Cartographies of Disease

Maps, Mapping, and Medicine

Author: Tom Koch

Publisher: Esri Press

ISBN: 9781589481206

Category: Medical

Page: 389

View: 1023

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Cartographies of Disease: Maps, Mapping, and Medicine, new expanded edition, is a comprehensive survey of the technology of mapping and its relationship to the battle against disease. This look at medical mapping advances the argument that maps are not merely representations of spatial realities but a way of thinking about relationships between viral and bacterial communities, human hosts, and the environments in which diseases flourish. Cartographies of Disease traces the history of medical mapping from its growth in the 19th century during an era of trade and immigration to its renaissance in the 1990s during a new era of globalization. Referencing maps older than John Snow's famous cholera maps of London in the mid-19th century, this survey pulls from the plague maps of the 1600s, while addressing current issues concerning the ability of GIS technology to track diseases worldwide. The original chapters have some minor updating, and two new chapters have been added. Chapter 13 attempts to understand how the hundreds of maps of Ebola revealed not simply disease incidence but the way in which the epidemic itself was perceived. Chapter 14 is about the spatiality of the disease and the means by which different cartographic approaches may affect how infectious outbreaks like ebola can be confronted and contained.
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Medical Geography, Third Edition

Author: Melinda S. Meade,Michael Emch

Publisher: Guilford Press

ISBN: 1606236911

Category: Social Science

Page: 498

View: 1477

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The leading text in the field, this comprehensive book reviews geographic approaches to studying disease and public health issues across the globe. It presents cutting-edge techniques of spatial and social analysis and explores their relevance for understanding cultural and political ecology, disease systems, and health promotion. Essential topics include how new diseases emerge and epidemics develop in particular places; the intersecting influences on health of biological processes, culture, environment, and behavior; and the changing landscape of health care planning and service delivery. The text is richly illustrated with tables, figures, and maps, including 16 color plates.
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Encyclopedia of Pestilence-Pandemicss and Plaques, Joseph P. Byrne, 2008

