Causal Models in the Social Sciences

Author: Hubert M. Blalock

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 0202303144

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 448

View: 370

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Causal models are formal theories stating the relationships between precisely defined variables, and have become an indispensable tool of the social scientist. This book draws upon the best writing in a variety of fields to provide a comprehensive picture of contemporary work on this subject. This collection of articles stands alone as a course book on the causal modeling approach to theory construction and data analysis. There is a growing literature on causal models and structural systems of equations that crosscuts a number of different fields. However, much of this material remains widely scattered throughout the journal literature and varies considerably in terms of both level of difficulty and substantive application. This classic text by Blalock addresses and resolves this concern. The most systematic discussions of this general approach have appeared in the econometrics literature, where several general texts are available. However, many of these discussions are too technical for most sociologists, political scientists, scholars, and researchers who lack a strong background in mathematics. This book attempts to integrate a few of the less technical papers written by econometricians such as Koopmans, Wold, Strotz, and Fisher with discussions of causal approaches in the biological sciences and with relatively more exploratory treatments by sociologists and other social scientists.
Release

Measurements in the Social Sciences

Theories and Strategies

Author: Hubert M. Blalock

Publisher: AldineTransaction

ISBN: 9780202302720

Category: Social Science

Page: 464

View: 3615

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Among the frustrations constantly confronting the social scientist are those associated with the general process of measurement. The importance of good measurement has long been recognized in principle, but it has often been neglected in practice in many of the social sciences. Now that the methodological tools of multivariate analysis, simultaneous-equation estimation, and causal modeling are diffused more widely into the social sciences, and now that the very serious implications of random and non-random measurement errors are being systematically investigated, it is all the more important that social scientists give top priority to the quality of their data and the clarity of their theoretical conceptualizations, as well as to methods for analyzing fallible data. This book deals with selected problems of measurement and is written for graduate students and professional social scientists, particularly in the technically less developed fields of sociology, political science and anthropology. The book is organized so that, in general, one proceeds from problems of data collection to those of data analysis. It is not intended to be a complete work covering all types of measurement problems that have arisen in the social sciences. Instead, it represents a series of studies of topics that are deemed to be crucial for the advancement of social science research but which have not received sufficient attention in most of the social sciences. The basic purpose is to stimulate further methodological research on measurement and to study the ways in which knowledge that has been accumulated in some fields may be generalized so that it may be applied to others. The book is divided into three major parts. Part I is concerned with applying scaling approaches developed in psychometrics to problems that arise in other social sciences. The focus is on finding better ways to ask questions of respondents so as to raise the level of measurement above that of simple ordinal scales. Part II focuses on multiple-indicator theory and strategies as applied to relatively complex models and to change data. In this section the emphasis shifts to how one analyzes fallible data through the construction of explicit measurement-error models. Part III deals with the statistical analysis of ordinal data, including the interpretation and empirical behaviors of various ordinal measures of association. The final chapter (written by the editor) discusses how ordered-metric assumptions may be used to make more powerful predictions than those characterizing much of contemporary social science. H.M. Blalock, Jr. (1926-1991) was Professor, Department of Sociology, the University of Washington, Seattle. He was recipient of the 1973 ASA Samuel Stouffer Prize, and was a Fellow of the American Statistical Association and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. He was the 70th president of the American Sociological Association.
Release

A Theory of Causation in the Social and Biological Sciences

Author: A. Reutlinger

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137281049

Category: Science

Page: 276

View: 7065

DOWNLOAD NOW »

This first full length treatment of interventionist theories of causation in the social sciences, the biological sciences and other higher-level sciences the presents original counter arguments to recent trends in the debate and serves as useful introduction to the subject.
Release

Research Methodology in the Social, Behavioural and Life Sciences

Designs, Models and Methods

Author: Herman J Ader,Gideon J Mellenbergh

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 0761958835

Category: Social Science

Page: 393

View: 8043

DOWNLOAD NOW »

