Author: Robert F. Jefferson, Jr.Publish On: 2019-01-29
By the end of the decade, black Vietnam War–era veterans in the navy had fashioned a new conceptual framework for understanding the American military not ...
Author: Robert F. Jefferson, Jr.
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
This collection examines the lives of African American soldiers and the sociopolitical world they constructed upon returning to the United States. The experiences analyzed in this volume provide a useful backdrop for understanding the complex relationship between race, war, and politics in the United States throughout the twentieth century.
... Armed Self Defense, and the Long Black Power Movement,” in Closing Ranks: Black Veterans, Politics, and Civil Rights in Twentieth-Century America, ed.
Author: Heather Stur
Through examinations of the U.S. military's racial and gender integration efforts, and its handling of sexuality, this book argues that the need for personnel filling the ranks has forced the armed services to be pragmatically progressive since World War II. • Includes an introduction that offers historical context for understanding the U.S. military's relationship to social change • Provides an in-depth examination of race, gender, and sexuality within the U.S. military since World War II • Includes a conclusion that explores the future of military progressivism • Engages contemporary military issues of interest to students and educators
In Black Veterans, Politics and Civil Rights in Twentieth-Century America, edited By Robert F. Jefferson Jr., 1–20. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.
Author: Lene M. Johannessen
Publisher: Lexington Books
Category: Literary Criticism
Aesthetic Apprehensions: Silences and Absences in False Familiarities is a scholarly conversation about encounters between habitual customs of reading and seeing and their ruptures and ossifications. In closely connected discourses, the thirteen essays collected here set out to carefully probe the ways our aesthetic immersions are obfuscated by deep-seated epistemological and ideological apprehensions by focusing on how the tropology carried by silence, absence, and false familarity crystallize to define the gaps that open up. As they figure in the subtitle of this volume, the tropes may seem straightforward enough, but a closer examination of their function in relation to social, cultural, and political assumptions and gestalts reveal troubling oversights. Aesthetic Apprehensions comes to name the attempt at capturing the outlier meanings residing in habituated receptions as well as the uneasy relations that result from aesthetic practices already in place, emphasizing the kinds of thresholds of sense and sensation which occasion rupture and creativity. Such, after all, is the promise of the threshold, of the liminal: to encourage our leap into otherness, for then to find ourselves and our sensing again, and anew in novel comprehensions.
In a vibrant and passionate exploration of the twentieth-century civil rights and black power eras in American history, Martin uses cultural politics as a lens through which to understand the African-American freedom struggle.
Author: Waldo E. Martin
Publisher: Harvard University Press
In a vibrant and passionate exploration of the twentieth-century civil rights and black power eras in American history, Martin uses cultural politics as a lens through which to understand the African-American freedom struggle. In the transformative postwar period, the intersection between culture and politics became increasingly central to the African-American fight for equality. In freedom songs, in the exuberance of an Aretha Franklin concert, in Faith Ringgold's exploration of race and sexuality, the personal and social became the political.
American Deserters, International Protest, European Exile, ... Black Veterans, Politics, and Civil Rights in Twentieth-Century America: Closing Ranks, ...
Author: Paul Benedikt Glatz
Publisher: Lexington Books
Vietnam’s Prodigal Heroes examines the critical role of desertion in the international Vietnam War debate. Paul Benedikt Glatz traces American deserters’ odyssey of exile and activism in Europe, Japan, and North America to demonstrate how their speaking out and unprecedented levels of desertion in the US military changed the traditional image of the deserter.
The African-American Struggle for Civil Rights in the Twentieth Century Robert ... Black veterans were targeted specifically as threats to the old order.
Author: Robert Cook
A powerful and moving account of the campaign for civil rights in modern America. Robert Cook is concerned less with charismatic leaders like Martin Luther King, and more with the ordinary men and women who were mobilised by the grass-roots activities of civil-rights workers and community leaders. He begins with the development of segregation in the late nineteenth century, but his main focus is on the continuing struggle this century. It is a dramatic story of many achievements - even if in many respects it is also a record of unfinished business.
Most black citizens in the United States could not participate meaningfully in ... This legislation was followed by a number of other civil rights bills, ...
Author: Gillian Peele
Category: Political Science
This eighth iteration of what is now a very well established book brings together a tightly-edited set of specially-commissioned chapters to provide a broad-ranging assessment of the latest discussion points and controversies in US politics. Written by a team of leading experts of American politics, this text provides an authoritative and informed analysis of the latest issues, trends and developments.
Author: Christopher S. ParkerPublish On: 2009-08-17
Black Veterans and the Struggle Against White Supremacy in the Postwar South ... among African Americans by the mid- twentieth century (Nalty 1986, 10).
