Causal Inference for Statistics, Social, and Biomedical Sciences

An Introduction

Author: Guido W. Imbens,Donald B. Rubin

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316094391

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

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Most questions in social and biomedical sciences are causal in nature: what would happen to individuals, or to groups, if part of their environment were changed? In this groundbreaking text, two world-renowned experts present statistical methods for studying such questions. This book starts with the notion of potential outcomes, each corresponding to the outcome that would be realized if a subject were exposed to a particular treatment or regime. In this approach, causal effects are comparisons of such potential outcomes. The fundamental problem of causal inference is that we can only observe one of the potential outcomes for a particular subject. The authors discuss how randomized experiments allow us to assess causal effects and then turn to observational studies. They lay out the assumptions needed for causal inference and describe the leading analysis methods, including matching, propensity-score methods, and instrumental variables. Many detailed applications are included, with special focus on practical aspects for the empirical researcher.
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An Investigation of the Causal Inference between Epidemiology and Jurisprudence

Author: Minsoo Jung

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9811078629

Category: Philosophy

Page: 108

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This book examines how legal causation inference and epidemiological causal inference can be harmonized within the realm of jurisprudence, exploring why legal causation and epidemiological causation differ from each other and defining related problems. The book also discusses how legal justice can be realized and how victims’ rights can be protected. It looks at epidemiological evidence pertaining to causal relationships in cases such as smoking and the development of lung cancer, and enables readers to correctly interpret and rationally use the results of epidemiological studies in lawsuits. The book argues that in today’s risk society, it is no longer possible to thwart the competence of evidence using epidemiological research results. In particular, it points out that the number of cases that struggle to prove a causal relationship excluding those using epidemiological data will lead to an increase in the number of lawsuits for damages that arise as a result of harmful materials that affect our health. The book argues that the responsibility to compensate for damages that have actually occurred must be imputed to a particular party and that this can be achieved by understanding causal inferences between jurisprudence and epidemiology. This book serves as a foundation for students, academics and researchers who have an interest in epidemiology and the law, and those who are keen to discover how jurisprudence can bring these two areas together.
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Explanation in Causal Inference

Methods for Mediation and Interaction

Author: Tyler VanderWeele

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019932588X

Category: Psychology

Page: 248

View: 1300

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The book provides an accessible but comprehensive overview of methods for mediation and interaction. There has been considerable and rapid methodological development on mediation and moderation/interaction analysis within the causal-inference literature over the last ten years. Much of this material appears in a variety of specialized journals, and some of the papers are quite technical. There has also been considerable interest in these developments from empirical researchers in the social and biomedical sciences. However, much of the material is not currently in a format that is accessible to them. The book closes these gaps by providing an accessible, comprehensive, book-length coverage of mediation. The book begins with a comprehensive introduction to mediation analysis, including chapters on concepts for mediation, regression-based methods, sensitivity analysis, time-to-event outcomes, methods for multiple mediators, methods for time-varying mediation and longitudinal data, and relations between mediation and other concepts involving intermediates such as surrogates, principal stratification, instrumental variables, and Mendelian randomization. The second part of the book concerns interaction or "moderation," including concepts for interaction, statistical interaction, confounding and interaction, mechanistic interaction, bias analysis for interaction, interaction in genetic studies, and power and sample-size calculation for interaction. The final part of the book provides comprehensive discussion about the relationships between mediation and interaction and unites these concepts within a single framework. This final part also provides an introduction to spillover effects or social interaction, concluding with a discussion of social-network analyses. The book is written to be accessible to anyone with a basic knowledge of statistics. Comprehensive appendices provide more technical details for the interested reader. Applied empirical examples from a variety of fields are given throughout. Software implementation in SAS, Stata, SPSS, and R is provided. The book should be accessible to students and researchers who have completed a first-year graduate sequence in quantitative methods in one of the social- or biomedical-sciences disciplines. The book will only presuppose familiarity with linear and logistic regression, and could potentially be used as an advanced undergraduate book as well.
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Introduction to Epidemiology

Author: Ray M. Merrill

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Publishers

ISBN: 1449649327

Category: Medical

Page: 418

View: 9090

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New Edition Available 8/17/2012 Introduction to Epidemiology, Fifth Edition is the ideal introductory text for the epidemiology student with minimal training in the biomedical sciences and statistics. With updated tables, figures, and examples throughout, the Fifth Edition is a thorough revision that offers an all new chapter covering areas of modern epidemiology such as environmental epidemiology, social epidemiology, and reproductive epidemiology. The chapters feature several new case studies and news files representing applications of commonly used research designs. Learning objectives, as well as study questions with descriptive answers, in each chapter engage the student in further analysis and reflection.
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Introduction to Epidemiology

Author: Brigham Young University Utah Ray M Merrill,Ray M. Merrill

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Publishers

ISBN: 1449645186

Category: Education

Page: 425

View: 9621

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Introduction to Epidemiology, Sixth Edition is the ideal introductory text for the epidemiology student with minimal training in the biomedical sciences and statistics. With updated tables, figures, and examples throughout, the Sixth Edition is a thorough revision that offers an all new, real world examples to help better illustrate elusive concepts. Learning objectives, as well as study questions with descriptive answers, in each chapter engage the student in further analysis and reflection. New Features of the Sixth Edition: Updated tables and figures. Addition of several real-world, practical examples. Added focus on setting-up contingency tables and calculating and interpreting appropriate measures of association. Greater detail and examples on conducting hypothesis testing. Greater detail and examples on calculating age-adjusting rates. Greater detail and examples on calculating years of potential life lost. Greater detail and examples on assessing clinical trials. Updated case studies.
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Business Data Science: Combining Machine Learning and Economics to Optimize, Automate, and Accelerate Business Decisions