Encyclopedia of Pestilence-Pandemicss and Plaques

Author: Greenwood Press

Publisher: Bukupedia

ISBN: N.A

Category: Education

Page: 917

View: 8692

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This encyclopedia of infectious diseases in history grew out of a proposal for an encyclopedia of the Black Death that followed two volumes I wrote for Greenwood Press on the second plague pandemic. Greenwood’s editors were correct to suggest a much broader, interdisciplinary work, given that existing works on the history of epidemic disease tended to be either chronological or topical by disease, or topical by place. Given the opportunity, I engaged a truly first-rate editorial board of medical historians, M.D.s, a microbiologist, and medical history librarians. With their indispensable help, I crafted a list of entries that would take the nonspecialist advanced high school or college student from the basics of bacteria and viruses, through the intricacies of the human body and immunity to disease, to the major infectious diseases (and some others of growing relevance). Historical outbreaks constituted a second category of entries. We chose the major pandemics of plague, influenza, and cholera, of course, but we also included more tightly focused outbreaks that allowed for a closer analysis of the phenomena, their impacts, and the ways people dealt with them. A third major group of articles, we felt, needed to discuss the range of care-giving and treatments that developed independently of or in response to the great disease outbreaks. Physicians, nurses, pharmacists, hospitals, leprosaria, sanatoria, as well as sulfa drugs and antibiotics found their places in these pages. Related to these entries are those outlining major theories of disease and medicine that dictated cultural responses to epidemic disease. Desiring to be synthetic as well as specific in coverage, we decided to commission a series of longer entries on historical (and contemporary) factors that have affected the emergence and spread of epidemic diseases. Some of these are natural (air, water, the environment) but many are social, economic, and political: colonialism, war, poverty, urbanization, and the sexual revolution, for example. A final broad category covers effects or responses to disease, including media and artistic responses, international health organizations, and effects on personal liberties. We chose these categories and topics with a view to both the basics and to geographical and chronological diversity. We make no claims of completeness or comprehensiveness but do hope that we have provided a variety of materials that will stimulate and aid research, both informing and leading the reader to other fruitful sources. To aid internal searching, we have provided an alphabetical list of all entries in the front matter, as well as an index at the end of Volume 2. Each entry includes a list of related entries under “See also,” while terms with their own entries that appear in the text are boldfaced for easy identification. Arcing across the nearly 300 articles are certain themes that should serve a student well: colonialism, war, the development of Western medicine, the roles of migration and modern globalization, and the continuing plight and challenges of much of the underdeveloped world in the face of established and emerging diseases. We have chosen some of these themes and grouped relevant entries in the Guide to Related Topics that follows the List of Entries in the front matter. Entries have been written and edited for use by students with minimal backgrounds in biology, and a glossary of predominantly biomedical terms has been appended. Each entry has a list of suggested readings, and many have useful Websites. A broad bibliography of Websites, books, and articles appears at the end of Volume 2. In acknowledging my own debts to those who made this work possible, I would like to begin with the 101 authors from around the world who lent this project their time and expertise. The outstanding credentials of our editorial board members—Ann Carmichael, Katharine Donahue, John Parascandola, Christopher Ryland, and William Summers— are listed elsewhere, but let me assure the reader that without their contributions from conception to final editing, these volumes would have but a fraction of their merit. Each has gone well beyond any contractual obligations, each in his or her own ways, and any and all flaws are mine alone. Greenwood Press has provided me with a very helpful and supportive editor in Mariah Gumpert who has overseen this work from start to finish. I also wish to acknowledge the local efforts of Sarah Bennett, who developed the illustration program for the encyclopedia, Rebecca and Elizabeth Repasky who compiled the glossary and edited portions of the text, and Elizabeth Schriner who gathered many of the Website citations scattered about these pages. Finally, I wish to thank Belmont University, my home institution, for providing me with the academic leave and many of the means necessary to pull this project together Pandemics, epidemics, and infectious diseases have long been the deadliest challenges to human existence, greatly outstripping wars, accidents, and chronic diseases as a cause of mortality. They have filled history books and have been woven into the fabric of popular and religious culture: examples include the Pharaonic “plagues” of the Old Testament and the many later “plagues” of ancient Greece and Rome; the writings of Boccaccio, Machaut, and Petrarch about the Black Death; Daniel Defoe’s long-running 1722 best seller memorializing London’s 1665 plague epidemic, A Journal of the Plague Year; and the dying consumptive heroines of Dumas and Murger, widely read and then reimagined operatically in La Traviata and La Bohème. Much about infectious diseases has changed in the modern era, with the availability of vaccines, antimicrobial therapy and other interventions; however, much remains eerily familiar. We still face the unpredictable appearance of new diseases such as SARS, H5N1 avian influenza, and HIV/AIDS. We still read and see and listen to the plague artistry of earlier times, with the same morbid fascination, but we also find and cherish contemporary “plague art.” Popular histories about epidemics continue to become best sellers, such as John Barry’s The Great Influenza, about the 1918–1919 pandemic. Outbreak, a film about a deadly viral pandemic threat, has been seen by millions of people and remains popular more than a decade after its 1995 release. “Andromeda strain,” taken from the title of a 1969 book about a potentially world-ending pandemic, has even entered the standard English vocabulary. Although a deep-seated public fascination with plagues, pestilences, and pandemics is obvious, many encyclopedic works on the subject already sit on library shelves. Is there anything new to say in 2008 that has not already been said countless times before? I think the answer is a resounding Yes. Our understanding of infectious diseases has grown steadily in the past two decades, thanks in large part to the new tools of molecular biology. Much of this new knowledge is incorporated into the entries in this encyclopedia.
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Encyclopedia of Pestilence, Pandemics, and Plaques, Joseph P. Byrne, 2008

