Berenike and the Ancient Maritime Spice Route

Author: Steven E. Sidebotham

Publisher: University of California Press

ISBN: 0520303385

Category: History

Page: 456

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The legendary overland silk road was not the only way to reach Asia for ancient travelers from the Mediterranean. During the Roman Empire’s heyday, equally important maritime routes reached from the Egyptian Red Sea across the Indian Ocean. The ancient city of Berenike, located approximately 500 miles south of today’s Suez Canal, was a significant port among these conduits. In this book, Steven E. Sidebotham, the archaeologist who excavated Berenike, uncovers the role the city played in the regional, local, and “global” economies during the eight centuries of its existence. Sidebotham analyzes many of the artifacts, botanical and faunal remains, and hundreds of the texts he and his team found in excavations, providing a profoundly intimate glimpse of the people who lived, worked, and died in this emporium between the classical Mediterranean world and Asia.
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Trade, Commerce, and the State in the Roman World

Author: Alan Bowman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019879066X

Category: Architecture

Page: 688

View: 3949

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This volume presents eighteen papers by leading Roman historians and archaeologists discussing trade in the Roman Empire during the period c.100 BC to AD 350. It focuses especially on the role of the Roman state in shaping the institutional framework for trade within and outside the empire, in taxing that trade, and in intervening in the markets to ensure the supply of particular commodities, especially for the city of Rome and for the army. As part of a novel interdisciplinary approach to the subject, the chapters address its myriad facets on the basis of broadly different sources of evidence: historical, papyrological, and archaeological. They are grouped into three sections, covering institutional factors (taxation, legal structures, market regulation, financial institutions); evidence for long-distance trade within the empire in wood, stone, glass, and pottery; and trade beyond the frontiers, with the east (as far as China), India, Arabia, the Red Sea, and the Sahara. Rome's external trade with realms to the east emerges as being of particular significance, but it is in the eastern part of the empire itself where the state appears to have adapted the mechanisms of taxation in collaboration with the elite holders of wealth to support its need for revenue. On the other hand, the price of that collaboration, which was in effect a fiscal partnership, ultimately led in the longer term in slightly different forms in the east and the west to a fundamental change in the political character of the empire.
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Trade and Travel in the Red Sea Region

Proceedings of Red Sea Project I Held in the British Museum, October 2002

Author: Paul Lunde,Alexandra Porter

Publisher: British Archaeological Reports Limited

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 178

View: 4779

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18 papers from the 1st Red Sea Project, held at the British Museum in October 2002. Contents: The Red Sea: the wind regime and location of ports (W. Facey); Arabian trade with ethiopia and the Horn of Africa: from ancient times to the 16th Century (R. Pankhurst); The elusive land of punt revisited (K.A. Kitchen); Pharaonic Egypt and the Red Sea arms trade (D.M. Dixon); Possible connections in Antiquity between the Red Sea coast of Yemen and the Horn of Africa (E.J. Keall); Ancient interaction across the southern Red Sea: new suggestions for investigating cultural exchange and complex societies during the 1st millennium BC (M.C. Curtis); The pre-Aksumite state in northern Ethiopia and Eritrea reconsidered (R. Fattovich); Pre-Aksumite Aksum and its neighbours (J. Phillips); Adulis to Aksum: charting the course of Antiquitys most important trade route in East Africa (W. Raunig); The Egyptp-Graeco-Romans and Panchaea/Azania: sailing in the Erythraean Sea (F. Chami); Reflections of ethnicity in the Red Sea commerce in Antiquity: evidence of trade goods, languages and religions from the excavations at Berenike (S.E Sidebottom); Gold dinars and silver dirhams in the Red Sea trade: the evidence of the Quseir documents (L. Guo); The merchants diet: food remains from Roman and medieval Quseir al-Qadim (M. Van der Veen); What the devil are you doing here? Arabic source for the arrival of the Portugese in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean (P. Lunde); Mamluk and Ottoman activity in Yemen in the 16th Century: coastal security and commercial significance (C. Smith); Quseir Fort and the archaeology of the Hajj (C. LeQuesne); Les echanges commerciaux entre les rives Africaine et Arabe de lespace Mer Rouge Golfe DAden aux seizieme et dix-septieme siecles (M. Tuchscherer); Luxury wares in the Red Sea: the Sadana Island shipwreck (C. Ward).
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The Indian Ocean in World History

Author: Edward A. Alpers

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199929947

Category: History

Page: 192

View: 2701

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The Indian Ocean remains the least studied of the world's geographic regions. Yet there have been major cultural exchanges across its waters and around its shores from the third millennium B.C.E. to the present day. Historian Edward A. Alpers explores the complex issues involved in cultural exchange in the Indian Ocean Rim region over the course of this long period of time by combining a historical approach with the insights of anthropology, art history, ethnomusicology, and geography. The Indian Ocean witnessed several significant diasporas during the past two millennia, including migrations of traders, indentured laborers, civil servants, sailors, and slaves throughout the entire basin. Persians and Arabs from the Gulf came to eastern Africa and Madagascar as traders and settlers, while Hadramis dispersed from south Yemen as traders and Muslim teachers to the Comoro Islands, Zanzibar, South India, and Indonesia. Southeast Asians migrated to Madagascar, and Chinese dispersed from Southeast Asia to the Mascarene Islands to South Africa. Alpers also explores the cultural exchanges that diasporas cause, telling stories of identity and cultural transformation through language, popular religion, music, dance, art and architecture, and social organization. For example, architectural and decorative styles in eastern Africa, the Red Sea, the Hadramaut, the Persian Gulf, and western India reflect cultural interchanges in multiple directions. Similarly, the popular musical form of taarab in Zanzibar and coastal East Africa incorporates elements of Arab, Indian, and African musical traditions, while the characteristic frame drum (ravanne) of séga, the widespread Afro-Creole dance of the Mascarene and Seychelles Islands, probably owes its ultimate origins to Arabia by way of Mozambique. The Indian Ocean in World History also discusses issues of trade and production that show the long history of exchange throughout the Indian Ocean world; politics and empire-building by both regional and European powers; and the role of religion and religious conversion, focusing mainly on Islam, but also mentioning Hinduism, Buddhism and Christianity. Using a broad geographic perspective, the book includes references to connections between the Indian Ocean world and the Americas. Moving into the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, Alpers looks at issues including the new configuration of colonial territorial boundaries after World War I, and the search for oil reserves.
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Byzantium and Islam

Age of Transition, 7th-9th Century

Author: Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)

Publisher: Metropolitan Museum of Art New York

ISBN: N.A

Category: Art

Page: 332

View: 6016

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A groundbreaking investigation of the extraordinary art and material culture of the southern provinces of the Byzantine Empire during the momentous 7th to 9th century
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Berenike 1999/2000

Report on the Excavations at Berenike, Including Excavations in Wadi Kalalat and Siket, and the Survey of the Mons Smaragdus Region

Author: Willeke Wendrich,Steven E. Sidebotham

Publisher: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 404

View: 3435

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Excavations at Berenike, a Greco-Roman harbor on the Egyptian Red Sea coast, have provided extensive evidence for trade with India, South-Arabia and sub-Saharan Africa. The results of the 1999 and 2000 excavations by the joint mission of the University of Delaware, Leiden University, and UCLA, have been published in a comprehensive report, with specialists' analyses of different object groups and an overview of evidence for the trade route from the Indian perspective. The book is lavishly illustrated with photographs, drawings, plans, and a large foldout map of Berenike and Sikait.
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