in insects, Motor asymmetries in fish, amphibians and reptiles, Visual biases and social cognition in animals, Mother and offspring lateralized social interaction across animal species, Manual bias, personality and cognition in common marmosets and other primates, and more. Presents investigations of cognitive development in an evolutionary framework Provides a better understanding of the causal relationship between motor function and brain organization Brings clinicians and neuroscientists together to consider the relevance of motor biases as behavioral biomarkers of cognitive disorders Includes future possibilities for early detection and motor intervention therapies
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Lateralization and cognitive systems

Author: Sebastian Ocklenburg,Christian Beste,Onur Gunturkun, Marco Hirnstein

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 2889194116

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 3542

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Left-right asymmetries of structure and function are a common organization principle in the brains of humans and non-human vertebrates alike. While there are inherently asymmetric systems such as the human language system or the song system of songbirds, the impact of structural or functional asymmetries on perception, cognition and behavior is not necessarily limited to these systems. For example, performance in experimental paradigms that assess executive functions such as inhibition, planning or action monitoring is influenced by information processing in the bottom-up channel. Depending on the type of stimuli used, one hemisphere can be more efficient in processing than the other and these functional cerebral asymmetries have been shown to modulate the efficacy of executive functions via the bottom-up channel. We only begin to understand the complex neuronal mechanisms underlying this interaction between hemispheric asymmetries and cognitive systems. Therefore, it is the aim of this Research Topics to further elucidate how structural or functional hemispheric asymmetries modulate perception, cognition and behavior in the broadest sense.
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Dog Behaviour, Evolution, and Cognition

Author: Ádám Miklósi,Adam Miklósi

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 019964666X

Category: Science

Page: 377

View: 923

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This is the first book to collate and synthesize the recent burgeoning primary research literature on dog behaviour, evolution, and cognition. The author presents a new ecological approach to the understanding of dog behaviour, demonstrating how dogs can be the subject of rigorous and productive scientific study without the need to confine them to a laboratory environment. This second, fully updated edition of Dog Behaviour, Evolution and Cognition starts with an overview of the conceptual and methodological issues associated with the study of the dog, followed by a brief description of their role in human society. An evolutionary perspective is then introduced with a summary of current research into the process of domestication. The central part of the book is devoted to issues relating to the cognitive aspects of behaviour which have received particular attention in recent years from both psychologists and ethologists. The book's final chapters introduce the reader to many novel approaches to dog behaviour, set in the context of behavioural development and genetics. This second edition recognises and discusses the fact that dogs are increasingly being used as model organisms for studying aspects of human biology, such as genetic diseases and ageing. Specific attention is also given in this edition to attachment behaviour which emerges between humans and dogs, the importance of inter-specific communication in the success of dogs in human communities and the broad aspects of social cognition and how this may contribute to human-dog cooperation Directions for future research are highlighted throughout the text which also incorporates links to human and primate research by drawing on homologies and analogies in both evolution and behaviour. The book will therefore be of relevance and use to anyone with an interest in behavioural ecology including graduate students of animal behaviour and cognition, as well as a more general audience of dog enthusiasts, biologists, psychologists, veterinarians, and sociologists.
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Manual Skills, Handedness, and the Organization of Language in the Brain

Author: Gregory Króliczak,Claudia L. R. Gonzalez,David P. Carey

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 2889459683

Category:

Page: 163

View: 3786

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Whereas the cerebral specialization for skilled manual actions (praxis) seems closely linked to dominance for language, with both functions left lateralized in the vast majority of humans, the neural correlates of hand preference are still less well understood. Indeed, as a combination of inherited and non-inherited genomic factors (i.e., direct parental and concealed environmental contributions), handedness – in contrast to language – is less likely to have strong genetic indices and clearly lateralized functional organization. What about eye dominance, unimanual and bimanual object manipulation, and gestures, or attentional systems and the related egocentric or allocentric coding of space? Are these different categories functionally and structurally interconnected? Is their development and contribution to task performance linked, even if they are differently lateralized? How are they connected to language learning or its development? In trying to understand these relationships and their neural underpinnings we obtain a new insight into fundamental human behaviors, which depend either on shared or distinct cerebral resources that must, nevertheless, be harmonized by higher-order cerebral processing. In this Research Topic we assembled a dozen of original research contributions, as well as articles with more theoretically-driven perspectives, that directly speak to these issues. Hopefully this work will serve as a foundation for further discussions and will stimulate new research in this fascinating domain.
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Behavioural and Morphological Asymmetries in Vertebrates