Encyclopedia of Pestilence, Pandemics, and Plaques

Author: Greenwood Publishing Group

Publisher: Bukupedia

ISBN: N.A

Category: Education

Page: 917

View: 4306

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This encyclopedia of infectious diseases in history grew out of a proposal for an encyclopedia of the Black Death that followed two volumes I wrote for Greenwood Press on the second plague pandemic. Greenwood’s editors were correct to suggest a much broader, interdisciplinary work, given that existing works on the history of epidemic disease tended to be either chronological or topical by disease, or topical by place. Given the opportunity, I engaged a truly first-rate editorial board of medical historians, M.D.s, a microbiologist, and medical history librarians. With their indispensable help, I crafted a list of entries that would take the nonspecialist advanced high school or college student from the basics of bacteria and viruses, through the intricacies of the human body and immunity to disease, to the major infectious diseases (and some others of growing relevance). Historical outbreaks constituted a second category of entries. We chose the major pandemics of plague, influenza, and cholera, of course, but we also included more tightly focused outbreaks that allowed for a closer analysis of the phenomena, their impacts, and the ways people dealt with them. A third major group of articles, we felt, needed to discuss the range of care-giving and treatments that developed independently of or in response to the great disease outbreaks. Physicians, nurses, pharmacists, hospitals, leprosaria, sanatoria, as well as sulfa drugs and antibiotics found their places in these pages. Related to these entries are those outlining major theories of disease and medicine that dictated cultural responses to epidemic disease. Desiring to be synthetic as well as specific in coverage, we decided to commission a series of longer entries on historical (and contemporary) factors that have affected the emergence and spread of epidemic diseases. Some of these are natural (air, water, the environment) but many are social, economic, and political: colonialism, war, poverty, urbanization, and the sexual revolution, for example. A final broad category covers effects or responses to disease, including media and artistic responses, international health organizations, and effects on personal liberties. We chose these categories and topics with a view to both the basics and to geographical and chronological diversity. We make no claims of completeness or comprehensiveness but do hope that we have provided a variety of materials that will stimulate and aid research, both informing and leading the reader to other fruitful sources. To aid internal searching, we have provided an alphabetical list of all entries in the front matter, as well as an index at the end of Volume 2. Each entry includes a list of related entries under “See also,” while terms with their own entries that appear in the text are boldfaced for easy identification. Arcing across the nearly 300 articles are certain themes that should serve a student well: colonialism, war, the development of Western medicine, the roles of migration and modern globalization, and the continuing plight and challenges of much of the underdeveloped world in the face of established and emerging diseases. We have chosen some of these themes and grouped relevant entries in the Guide to Related Topics that follows the List of Entries in the front matter. Entries have been written and edited for use by students with minimal backgrounds in biology, and a glossary of predominantly biomedical terms has been appended. Each entry has a list of suggested readings, and many have useful Websites. A broad bibliography of Websites, books, and articles appears at the end of Volume 2. In acknowledging my own debts to those who made this work possible, I would like to begin with the 101 authors from around the world who lent this project their time and expertise. The outstanding credentials of our editorial board members—Ann Carmichael, Katharine Donahue, John Parascandola, Christopher Ryland, and William Summers— are listed elsewhere, but let me assure the reader that without their contributions from conception to final editing, these volumes would have but a fraction of their merit. Each has gone well beyond any contractual obligations, each in his or her own ways, and any and all flaws are mine alone. Greenwood Press has provided me with a very helpful and supportive editor in Mariah Gumpert who has overseen this work from start to finish. I also wish to acknowledge the local efforts of Sarah Bennett, who developed the illustration program for the encyclopedia, Rebecca and Elizabeth Repasky who compiled the glossary and edited portions of the text, and Elizabeth Schriner who gathered many of the Website citations scattered about these pages. Finally, I wish to thank Belmont University, my home institution, for providing me with the academic leave and many of the means necessary to pull this project together. In War of the Worlds, English novelist H. G. Wells presented the gravest of imaginable threats to human life on earth: bellicose extraterrestrial invaders. Humanity laid prostrate, our weapons useless, our future bleak. The final outcome reflected Wells’s genius as well as his time: simple terrestrial germs killed off the mighty aliens, and the war was won. What caused humans mere mild discomfort proved fatal to the beings whose bodies were not prepared for the microbial onslaught. Of course, this has long been part of the human condition on our own planet. Epidemiologists call this phenomenon a “virgin-soil epidemic,” and throughout history human populations have lost their battles with “simple terrestrial germs.” Plague killed perhaps 40 