Cell Polarity and Subcellular RNA Localization

Cell Polarity and Subcellular RNA Localization

Over the past decade it has become clear that selective mRNA sorting and translation contributes to an accumulation of cognate proteins at discrete cellular sites. In this book, various systems are discussed (e.g.

Author: Dietmar Richter

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540400257

Category: Science

Page: 221

View: 686

Selective cytoplasmic organelle and protein targeting has long been thought to constitute the sole determinant of cell polarity and complexity. This view has been changed, however, by the discovery of differential subcellular RNA distribution patterns. Over the past decade it has become clear that selective mRNA sorting and translation contributes to an accumulation of cognate proteins at discrete cellular sites. In this book, various systems are discussed (e.g. Xenopus oocytes, mammalian brain, invertebrate nervous system) in terms of RNA trafficking, RNA-targeting sequences (cis-elements) and RNA-transporting proteins (trans-factors), activity-dependent translational regulation and the significance of the cytoskeleton for neuronal function and plasticity. It also discusses nucleocytoplasmic export of mRNA and viral RNA as another example of subcellular RNA kinesis.
Categories: Science

Cell Polarity and Subcellular RNA Localization

Cell Polarity and Subcellular RNA Localization

Over the past decade it has become clear that selective mRNA sorting and translation contributes to an accumulation of cognate proteins at discrete cellular sites. In this book, various systems are discussed (e.g.

Author: Dietmar Richter

Publisher:

ISBN: 3642535690

Category:

Page: 236

View: 741

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Vasopressin and Oxytocin From Genes to Clinical Applications

Vasopressin and Oxytocin  From Genes to Clinical Applications

MCN magnocellular neuron OT oxytocin PABP poly(A)-binding protein RRM RNA recognition motif SCG superior cervical ganglion UTR ... Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation: Cell Polarity and Subcellular RNA Localization, Vol. 34.

Author: D. Poulain

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080522821

Category: Science

Page: 392

View: 964

The articles comprising this volume were first presented at the World Congress on Neurohypophysial Hormones held in Bordeaux, France on September 8-12, 2001. This conference brought together more than 170 scientists from 18 countries who belong to the different fields of interest representing research in the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system. Two neurohypophysial neurohormones, oxytocin and vasopressin, exert a variety of central and peripheral actions and thus involve different scientific domains, which too often, even today, do not always find the appropriate occasion to interact. This volume is composed of chapters dealing with topics varying from basic and clinical neurosciences and neuroendocrinology, to reproductive, renal, cardiovascular physiology and pathology. It encompasses all areas of current neurohypophysial research and should be of vital interest as an integrative reference volume to specialized investigators and as an excellent introductory text to students, scientists and clinicians not yet closely familiar with the field. To ensure novelty and to make sure that all topics of current importance were covered, plenary and symposium speakers as well as poster presentations concentrated on recent advances made in the last few years.
Categories: Science

Molecular Kinesis in Cellular Function and Plasticity

Molecular Kinesis in Cellular Function and Plasticity

LOCALIZED RNAS The analysis of RNA transport and localization has in recent years matured into a novel discipline in ... In diverse cell types, RNAs have been identified that are targeted to specific subcellular locations for on-site ...

Author: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309074254

Category: Biological transport, Active

Page: 116

View: 650

Categories: Biological transport, Active

Genome Evolution

Genome Evolution

Cell polarity and subcellular RNA localization. Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 129–138. Cairns-Smith, A.G. (1982) Genetic Takeover and the Mineral Origins of Life. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Cairns-Smith, A.G. and Davis, ...

