Before Prozac

The Troubled History of Mood Disorders in Psychiatry

Author: Edward Shorter

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195368746

Category: Medical

Page: 304

View: 7530

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Psychiatry today is a barren tundra, writes medical historian Edward Shorter, where drugs that don't work are used to treat diseases that don't exist. In this provocative volume, Shorter illuminates this dismal landscape, in a revealing account of why psychiatry is "losing ground" in the struggle to treat depression.Naturally, the book looks at such culprits as the pharmaceutical industry, which is not inclined to market drugs once the patent expires, leading to the endless introduction of new--but not necessarily better--drugs. But the heart of the book focuses on an unexpected villain: the FDA, the very agency charged with ensuring drug safety and effectiveness. Shorter describes how the FDA permits companies to test new products only against placebo. If you can beat sugar pills, you get your drug licensed, whether or not it is actually better than (or even as good as) current medications, thus sweeping from the shelves drugs that may be superior but have lost patent protection. The book also examines the FDA's early power struggles against the drug industry, an influence-grab that had little to do with science, and which left barbiturates, opiates, and amphetamines all underprescribed, despite the fact that under careful supervision they are better at treating depression, with fewer side effects, than the newer drugs in the Prozac family. Shorter also castigates academia, showing how two forms of depression, melancholia and nonmelancholia--"as different from each other as chalk and cheese"--became squeezed into one dubious classification, major depression, which was essentially a political artifact born of academic infighting.An astonishing and troubling look at modern psychiatry, Losing Ground is a book that is sure to spark controversy for years to come.
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Philosophical issues in psychiatry III

The Nature and Sources of Historical Change

Author: Kenneth S. Kendler,Josef Parnas

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191038865

Category: Medical

Page: 408

View: 5534

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Psychiatry has long struggled with the nature of its diagnoses. The problems raised by questions about the nature of psychiatric illness are particularly fascinating because they sit at the intersection of philosophy, empirical psychiatric/psychological research, measurement theory, historical tradition and policy. In being the only medical specialty that diagnoses and treats mental illness, psychiatry has been subject to major changes in the last 150 years. This book explores the forces that have shaped these changes and especially how substantial "internal" advances in our knowledge of the nature and causes of psychiatric illness have interacted with a plethora of external forces that have impacted on the psychiatric profession. It includes contributions from philosophers of science with an interest in psychiatry, psychiatrists and psychologists with expertise in the history of their field and historians of psychiatry. Each chapter is accompanied by an introduction and a commentary. The result is a dynamic discussion about the nature of psychiatric disorders, and a book that is compelling reading for those in the field of mental health, history of science and medicine, and philosophy.
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Overdiagnosis in Psychiatry

How Modern Psychiatry Lost Its Way While Creating a Diagnosis for Almost All of Life's Misfortunes

Author: Joel Paris

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199350655

Category: Medical

Page: 272

View: 1605

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Dr. Joel Paris's Overdiagnosis in Psychiatry takes a much-needed look at the dangerous epidemic of unnecessary or incorrect treatments. The last 30 years of psychiatry have seen the development of a system of classification aimed at establishing greater scientific credibility. Unfortunately, the current categories are based entirely on signs and symptoms rather than on causes, which remain unknown. This has inevitably made diagnosis imprecise and uncertain. The result is that well-meaning professionals can have problems separating psychopathology from normality, can be unduly influenced by diagnostic fads, and can ultimately wind up prescribing treatments that do more harm than good. Paris examines prominent examples of overused diagnoses including major depressive disorder, ADHD, bipolar-II disorder, autism spectrum disorders, and PTSD.
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Endocrine Psychiatry