Author: Yegor B. Malashichev,A. Wallace Deckel

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: N.A

Category: Nature

Page: 193

View: 441

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This volume grew out of the 2nd International Symposium on Behavioral and Morphological Asymmetries, which took place in St. Petersburg (Russia) in September 2004 at the St. Petersburg State University under the patronage of the St. Petersburg Society of Naturalists. The Symposium is the descendant of a satellite event with a similar name of the 4th World Congress of Herpetology (December, 2001, Bentota, Sri Lanka). While the 1st Symposium (see special issue number 3 for 2002 of the journal, Laterality) covered only asymmetries observed in amphibians and reptiles, the second one had a broader scope. Three years passed since the Sri Lanka meeting and there was sustained and increasing interest in vertebrate lateralization in the scientific community, especially in lower vertebrates, or at least, in nonmammalian models. This supported not only by the collection of talks at the Symposium, but also by current publications in international periodicals. Talks here were substantially biased towards the lower vertebrates and birds, while reptiles remained to be studied in more detail. Two important rationales were considered for the Symposium and the volume, which you have in hand. The first was to bring together topics and specialists representing different branches of the relatively broad field of research of animal asymmetries. The contributions focused on three main subjects: (1) development of structural and functional asymmetries constituted; (2) evolution and adaptation; and (3) function. Aiming for a broader range of topics, the Symposium may still show the current perspective. The increasing number of contributors (twice as many as at the Sri Lanka meeting) give at least a hope that it was indeed so. We, however, further invited authors, who although not present at the meeting itself, nevertheless could contribute to the book to finalize its shape. The other purpose of this volume is to expose Western scientists to Eastern thoughts regarding laterality, and vice versa. We aimed also to help Russian scientists with limited resources and access to the international journals the chance to publish in the Western literature. It seemed to us that this is a fine and perfectly acceptable approach, which on the other hand explains some of the unevenness in the quality and the style of the different manuscripts. Taken together, these fourteen Chapters, we believe, display a variety of the most interesting and intriguing topics within the broad field of animal lateralization, showing the perspectives of its developments. Far from complete, the volume nevertheless is a state-of-the-art book, which complements a bulk of recent literature on genetics and developmental studies of asymmetries of the heart and other inner organs, interhemispheric specialization in human subjects, and fluctuating morphological asymmetry in animals.
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Hemispheric Specialisation in Animals and Humans

Author: Joël Fagot

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780863779640

Category: Psychology

Page: 163

View: 7214

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Functional cerebral specialization is a phenomenon of considerable relevance not only to those investigating normal brain function, but also to scientists who study and treat clinical populations. This special issue of "Laterality" brings together contributions from researchers studying human populations and those using animal models, and includes a discussion of the important issues in the field of lateralization of function. The papers address the origins of laterality and the nature of lateralized functions in various species, as well as relations among the different forms of lateralization. Included are such topics as lateralized memory processes, early experiential effects on laterality, the genetic basis of handedness, perceptual processing in the haptic or visual domain, and learning. Comparisons between human and non-human primate findings and the implications of these findings for our understanding of the phylogenetic basis of hemispheric specialization are also emphasized.; The papers are based on presentations at two symposia that took place in August 1996: "Issues in Laterality", held at the International Congress of Psychology in Montreal; and "Laterality and Hemispheric Specialization in Primates: Brain Behavior and Evolution", held at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, at the joint meetings of the "XVI Congress of the International Primatological Society" and the "XIX Conference of the American Society of Primatologists".
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Oxford Companion to Emotion and the Affective Sciences

Author: David Sander,Klaus Scherer

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191021016

Category: Psychology

Page: 520

View: 963

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Few areas have witnessed the type of growth we have seen in the affective sciences in the past decades. Across psychology, philosophy, economics, and neuroscience, there has been an explosion of interest in the topic of emotion and affect. Comprehensive, authoritative, up-to-date, and easy-to-use, the new Oxford Companion to Emotion and the Affective Sciences is an indispensable resource for all who wish to find out about theories, concepts, methods, and research findings in this rapidly growing interdisciplinary field - one that brings together, amongst others, psychologists, neuroscientists, social scientists, philosophers, and historians. Organized by alphabetical entries, and presenting brief definitions, concise overviews, and encyclopaedic articles (all with extensive references to relevant publications), this Companion lends itself to casual browsing by non-specialists interested in the fascinating phenomena of emotions, moods, affect disorders, and personality as well as to focused search for pertinent information by students and established scholars in the field. Not only does the book provide entries on affective phenomena, but also on their neural underpinnings, their cognitive antecedents and the associated responses in physiological systems, facial, vocal, and bodily expressions, and action tendencies. Numerous entries also consider the role of emotion in society and social behavior, as well as in cognitive processes such as those critical for perception, attention, memory, judgement and decision-making. The volume has been edited by a group of internationally leading authorities in the respective disciplines consisting of two editors (David Sander and Klaus Scherer) as well as group of 11 associate editors (John T. Cacioppo, Tim Dalgleish, Robert Dantzer, Richard J. Davidson, Ronald B. de Sousa, Phoebe C. Ellsworth, Nico Frijda, George Loewenstein, Paula M. Niedenthal, Peter Salovey, and Richard A. Shweder). The members of the editorial board have commissioned and reviewed contributions from major experts on specific topics. In addition to comprehensive coverage of technical terms and fundamental issues, the volume also highlights current debates that inform the ongoing research process. In addition, the Companion contains a wealth of material on the role of emotion in applied domains such as economic behaviour, music and arts, work and organizational behaviour, family interactions and group dynamics, religion, law and justice, and societal change. Highly accessible and wide-ranging, this book is a vital resource for scientists, students, and professionals eager to obtain a rapid, conclusive overview on central terms and topics and anyone wanting to learn more about the mechanisms underlying the emotions dominating many aspects of our lives.
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