In this new book by the well-known author Roy Fenton, their evolution is described over the course of more than 100 years, from the 1860s, when the steam tramp developed from the screw collier, until it was largely replaced by the ...
Author: Roy Fenton
Publisher: Seaforth Publishing
The tramp ship was the taxi of the seas. With no regular schedules, it voyaged anywhere and everywhere, picking up and dropping off cargoes, mainly bulk cargoes such as coal, grain, timber, china clay and oil. It was the older and slower vessels that tended to find their way into this trade, hence the tag 'tramp', though new tramps were built, often with the owner's eye on chartering to the liner companies. In this new book by the well-known author Roy Fenton, their evolution is described over the course of more than 100 years, from the 1860s, when the steam tramp developed from the screw collier, until it was largely replaced by the specialist bulk carrier in the 1980s. ??An introduction looks at the design and building of tramps before going on to describe the machinery, from simple triple-expansion turbines to diesel engines. Their operation and management and the life of the officers and crews is also covered. The meat of the book is to be found in the 300 wonderfully evocative photographs of individual ships which illustrate the development of the tramp and its trades through the last years of the 19th century, the two world wars, and the postwar years. Each caption gives the dimensions, the owners and the builder, and outlines the career, with notes on trades and how they changed over a ship's lifetime. Design features are highlighted and notes on machinery included. This will become a classic work, to inspire all merchant ship enthusiasts and historians.
Unlike the tramp steamer, which worked the bulk trades and sailed on a random basis to wherever cargo was on offer, the cargo liner sailed on a regular ...
Author: Ambrose Greenway
Publisher: Seaforth Publishing
For 100 years, between 1850 and 1950, the cargo liner grew to dominate the worlds trade routes, providing regular services that merchants, shippers and importers could rely on; they carried much of the worlds higher value manufactured goods and raw materials and their services spread to most corners of the world. They were the tool of the worlds first phase of globalization. This new book, evocatively illustrated with a magnificent collection of more than 300 photographs, begins with the establishment of routes around Europe and across the North Atlantic in the 1850s. Not until the Liverpool ship owner and engineer, Alfred Holt, developed high-pressure compound engines were coal-powered vessels able to steam further afield, to the Far East and Australia. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 cemented the dominance of the cargo liner and only with the appearance of the first container ship in the 1950s was that dominance finally overthrown. With its informative introductory texts and abundant photographs, this book will appeal to ship enthusiasts around the world and to all those who mourn the passing of the golden age of the steamship.
Tramps are ship which does not have a fixed schedule or published ports of call. As opposed to freight liners, tramp ships trade on the spot market with no ...
Author: Sinee Sankrusme
International business correspondence is not simply writing or information exchange. It is something that you want others to know about you – to know about your business and the way you deal with business transactions. It is by the way you create your letter that your reader can identify whether you are friendly, rude, or you just simply want to do business. Your letter shows your attitude. This is one reason why it is important to consider your way of writing, write professionally and with courtesy. Success of business transactions is not only dependent on your ability to talk and communicate verbally, but also the way you communicate in letters. How important is learning the proper way of writing business letters? This book will help you to improve your written communication by guiding you through the steps and guidelines of making an effective letter. Aside from that, you will learn to see that planning is important. Gathering information and doing some research will help you. As you go through answer complaints, it will save you to make adjustments, it is important and friendly to reply to inquiries, it is good to be precise in your quotations, it is proper to acknowledge placed orders or acknowledge payment, it is worth to check all outgoing orders for shipment and delivery, it is important to have an insurance policy, it is tedious to deal internationally without bank transactions, and it is by connection that you can increase your sales. You need to connect to your customers and readers in order to build a good working relationship. If you are able to establish a good relationship, they will value you as their business partners. Skills in creating business letters are important for the success of your business. Business letter writing skills will also boost your confidence as a businessman and will help boosting your business as well. This book aims to help students to develop their skills and confidence in writing international busi-ness letters. It can also serve as a reference for students at college and university levels.
The separation of liner and tramp markets was even reflected in some degree of ... cargo ” accounted for the evolution of a fairly standard type of liner ...
Author: Lewis R. Fischer
Publisher: Oxford University Press
This book compiles seven essays concerning changes to merchant shipping over the hundred and fifty years between 1850 and 2000, and spanning a range of countries, with particular focus on Norway, Greece, Japan, and England. The essays are linked by the theme of change: from traditional to modern shipping; in fluctuating cargo demands; from sail to steam; wood to iron; in improvements in communication technologies; in political natures and affiliations; in seafaring skillsets; in the advent of containerisation and advent of globalisation. The overall aim is to construct a solid international context for the merchant shipping industry in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries - primarily to aid a major Norwegian deep-sea merchant marine project. The book contains an introduction that sets out these aims, and seven essays by maritime historians which form part of the international contextual whole, though all can be approached individually.
Three main classes of cargo shipping are (a) cargo liners, (b) tramps and (c) tankers. Normally these cargo carriers do not carry passengers although some ...
Author: T. W. Cox
Category: Business & Economics
Model Answers in the Structure of Commerce aims to do the following: (a) to be a guide to students as to how to tackle questions in this particular subject; (b) to give some indication as to the length of answers and content an examiner would expect; and (c) to help students to appreciate the scope of the syllabus and also the type of questions likely to be set in examinations. The book begins with a discussion of how to answer examination questions on the Structure of Commerce. Subsequent chapters present questions relating to industry and commerce, types of business organizations, distribution methods, import and export procedure, foreign trade, the capital market, the banking system and methods of payments, transport, location of industry, insurance, consumer protection. Also provided are a selection of questions requiring brief treatment on a variety of subjects and questions relating to trade calculations. This book does not attempt to replace good textbooks on the subject of Commerce although much benefit will be derived from studying carefully the answers to the questions.
Because the cargo liners were similar in size and design and speed to the 'tweendeckers used by tramp operators, the fleets were to a large extent ...
Author: Alan Branch
Category: Business & Economics
Now in its second edition Maritime Economics provides a valuable introduction to the organisation and workings of the global shipping industry. The author outlines the economic theory as well as many of the operational practicalities involved. Extensively revised for the new edition, the book has many clear illustrations and tables. Topics covered include: * an overview of international trade * Maritime Law * economic organisation and principles * financing ships and shipping companies * market research and forecasting.