This is an ideal text for advanced courses in research methods and experimental design. It argues that the methodology of quantitative research is a unified discipline with basic notions, procedures and ways of reasoning which can be applied across the social, behavioural and life sciences. Key designs, models and methods in research are covered by leading contributors in their field who seek to explain the fundamentals of the research process to enable the student to understand the broader implications and unifying themes.
Release

Epistemology, Methodology, and the Social Sciences

Author: Robert S. Cohen,Marx W. Wartofsky

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401714584

Category: Science

Page: 270

View: 3003

DOWNLOAD NOW »

The last decades have seen major reformations in the philosophy and history of science. What has been called 'post-positivist' philosophy of science has introduced radically new concerns with historical, social, and valuative components of scientific thought in the natural sciences, and has raised up the demons of relativism, subjectivism and sociologism to haunt the once calm precincts of objectivity and realism. Though these disturbances intruded upon what had seemed to be the logically well-ordered domain of the philoso phy of the natural sciences, they were no news to the social sciences. There, the messy business of human action, volition, decision, the considerations of practical purposes and social values, the role of ideology and the problem of rationality, had long conspired to defeat logical-reconstructionist programs. The attempt to tarne the social sciences to the harness of a strict hypothetico deductive model of explanation failed. Within the social sciences, phenome nological, Marxist, hermeneuticist, action-theoretical approaches vied in attempting to capture the distinctiveness of human phenomena. In fact, the philosophy of the natural sciences, even in its 'hard' forms, has itself become infected with the increasing reflection upon the role of such social-scientific categories, in the attempt to understand the nature of the scientific enterprise.
Release

Causality and Causal Modelling in the Social Sciences

Measuring Variations

Author: Federica Russo

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402088175

Category: Social Science

Page: 236

View: 7691

DOWNLOAD NOW »

This investigation into causal modelling presents the rationale of causality, i.e. the notion that guides causal reasoning in causal modelling. It is argued that causal models are regimented by a rationale of variation, nor of regularity neither invariance, thus breaking down the dominant Human paradigm. The notion of variation is shown to be embedded in the scheme of reasoning behind various causal models. It is also shown to be latent – yet fundamental – in many philosophical accounts. Moreover, it has significant consequences for methodological issues: the warranty of the causal interpretation of causal models, the levels of causation, the characterisation of mechanisms, and the interpretation of probability. This book offers a novel philosophical and methodological approach to causal reasoning in causal modelling and provides the reader with the tools to be up to date about various issues causality rises in social science.
Release

Causality in Sociological Research

Author: Jakub Karpinski

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400904959

Category: Social Science

Page: 192

View: 8965

DOWNLOAD NOW »

The general treatment of problems connected with the causal conditioning of phenomena has traditionally been the domain of philosophy, but when one examines the relationships taking place in the various fields, the study of such conditionings belongs to the empirical sciences. Sociology is no exception in that respect. In that discipline we note a certain paradox. Many problems connected with the causal conditioning of phenomena have been raised in sociology in relatively recent times, and that process marked its empirical or even so-called empiricist trend. That trend, labelled positivist, seems in this case to be in contradiction with a certain type of positivism. Those authors who describe positivism usually include the Humean tradition in its genealogy and, remembering Hume's criticism of the concept of cause, speak about positivism as about a trend which is inclined to treat lightly the study of causes and confines itself to the statements on co-occurrence of phenomena.
Release

The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods

Author: Michael Lewis-Beck,Emeritus Professor Alan Bryman,Alan E Bryman,Tim Futing Liao

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780761923633

Category: Social Science

Page: 1305

View: 5132

DOWNLOAD NOW »

"The first encyclopedia to cover inclusively both quantitative and qualitative research approaches, this set provides clear explanations of 1,000 methodologies, avoiding mathematical equations when possible with liberal cross-referencing and bibliographies. Each volume includes a list of works cited, and the third contains a comprehensive index and lists of person names, organizations, books, tests, software, major concepts, surveys, and methodologies."--"Reference that rocks," American Libraries, May 2005.
Release