Solving the Riddle of Melancholia

Author: Edward Shorter,Max Fink

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199745548

Category: Medical

Page: 208

View: 4374

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The riddle of melancholia has stumped generations of doctors. It is a serious depressive illness that often leads to suicide and premature death. The disease's link to biology has been intensively studied. Unlike almost any other psychiatric disorder, melancholia sufferers have abnormal endocrine functions. Tests capable of separating melancholia from other mood disorders were useful discoveries, but these tests fell into disuse as psychiatrists lost interest in biology and medicine. In the nineteenth century, theories about the role of endocrine organs encouraged endocrine treatments that loomed prominently in practice. This interest faded in the 1930s but was revived by the discovery of the adrenal hormone cortisol and descriptions of its abnormal functioning in melancholic and psychotic depressed patients. New endocrine tests were devised to plumb the secrets of mood disorders. Two colorful individuals, Bernard Carroll and Edward Sachar, led this revival and for a time in the 1960s and 1970s intensive research interest established connections between hormone dysfunctions and behavior. In the 1980s, psychiatrists lost interest in hormonal approaches largely because they did not correlate with the arbitrary classification of mood disorders. Today the relation between endocrines and behavior have been disregarded. This history traces the enthusiasm of biological efforts to solve the mystery of melancholia and their fall. Using vibrant language accessible to family care practitioners, psychiatrists and interested lay readers, the authors propose that a useful, a potentially live-saving connection between medicine and psychiatry, has been lost.
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Depression, An Issue of Psychiatric Clinics - E-Book

Author: David Mintz

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 1455743100

Category: Medical

Page: 296

View: 6146

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This issue discusses the diagnosis and treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) and other depressive disorders, with an emphasis on the psychosocial aspects of depression: how it affects societies, how it is affected by culture, and what the true meaning of recovery is for those suffering from MDD. The issue is divided into three section: Etiology, Diagnosis and Treatment. Authors address the evidence where biology and subjectivity meet. They discuss what is adaptive and what is pathologic and discuss population-based solutions that take into account the specificity of the individual. Authors also take into account combination treatments of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy and weigh the treatment choices against specific patient subtypes.
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All We Have to Fear

Psychiatry's Transformation of Natural Anxieties into Mental Disorders

Author: Allan V. Horwitz, PhD,Jerome C. Wakefield, DSW, PhD

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199978867

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 320

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Thirty years ago, it was estimated that less than five percent of the population had an anxiety disorder. Today, some estimates are over fifty percent, a tenfold increase. Is this dramatic rise evidence of a real medical epidemic? In All We Have to Fear, Allan Horwitz and Jerome Wakefield argue that psychiatry itself has largely generated this "epidemic" by inflating many natural fears into psychiatric disorders, leading to the over-diagnosis of anxiety disorders and the over-prescription of anxiety-reducing drugs. American psychiatry currently identifies disordered anxiety as irrational anxiety disproportionate to a real threat. Horwitz and Wakefield argue, to the contrary, that it can be a perfectly normal part of our nature to fear things that are not at all dangerous--from heights to negative judgments by others to scenes that remind us of past threats (as in some forms of PTSD). Indeed, this book argues strongly against the tendency to call any distressing condition a "mental disorder." To counter this trend, the authors provide an innovative and nuanced way to distinguish between anxiety conditions that are psychiatric disorders and likely require medical treatment and those that are not--the latter including anxieties that seem irrational but are the natural products of evolution. The authors show that many commonly diagnosed "irrational" fears--such as a fear of snakes, strangers, or social evaluation--have evolved over time in response to situations that posed serious risks to humans in the past, but are no longer dangerous today. Drawing on a wide range of disciplines including psychiatry, evolutionary psychology, sociology, anthropology, and history, the book illuminates the nature of anxiety in America, making a major contribution to our understanding of mental health.
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Complaints, Controversies and Grievances in Medicine