Author: Christopher S. Parker
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Category: Political Science
How military service led black veterans to join the civil rights struggle Fighting for Democracy shows how the experiences of African American soldiers during World War II and the Korean War influenced many of them to challenge white supremacy in the South when they returned home. Focusing on the motivations of individual black veterans, this groundbreaking book explores the relationship between military service and political activism. Christopher Parker draws on unique sources of evidence, including interviews and survey data, to illustrate how and why black servicemen who fought for their country in wartime returned to America prepared to fight for their own equality. Parker discusses the history of African American military service and how the wartime experiences of black veterans inspired them to contest Jim Crow. Black veterans gained courage and confidence by fighting their nation's enemies on the battlefield and racism in the ranks. Viewing their military service as patriotic sacrifice in the defense of democracy, these veterans returned home with the determination and commitment to pursue equality and social reform in the South. Just as they had risked their lives to protect democratic rights while abroad, they risked their lives to demand those same rights on the domestic front. Providing a sophisticated understanding of how war abroad impacts efforts for social change at home, Fighting for Democracy recovers a vital story about black veterans and demonstrates their distinct contributions to the American political landscape.
... by Anglo-European romance, and society's treatment of black veterans. ... and several poems represent the heroism of early civil rights workers, ...
Author: Stephen Fredman
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Category: Literary Criticism
This Concise Companion gives readers a rich sense of how thepoetry produced in the United States during the twentieth centuryis connected to the country’s intellectual life more broadly. Helps readers to fully appreciate the poetry of the period bytracing its historical and cultural contexts. Written by prominent specialists in the field. Places the poetry of the period within contexts such as: war;feminism and the female poet; poetries of immigration andmigration; communism and anti-communism; philosophy andtheory. Each chapter ranges across the entire century, comparing poetsfrom one part of the century to those of another. New syntheses make the volume of interest to scholars as wellas students and general readers.
ultimately topple mid-twentieth century American apartheid. The Civil Rights Movement was inspired and led by more than middle-aged and middle-class black ...
Author: Reiland Rabaka
Publisher: Lexington Books
Category: Social Science
While there have been a number of studies that have explored African American “movement culture” and African American “movement politics,” rarely has the mixture of black music and black politics or, rather, black music an as expression of black movement politics, been explored across several genres of African American “movement music,” and certainly not with a central focus on the major soundtracks of the Civil Rights Movement: gospel, freedom songs, rhythm & blues, and rock & roll. Here the mixture of music and politics emerging out of the Civil Rights Movement is critically examined as an incredibly important site and source of spiritual rejuvenation, social organization, political education, and cultural transformation, not simply for the non-violent civil rights soldiers of the 1950s and 1960s, but for organic intellectual-artist-activists deeply committed to continuing the core ideals and ethos of the Civil Rights Movement in the twenty-first century. Civil Rights Music: The Soundtracks of the Civil Rights Movement is primarily preoccupied with that liminal, in-between, and often inexplicable place where black popular music and black popular movements meet and merge. Black popular movements are more than merely social and political affairs. Beyond social organization and political activism, black popular movements provide much-needed spaces for cultural development and artistic experimentation, including the mixing of musical and other aesthetic traditions. “Movement music” experimentation has historically led to musical innovation, and musical innovation in turn has led to new music that has myriad meanings and messages—some social, some political, some cultural, some spiritual and, indeed, some sexual. Just as black popular movements have a multiplicity of meanings, this book argues that the music that emerges out of black popular movements has a multiplicity of meanings as well.
This groundbreaking book reinserts the critical concept of "movement" back into our image and understanding of the civil rights movement.
Author: Thomas C. Holt
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
The civil rights movement was among the most important historical developments of the twentieth century and one of the most remarkable mass movements in American history. Not only did it decisively change the legal and political status of African Americans, but it prefigured as well the moral premises and methods of struggle for other historically oppressed groups seeking equal standing in American society. And, yet, despite a vague, sometimes begrudging recognition of its immense import, more often than not the movement has been misrepresented and misunderstood. For the general public, a singular moment, frozen in time at the Lincoln Memorial, sums up much of what Americans know about that remarkable decade of struggle. In The Movement, Thomas C. Holt provides an informed and nuanced understanding of the origins, character, and objectives of the mid-twentieth-century freedom struggle, privileging the aspirations and initiatives of the ordinary, grassroots people who made it. Holt conveys a sense of these developments as a social movement, one that shaped its participants even as they shaped it. He emphasizes the conditions of possibility that enabled the heroic initiatives of the common folk over those of their more celebrated leaders. This groundbreaking book reinserts the critical concept of "movement" back into our image and understanding of the civil rights movement.