percent of the Western world in the late 1340s; Mayas and Aztecs fell by the tens of thousands to the measles and smallpox brought by European colonists; and in the nineteenth century, Africa’s pathogen-rich environment earned it the fitting nickname “white man’s graveyard.” We literally swim in a sea of germs, and our bodies are coated inside and out with a wide range of bacteria, viruses, mites, fungi, and other tiny hitchhikers. Most are benign, many helpful, and some potentially harmful. But add the wrong microbe into the mix, and the mighty human organism, like Wells’s Martians, shudders and halts—and may shut down altogether. When these microbes can be transmitted to other people, we call the resulting illnesses infectious disease. When the same disease extends across a broad population, we call it an epidemic. Anthropologists generally agree that humans became susceptible to epidemics when we settled in large villages and early cities in the later Neolithic period of human prehistory. Our own “war of the worlds”—the human organism vs. deadly microorganisms—has thus been going on for thousands of years, and until recently we have unvaryingly lost. And although modern science has reduced many former scourges to minor threats, we remain locked in mortal combat with many—both old and new—and in apprehension of the next wave of pathogenic assault. The founders of the scientific method noted that we have to understand nature and its processes before we can control them, but knowledge about microbes came very recently and still does not ensure victory. Thirty years before this writing, scientists, policy-makers, doctors, volunteers, nurses, donors, and civil servants finally eliminated deadly smallpox from nature. But though it was the first, it is still the only human disease to be eradicated, despite the best intentions and efforts of experts, technicians, officials, and men and women of good will. Each year the World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention monitor the fluctuating incidence of a long list of diseases and the lives they take. Old standards such as malaria, tuberculosis, and polio beef up the statistics, as do recent arrivals such as AIDS, Lyme disease, and West Nile Fever, and reemerging conditions such as cholera and Hansen’s disease (leprosy). Footnotes account for the patterns of flux: wars, changing economic and social conditions, new encroachments on virgin natural areas, human migration, and natural processes such as genetic mutation and environmental change. Through jet travel, a minor, local outbreak of an exotic disease can find its way into dozens or hundreds of human communities within days. The “war” is far from over. There is an ongoing flow of books that tell the story of “man vs. microbe,” or narrow parts of it, and many of these are listed at the end of entries or in the bibliography at the end of these two volumes. These serve the general reading public as well as the historian and student of medical history. The present work cannot replace a ripping good medical yarn, and its editor and his collaborators have no intention of trying to do so. Instead we seek to place in the hands of the interested lay reader or student a collection of thoughtstimulating and question-answering essays that will complement deeper research or merely provide accurate, condensed information to the curious. The fact that sites on the Internet seem capable of doing just this may seem to make a work like ours, or any reference book, rather quaint and clumsy by comparison. In fact, each of our contributors has taken the Web, as well as other publications, into account in preparing the present articles. The result is a sound, authoritative source covering a very wide and interdisciplinary range of topics connected to the history and science of infectious disease. As I edited each entry and added the bolding to cross-listed terms, and compiled the “see also” lists, I was struck by and increasingly satisfied with the rich texture of interrelationships among the entries. Each reader, each student preparing to write on a relevant topic, should make use of the several tools that we have provided to help one profit from this texture. Each entry mentions related entries and provides recent or classic books and/or articles on its topic. The List of Entries—and, even better, the Guide to Related Topics—goes further in suggesting relationships between subjects. The index gives a quick overview of topics that go beyond the entry titles, and provides a clear gauge of the depth of coverage in these two volumes. The types of discussion that fall under the broad heading of infectious disease are far more varied than may first seem evident. If I consider my senior year in high school, I can imagine using this volume in English Lit (seventeenth-century plague literature); U.S. History II (Spanish Flu in 1918 to 1919); Advanced Biology (any given disease); fourthyear German (Thomas Mann and his tuberculosis); and Religion (comparative religious theories of disease). At the other end, our essays on topics such as “News Media and Epidemic Disease,” “War, the Military, and Epidemic Disease,” “Colonialism and Epidemic Disease,” or “Urbanization and Epidemic Disease” could spawn and help shape senior or even masters-level university theses. Teachers preparing units or professors preparing courses on medical history or disease in history will find our content stimulating and relevant, and, we believe, written at a level appropriate to our students. As I stated in the Preface, this work is by no means comprehensive or definitive, nor is it meant to be. If the reader is patient and systematic, however, I firmly believe it will prove to be very useful indeed.
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Health and Medical Geography, Fourth Edition