Historical and Social Science Perspectives

Author: Jonathan Reinarz,Rebecca Wynter

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317637623

Category: Medical

Page: 282

View: 4771

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Recent studies into the experiences and failures of health care services, along with the rapid development of patient advocacy, consumerism and pressure groups have led historians and social scientists to engage with the issue of the medical complaint. As expressions of dissatisfaction, disquiet and failings in service provision, past complaining is a vital antidote to progressive histories of health care. This book explores what has happened historically when medicine generated complaints. This multidisciplinary collection comprises contributions from leading international scholars and uses new research to develop a sophisticated understanding of the development of medicine and the role of complaints and complaining in this story. It addresses how each aspect of the medical complaint – between sciences, professions, practitioners and sectors; within politics, ethics and regulatory bodies; from interested parties and patients – has manifested in modern medicine, and how it has been defined, dealt with and resolved. A critical and interdisciplinary humanities and social science perspective grounded in historical case studies of medicine and bioethics, this volume provides the first major and comprehensive historical, comparative and policy-based examination of the area. It will be of interest to historians, sociologists, legal specialists and ethicists interested in medicine, as well as those involved in healthcare policy, practice and management.
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My Age of Anxiety

Fear, Hope, Dread, and the Search for Peace of Mind

Author: Scott Stossel

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 0385351321

Category: Psychology

Page: 416

View: 9324

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A riveting, revelatory, and moving account of the author’s struggles with anxiety, and of the history of efforts by scientists, philosophers, and writers to understand the condition As recently as thirty-five years ago, anxiety did not exist as a diagnostic category. Today, it is the most common form of officially classified mental illness. Scott Stossel gracefully guides us across the terrain of an affliction that is pervasive yet too often misunderstood. Drawing on his own long-standing battle with anxiety, Stossel presents an astonishing history, at once intimate and authoritative, of the efforts to understand the condition from medical, cultural, philosophical, and experiential perspectives. He ranges from the earliest medical reports of Galen and Hippocrates, through later observations by Robert Burton and Søren Kierkegaard, to the investigations by great nineteenth-century scientists, such as Charles Darwin, William James, and Sigmund Freud, as they began to explore its sources and causes, to the latest research by neuroscientists and geneticists. Stossel reports on famous individuals who struggled with anxiety, as well as on the afflicted generations of his own family. His portrait of anxiety reveals not only the emotion’s myriad manifestations and the anguish anxiety produces but also the countless psychotherapies, medications, and other (often outlandish) treatments that have been developed to counteract it. Stossel vividly depicts anxiety’s human toll—its crippling impact, its devastating power to paralyze—while at the same time exploring how those who suffer from it find ways to manage and control it. My Age of Anxiety is learned and empathetic, humorous and inspirational, offering the reader great insight into the biological, cultural, and environmental factors that contribute to the affliction.
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Critical Neuroscience

A Handbook of the Social and Cultural Contexts of Neuroscience

Author: Suparna Choudhury,Jan Slaby

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444343335

Category: Psychology

Page: 408

View: 7366

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Critical Neuroscience: A Handbook of the Social and Cultural Contexts of Neuroscience brings together multi-disciplinary scholars from around the world to explore key social, historical and philosophical studies of neuroscience, and to analyze the socio-cultural implications of recent advances in the field. This text’s original, interdisciplinary approach explores the creative potential for engaging experimental neuroscience with social studies of neuroscience while furthering the dialogue between neuroscience and the disciplines of the social sciences and humanities. Critical Neuroscience transcends traditional skepticism, introducing novel ideas about ‘how to be critical’ in and about science.
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Diagnosis, therapy, and evidence

conundrums in modern American medicine

Author: Gerald N. Grob,Allan V. Horwitz

Publisher: Rutgers Univ Pr

ISBN: N.A

Category: Medical

Page: 253

View: 3500

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In "Diagnosis, Therapy, and Evidence," Gerald N. Grob and Allan V. Horwitz employ historical and contemporary data and case studies, combining into one book a variety of medical and psychiatric conditions. They utilize case studies and examine tonsillectomy, cancer, heart disease, PTSD, anxiety, and depression, and identify differences between rhetoric and reality and the weaknesses in diagnosis and treatment.
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