Aldon D. Morris, The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement: Black Communities Organizing for Change (New York: Free Press, 1984); Doug McAdam, Political ...
Author: Suzanne Mettler
Publisher: Oxford University Press
"A hell of a gift, an opportunity." "Magnanimous." "One of the greatest advantages I ever experienced." These are the voices of World War II veterans, lavishing praise on their beloved G.I. Bill. Transcending boundaries of class and race, the Bill enabled a sizable portion of the hallowed "greatest generation" to gain vocational training or to attend college or graduate school at government expense. Its beneficiaries had grown up during the Depression, living in tenements and cold-water flats, on farms and in small towns across the nation, most of them expecting that they would one day work in the same kinds of jobs as their fathers. Then the G.I. Bill came along, and changed everything. They experienced its provisions as inclusive, fair, and tremendously effective in providing the deeply held American value of social opportunity, the chance to improve one's circumstances. They become chefs and custom builders, teachers and electricians, engineers and college professors. But the G.I. Bill fueled not only the development of the middle class: it also revitalized American democracy. Americans who came of age during World War II joined fraternal groups and neighborhood and community organizations and took part in politics at rates that made the postwar era the twentieth century's civic "golden age." Drawing on extensive interviews and surveys with hundreds of members of the "greatest generation," Suzanne Mettler finds that by treating veterans as first-class citizens and in granting advanced education, the Bill inspired them to become the active participants thanks to whom memberships in civic organizations soared and levels of political activity peaked. Mettler probes how this landmark law produced such a civic renaissance. Most fundamentally, she discovers, it communicated to veterans that government was for and about people like them, and they responded in turn. In our current age of rising inequality and declining civic engagement, Soldiers to Citizens offers critical lessons about how public programs can make a difference.
U.S. Patriotism in Indian Country after World War I Thomas Grillot ... Let Us Fight as Free Men: Black Soldiers and Civil Rights (Philadelphia: University ...
Author: Thomas Grillot
Publisher: Yale University Press
A forgotten history that explores how army veterans returning to reservation life after World War I transformed Native American identity Drawing from archival sources and oral histories, Thomas Grillot demonstrates how the relationship between Native American tribes and the United States was reinvented in the years following World War I. During that conflict, twelve thousand Native American soldiers served in the U.S. Army. They returned home to their reservations with newfound patriotism, leveraging their veteran cachet for political power and claiming all the benefits of citizenship—even supporting the termination policy that ended the U.S. government’s recognition of tribal sovereignty.
But in matters of race—from the first migration of black settlers to Spokane, through the politics of the Cold War and the civil rights movement, to the successes of the 1970s and ’80s—Mack shows that Spokane has a story to tell, one ...
Author: Dwayne A. Mack
Publisher: University of Oklahoma Press
In 1981, decades before mainstream America elected Barack Obama, James Chase became the first African American mayor of Spokane, Washington, with the overwhelming support of a majority-white electorate. Chase’s win failed to capture the attention of historians—as had the century-long evolution of the black community in Spokane. In Black Spokane: The Civil Rights Struggle in the Inland Northwest, Dwayne A. Mack corrects this oversight—and recovers a crucial chapter in the history of race relations and civil rights in America. As early as the 1880s, Spokane was a destination for black settlers escaping the racial oppression in the South—settlers who over the following decades built an infrastructure of churches, businesses, and social organizations to serve the black community. Drawing on oral histories, interviews, newspapers, and a rich array of other primary sources, Mack sets the stage for the years following World War II in the Inland Northwest, when an influx of black veterans would bring about a new era of racial issues. His book traces the earliest challenges faced by the NAACP and a small but sympathetic white population as Spokane became a significant part of the national civil rights struggle. International superstars such as Louis “Satchmo” Armstrong and Hazel Scott figure in this story, along with charismatic local preachers, entrepreneurs, and lawyers who stepped forward as civic leaders. These individuals’ contributions, and the black community’s encounters with racism, offer a view of the complexity of race relations in a city and a region not recognized historically as centers of racial strife. But in matters of race—from the first migration of black settlers to Spokane, through the politics of the Cold War and the civil rights movement, to the successes of the 1970s and ’80s—Mack shows that Spokane has a story to tell, one that this book at long last incorporates into the larger history of twentieth-century America.
In her analysis of Black women's writing and the Civil Rights Movement, ... as “revolutionary”8 in later twentieth-century black political struggles, ...