Author: Axel Meyer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401002639

Category: Science

Page: 237

View: 328

In the years since the publication of Susumu Ohno's 1970 landmark book Evolution by gene duplication tremendous advances have been made in molecular biology and especially in genomics. Studies of genome structure and function prerequisite to testing hypotheses of genome evolution were all but impossible until recent methodological advances. This book evaluates newly generated empirical evidence as it pertains to theories of genomic evolutionary patterns and processes. Tests of hypotheses using analyses of complete genomes, interpreted in a phylogenetic context, provide evidence regarding the relative importance of gene duplication. The alternative explanation is that the evolution of regulatory elements that control the expression of and interactions among genes has been a more important force in shaping evolutionary innovation. This collection of papers will be of interest to all academic and industry researchers working in the fields of molecular biology, biotechnology, genomics and genome centers.
Categories: Science

Origin and Evolution of New Gene Functions

Origin and Evolution of New Gene Functions

129–138 in Cell Polarity and Subcellular RNA Localization, edited by D. Richter. Springer Verlag, Berlin. Bussemakers, M.J., A. van Bokhoven, G.W. Verhaegh, F.P. Smit, H.F. Karthaus et al., 1999. DD3: a new prostate-specific gene, ...

Author: Manyuan Long

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401002295

Category: Science

Page: 199

View: 429

Although interest in evolutionary novelties can be that these different mechanisms cooperate in the mak traced back to the time of Darwin, the appreciation ing of new genes. In the second phase of new gene evolution, conventional models of new gene evolution, and systematical experimental pursuit of the origin and evolution of new gene functions did not appear for example by gene duplication, held that the muta until the early years of last decade. Since the 1970s, tions fixed in the early stages of the new genes are Susumu Ohno, Walter Gilbert, and others from the assumed to be neutral or nearly neutral. However, it area of evolutionary genetics have made pioneer ef appears that the force of Darwinian positive selection has been detectably strong from the outset in avail forts to elaborate possibilities for major biological mechanisms, for example, gene duplication and exon able population genetic studies of young genes created through the process of exon recombination. This may shuffling, by which new gene functions could arise. However, the problem of new gene evolution did not account for a common phenomenon in phylogenetic catch significant attention among biologists generally analyses of genes with changed functions: the early even recently. One of the reasons was the lack of ex stages of such genes are usually associated with accel perimental or observational systems for investigating erated substitution rates. Nonetheless, a more general factual details of the 'birth' process of new genes.
Categories: Science

In Silico Simulation of Biological Processes

 In Silico  Simulation of Biological Processes

References Carson JH, Cui H, Krueger W, Slepchenko B, Brumwell C, Barbarese E 2001 RNA tra⁄cking in oligodendrocytes. In: Richter D (ed) Cell polarity and subcellular RNA localization. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, p 69–83 Choi YS, ...

Author: Gregory R. Bock

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470857908

Category: Science

Page: 270

View: 908

Over recent decades vast amounts of biological data have been accumulated. However, it is becoming increasingly difficult to apply traditional theoretical methods to the formulation of coherent pictures of cell and organ function because it is no longer possible for a human theorist to integrate all of the available information. Instead, computer technologies must now be used to perform this integration. This book brings together contributions from many different fields to summarize the current status of computer-assisted modelling of biological processes. The initial chapters deal with fundamental developments in hardware, software and mathematics that underlie current approaches to biological modelling. Next, different approaches to collating data on gene structure and function are presented. These databases form a vital resource for any investigator trying to construct an integrated picture of particular biological systems. Cell signalling systems form a particularly complicated aspect of all cellular function and are important both in the understanding of basic cellular processes and in selecting targets for drugs. Recent approaches to integrating data on cell signalling into computer models are covered. Further chapters build on these approaches to show how computerized models of intact cells can be developed. Finally, approaches to the computer modelling of whole organs such as the heart are presented. The role of computer modelling in drug design is the subject of the final chapter and is also touched on throughout the discussions.
Categories: Science

Vertebrate Development

Vertebrate Development

Cell polarity in development often relies on mechanisms of RNA localization to specific subcellular domains to define the identity of future developing tissues. The totipotent egg of most animals illustrates in a grand way the ...