Author: Michael Emch,Elisabeth Dowling Root,Margaret Carrel

Publisher: Guilford Publications

ISBN: 1462520065

Category: Social Science

Page: 517

View: 7901

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Why are rainfall, carcinogens, and primary care physicians distributed unevenly over space? The fourth edition of the leading text in the field has been updated and reorganized to cover the latest developments in disease ecology and health promotion across the globe. The book accessibly introduces the core questions and perspectives of health and medical geography and presents cutting-edge techniques of mapping and spatial analysis. It explores the intersecting genetic, ecological, behavioral, cultural, and socioeconomic processes that underlie patterns of health and disease in particular places, including how new diseases and epidemics emerge. Geographic dimensions of health care access and service provision are addressed. More than 100 figures include 16 color plates; most are available as PowerPoint slides at the companion website. New to This Edition: *Chapters on the political ecology of health; emerging infectious diseases and landscape genetics; food, diet, and nutrition; and urban health. *Coverage of Middle East respiratory syndrome, Ebola, and Zika; impacts on health of global climate chan≥ contaminated water crises in economically developed countries, including in Flint, Michigan; China's rapid industrial growth; and other timely topics. *Updated throughout with current data and concepts plus advances in GIS. Pedagogical Features: *End-of-chapter review questions and suggestions for further reading. *Section Introductions that describe each chapter. *"Quick Reviews"--within-chapter recaps of key concepts. *Bold-faced key terms and an end-of-book glossary.
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GIS and Public Health

Author: Ellen K. Cromley,Sara McLafferty

Publisher: Guilford Press

ISBN: 1609187504

Category: Science

Page: 503

View: 6017

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Authoritative and comprehensive, this is the leading text and professional resource on using geographic information systems (GIS) to analyze and address public health problems. Basic GIS concepts and tools are explained, including ways to access and manage spatial databases. The book presents state-of-the-art methods for mapping and analyzing data on population, health events, risk factors, and health services, and for incorporating geographical knowledge into planning and policy. Numerous maps, diagrams, and real-world applications are featured. The companion Web page provides lab exercises with data that can be downloaded for individual or course use. New to This Edition *Incorporates major technological advances, such as Internet-based mapping systems and the rise of data from cell phones and other GPS-enabled devices. *Chapter on health disparities. *Expanded coverage of public participation GIS. *Companion Web page has all-new content. *Goes beyond the United States to encompass an international focus.
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ARC User

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Geographic information systems

Page: N.A

View: 9387

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Disease & Geography

The History of an Idea

Author: Frank A. Barrett,Atkinson College. Dept. of Geography

Publisher: Atkinson College, Department of Geography

ISBN: 9781550143966

Category: Medical

Page: 571

View: 5403

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GIS and Public Health, Second Edition

Author: Ellen K. Cromley,Sara L. McLafferty

Publisher: Guilford Press

ISBN: 1609187512

Category: Social Science

Page: 503

View: 1542

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Authoritative and comprehensive, this is the leading text and professional resource on using geographic information systems (GIS) to analyze and address public health problems. Basic GIS concepts and tools are explained, including ways to access and manage spatial databases. The book presents state-of-the-art methods for mapping and analyzing data on population, health events, risk factors, and health services, and for incorporating geographical knowledge into planning and policy. Numerous maps, diagrams, and real-world applications are featured. The companion Web page provides lab exercises with data that can be downloaded for individual or course use. New to This Edition*Incorporates major technological advances, such as Internet-based mapping systems and the rise of data from cell phones and other GPS-enabled devices.*Chapter on health disparities.*Expanded coverage of public participation GIS.*Companion Web page has all-new content.*Goes beyond the United States to encompass an international focus.
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Maps and their makers

an introduction to the history of cartography

Author: Gerald Roe Crone

Publisher: W. Dawson ; Hamden, Conn. : Archon Books

ISBN: N.A

Category: Reference

Page: 152

View: 7987

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