Author: Mark Pizzato
Category: Literary Criticism
How do twentieth and twenty-first century artists bring forth the powerful reality of death when it exists in memory and lived experience as something that happens only to others? Death in American Texts and Performances takes up this question to explore the modern and postmodern aesthetics of death. Working between and across genres, the contributors examine literary texts and performance media, including Robert Lowell's For the Union Dead, Luis Valdez' Dark Root of a Scream, Amiri Baraka's Dutchman, Thornton Wilder's Our Town, John Edgar Wideman's The Cattle Killing, Toni Morrison's Sula and Song of Solomon, Don DeLillo's White Noise and Falling Man, and HBO's Six Feet Under. As the contributors struggle to convey the artist's crisis of representation, they often locate the dilemma in the gap between artifice and nature, where loss is performed and where re-membering is sometimes literally reenacted through the bodily gesture. While artists confront the impossibility of total recovery or transformation, so must the contributors explore the gulf between real corpses and their literary or performative reconstructions. Ultimately, the volume shows both artist and critic grappling with the dilemma of showing how the aesthetics of death as absence is made meaningful in and by language.
Black Soldiers and Civil Rights Christine Knauer ... This book examines African Americans' reflections on military service, desegregation, and black ...
Author: Christine Knauer
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
Today, the military is one the most racially diverse institutions in the United States. But for many decades African American soldiers battled racial discrimination and segregation within its ranks. In the years after World War II, the integration of the armed forces was a touchstone in the homefront struggle for equality—though its importance is often overlooked in contemporary histories of the civil rights movement. Drawing on a wide array of sources, from press reports and newspapers to organizational and presidential archives, historian Christine Knauer recounts the conflicts surrounding black military service and the fight for integration. Let Us Fight as Free Men shows that, even after their service to the nation in World War II, it took the persistent efforts of black soldiers, as well as civilian activists and government policy changes, to integrate the military. In response to unjust treatment during and immediately after the war, African Americans pushed for integration on the strength of their service despite the oppressive limitations they faced on the front and at home. Pressured by civil rights activists such as A. Philip Randolph, President Harry S. Truman passed an executive order that called for equal treatment in the military. Even so, integration took place haltingly and was realized only after the political and strategic realities of the Korean War forced the Army to allow black soldiers to fight alongside their white comrades. While the war pushed the civil rights struggle beyond national boundaries, it also revealed the persistence of racial discrimination and exposed the limits of interracial solidarity. Let Us Fight as Free Men reveals the heated debates about the meaning of military service, manhood, and civil rights strategies within the African American community and the United States as a whole.
As the national leadership of the black community during early twenty-first century makes a complete transition from veterans of the civil rights movement, ...
Author: Eric Patterson
Publisher: Lexington Books
This book considers whether Pentecostalism will remain a vibrant religious force in the land of its birth (the U.S.), and if so, what forms it will take. The contributors represent a variety of disciplinary and methodological approaches in answering these questions, often concluding that U.S. Pentecostalism(s) are in decline but able to reform.
The right of black veterans to belong was left to the discretion of each ... generally conservative courses in the twentieth century while allowing for ...
Author: William Pencak
A comprehensive encyclopedia that describes the experiences of American veterans from the Revolutionary War to the present. * Presents essays from 30 contributing scholars from a variety of disciplines, many who are themselves veterans * Contains 35 primary documents, including poems by and about and tributes to veterans, recent Congressional testimony by veterans about their problems, and descriptions of their activities * Offers a timeline of relevant events, including founding dates of major veterans organizations and dates of major veterans legislation * Provides illustrations of veterans engaging in political or ceremonial activity and illustrations of monuments and memorials * Includes a bibliography of both general items and those relevant for each war/conflict
... than veterans' and women's organizations—not least the black civil rights ... by black clubwomen in particular in the early twentieth century, American ...
Author: Francesca Morgan
Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press
Category: Social Science
After the Civil War, many Americans did not identify strongly with the concept of a united nation. Francesca Morgan finds the first stirrings of a sense of national patriotism--of "these United States--in the work of black and white clubwomen in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Morgan demonstrates that hundreds of thousands of women in groups such as the Woman's Relief Corps, the National Association of Colored Women, the Universal Negro Improvement Association, the United Daughters of the Confederacy, and the Daughters of the American Revolution sought to produce patriotism on a massive scale in the absence of any national emergency. They created holidays like Confederate Memorial Day, placed American flags in classrooms, funded monuments and historic markers, and preserved old buildings and battlegrounds. Morgan argues that while clubwomen asserted women's importance in cultivating national identity and participating in public life, white groups and black groups did not have the same nation in mind and circumscribed their efforts within the racial boundaries of their time. Presenting a truly national history of these generally understudied groups, Morgan proves that before the government began to show signs of leadership in patriotic projects in the 1930s, women's organizations were the first articulators of American nationalism.