Author: Matt Taddy

Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional

ISBN: 1260452786

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 384

View: 5822

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Publisher's Note: Products purchased from Third Party sellers are not guaranteed by the publisher for quality, authenticity, or access to any online entitlements included with the product. Use machine learning to understand your customers, frame decisions, and drive value The business analytics world has changed, and Data Scientists are taking over. Business Data Science takes you through the steps of using machine learning to implement best-in-class business data science. Whether you are a business leader with a desire to go deep on data, or an engineer who wants to learn how to apply Machine Learning to business problems, you’ll find the information, insight, and tools you need to flourish in today’s data-driven economy. You’ll learn how to: •Use the key building blocks of Machine Learning: sparse regularization, out-of-sample validation, and latent factor and topic modeling•Understand how use ML tools in real world business problems, where causation matters more that correlation•Solve data science programs by scripting in the R programming language Today’s business landscape is driven by data and constantly shifting. Companies live and die on their ability to make and implement the right decisions quickly and effectively. Business Data Science is about doing data science right. It’s about the exciting things being done around Big Data to run a flourishing business. It’s about the precepts, principals, and best practices that you need know for best-in-class business data science.
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Bias and Causation

Models and Judgment for Valid Comparisons

Author: Dr. Herbert I. Weisberg

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118058206

Category: Mathematics

Page: 348

View: 2589

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A one-of-a-kind resource on identifying and dealing with bias in statistical research on causal effects Do cell phones cause cancer? Can a new curriculum increase student achievement? Determining what the real causes of such problems are, and how powerful their effects may be, are central issues in research across various fields of study. Some researchers are highly skeptical of drawing causal conclusions except in tightly controlled randomized experiments, while others discount the threats posed by different sources of bias, even in less rigorous observational studies. Bias and Causation presents a complete treatment of the subject, organizing and clarifying the diverse types of biases into a conceptual framework. The book treats various sources of bias in comparative studies—both randomized and observational—and offers guidance on how they should be addressed by researchers. Utilizing a relatively simple mathematical approach, the author develops a theory of bias that outlines the essential nature of the problem and identifies the various sources of bias that are encountered in modern research. The book begins with an introduction to the study of causal inference and the related concepts and terminology. Next, an overview is provided of the methodological issues at the core of the difficulties posed by bias. Subsequent chapters explain the concepts of selection bias, confounding, intermediate causal factors, and information bias along with the distortion of a causal effect that can result when the exposure and/or the outcome is measured with error. The book concludes with a new classification of twenty general sources of bias and practical advice on how mathematical modeling and expert judgment can be combined to achieve the most credible causal conclusions. Throughout the book, examples from the fields of medicine, public policy, and education are incorporated into the presentation of various topics. In addition, six detailed case studies illustrate concrete examples of the significance of biases in everyday research. Requiring only a basic understanding of statistics and probability theory, Bias and Causation is an excellent supplement for courses on research methods and applied statistics at the upper-undergraduate and graduate level. It is also a valuable reference for practicing researchers and methodologists in various fields of study who work with statistical data. This book was selected as the 2011 Ziegel Prize Winner in Technometrics for the best book reviewed by the journal. It is also the winner of the 2010 PROSE Award for Mathematics from The American Publishers Awards for Professional and Scholarly Excellence
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Mixed Models

Theory and Applications with R

Author: Eugene Demidenko

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118592999

Category: Mathematics

Page: 754

View: 958

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Praise for the First Edition “This book will serve to greatly complement the growing number of texts dealing with mixed models, and I highly recommend including it in one’s personal library.” —Journal of the American Statistical Association Mixed modeling is a crucial area of statistics, enabling the analysis of clustered and longitudinal data. Mixed Models: Theory and Applications with R, Second Edition fills a gap in existing literature between mathematical and applied statistical books by presenting a powerful examination of mixed model theory and application with special attention given to the implementation in R. The new edition provides in-depth mathematical coverage of mixed models’ statistical properties and numerical algorithms, as well as nontraditional applications, such as regrowth curves, shapes, and images. The book features the latest topics in statistics including modeling of complex clustered or longitudinal data, modeling data with multiple sources of variation, modeling biological variety and heterogeneity, Healthy Akaike Information Criterion (HAIC), parameter multidimensionality, and statistics of image processing. Mixed Models: Theory and Applications with R, Second Edition features unique applications of mixed model methodology, as well as: Comprehensive theoretical discussions illustrated by examples and figures Over 300 exercises, end-of-section problems, updated data sets, and R subroutines Problems and extended projects requiring simulations in R intended to reinforce material Summaries of major results and general points of discussion at the end of each chapter Open problems in mixed modeling methodology, which can be used as the basis for research or PhD dissertations Ideal for graduate-level courses in mixed statistical modeling, the book is also an excellent reference for professionals in a range of fields, including cancer research, computer science, and engineering.
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