Author: Francisco Pelegri

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319460956

Category: Science

Page: 549

View: 553

This book provides a comprehensive overview of topics describing the earliest steps of fertilization, from egg activation and fertilization to the activation of the zygotic genome, in various studied vertebrate model systems. The contribution of maternal and paternal factors and their role in the early embryo as parental DNA becomes modified and embryonic genes become activated is fundamental to the initiation of embryogenesis in all animal systems. It can be argued that this is a unique developmental period, when information from the parents is compressed to direct the development of the body plan of the entire organism, a process of astounding simplicity, elegance and beauty. In addition to their fundamental scientific interest, many frontiers of biomedicine, such as reproductive biology, stem cells and reprogramming, and the understanding of intergenerational diseases, depend on advances in our knowledge of these early processes. Vertebrate Development: Maternal to Zygotic Control brings together chapters from experts in various disciplines describing the latest advances related to this important developmental transition. Each chapter is a synthesis of knowledge relevant to all vertebrates, with details on specific systems as well as comparisons between the various studied vertebrate models. The editorial expertise encompasses the fields of major vertebrate model systems (mammalian, amphibian and teleost) ensuring a balanced approach to various topics. This unique book—with its combination of in-depth and up-to-date basic research, inter-species comprehensiveness and emphasis on the very early stages of animal development—is essential for research scientists studying vertebrate development, as well as being a valuable resource for college educators teaching advanced courses in developmental biology.
Categories: Science

Encyclopedia of Biology

Encyclopedia of Biology

Reading, Richard P., and Brian Miller. Endangered Animals: A Reference Guide to Conflicting Issues. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2000. Richter, Dietmar. Cell Polarity and Subcellular RNA Localization. Results and Problems in Cell ...

Author: Don Rittner

Publisher: Infobase Publishing

ISBN: 9781438109992

Category: Biology

Page: 417

View: 715

Contains approximately 800 alphabetical entries, prose essays on important topics, line illustrations, and black-and-white photographs.
Categories: Biology

Motor Directed Transport of Localized MRNAs in Xenopus Oocytes

Motor Directed Transport of Localized MRNAs in Xenopus Oocytes

Abstract: The subcellular localization of mRNAs is a widespread and important form of gene regulation that establishes polarity in eukaryotic cells.

Author: Bianca Heinrich

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:609615536

Category:

Page: 434

View: 102

Abstract: The subcellular localization of mRNAs is a widespread and important form of gene regulation that establishes polarity in eukaryotic cells. In the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis, many mRNAs are localized to the vegetal cortex of the full-grown oocyte. These RNAs typically utilize either an early or a late pathway during oogenesis for their localization. Here I show that early and late pathway RNAs compete for common localization machinery in vivo . In addition, while previous work demonstrated that the molecular motor kinesin II is required for localization of the late pathway mRNA Vg1 to the vegetal cortex, I discovered that localizing RNAs recruit kinesin II to the vegetal cortex, suggesting a direct role for this motor in the localization process. This finding also revealed a novel ability of cargo RNAs to differentially recruit the molecular motor that localizes them. A distinguishing feature of the early pathway is the pre-localization of RNAs to an evolutionary conserved structure called the Balbiani body in stage I oocytes. Early pathway RNAs have been proposed to localize solely by a diffusion and entrapment mechanism, however, I demonstrate that their localization to the Balbiani body is highly dependent on temperature as well as the intracellular concentration of ATP. These findings implicate, for the first time, enzymatically-driven processes in the early RNA localization pathway. Moreover, RNA localization in stage I oocytes is reduced by expression of a kinesin II dominant-negative peptide fragment. Thus, kinesin II not only mediates the localization of RNAs to the vegetal cortex of late-staged oocytes, but also to the Balbiani body in earlier-staged oocytes. Together, these studies show that vegetally localized RNAs utilize a common kinesin II-dependent pathway throughout oogenesis in Xenopus and, more importantly, suggest a mechanism by which differential recruitment of RNA localization factors may be used to specify a wide temporal and spatial array of localized mRNAs in the vertebrate oocyte.
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