Pears, Nigel. Basic biogeography. Includes bibliographies and indexes. 1.
Biogeography. I. Title. QH84.P4 1985 574.5 83-26728 ISBN 0-470-20561-X (
USA only) Set in 10/12 Linotron 202 Plantin Roman CONTENTS Preface to the
Author: N V Pears
First published in 1985. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
Nigel Pears. UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA A LONG 3 1951 D01 911 432 G Basic Biogeography is an introductory textbook with a realistic approach to
student requirements . It has been written particularly to meet the needs of
students taking ...
This, historical biogeography, explores the long-term evolution of life and the
influence of continental drift, global climatic ... Popular works include
Biogeography: Natural and Cultural (Simmons 1979), Basic Biogeography (
Pears 1985), ...
Author: Richard J. Huggett
Publisher: Psychology Press
Category: Social Science
"Fundamentals of Biogeography presents an appealing introduction for students and all those interested in gaining a deeper understanding of key topics and debates within the fields of biogeography, ecology, and the environment. Revealing how life has been and is adapting to its biological and physical surroundings, Huggett stresses the role of ecological, historical, and human factors in fashioning animal and plant distributions, and explores how biogeography can inform conservation practice."--Jacket.
2.3. The. Basic. Biogeography-Based. Optimization. Algorithm. Inspired by the
theory of biogeography, Simon  proposed the BBO algorithm for optimization
problems. As many other heuristics, BBO solves a problem by continually
Author: Yujun Zheng
This book introduces readers to the background, general framework, main operators, and other basic characteristics of biogeography-based optimization (BBO), which is an emerging branch of bio-inspired computation. In particular, the book presents the authors’ recent work on improved variants of BBO, hybridization of BBO with other algorithms, and the application of BBO to a variety of domains including transportation, image processing, and neural network learning. The content will help to advance research into and application of not only BBO but also the whole field of bio-inspired computation. The algorithms and applications are organized in a step-by-step manner and clearly described with the help of pseudo-codes and flowcharts. The readers will learn not only the basic concepts of BBO but also how to apply and adapt the algorithms to the engineering optimization problems they actually encounter.
... Union, there is a damaging paucity of information for many taxa. For example,
the Atlas Florae Europaeae (AFE), a project launched in 1965 by a group of
botanists and -36° -30° -24° -18° -12° 21° 33° 42° 48° 54°. 56 Basic biogeography ...
Author: Richard Ladle
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
The Earth’s ecosystems are in the midst of an unprecedentedperiod of change as a result of human action. Many habitats havebeen completely destroyed or divided into tiny fragments, othershave been transformed through the introduction of new species, orthe extinction of native plants and animals, while anthropogenicclimate change now threatens to completely redraw the geographicmap of life on this planet. The urgent need to understand andprescribe solutions to this complicated and interlinked set ofpressing conservation issues has lead to the transformation of thevenerable academic discipline of biogeography – the study ofthe geographic distribution of animals and plants. The newlyemerged sub-discipline of conservation biogeography uses theconceptual tools and methods of biogeography to address real worldconservation problems and to provide predictions about the fate ofkey species and ecosystems over the next century. This bookprovides the first comprehensive review of the field in a series ofclosely interlinked chapters addressing the central issues withinthis exciting and important subject. View ahref="http://www.wiley.com/go/ladle/biogeography"www.wiley.com/go/ladle/biogeography/a yoaccess the figures from the book.
Basic. Concepts. Evolutionary biogeography integrates distributional,
phylogenetic, molecular, and paleontological data in order to discover biogeographic patterns and assess the historical changes that shaped them. To
elucidate the ...
Author: Juan Morrone
Publisher: Columbia University Press
"Rather than favoring only one approach, Juan J. Morrone proposes a comprehensive treatment of the developments and theories of evolutionary biogeography. Evolutionary biogeography uses distributional, phylogenetic, molecular, and fossil data to assess the historical changes that have produced current biotic patterns. Panbiogeography, parsimony analysis of endemicity, cladistic biogeography, and phylogeography are the four recent and most common approaches. Many conceive of these methods as representing different "schools," but Morrone shows how each addresses different questions in the various steps of an evolutionary biogeographical analysis. Panbiogeography and parsimony analysis of endemicity are useful for identifying biotic components or areas of endemism. Cladistic biogeography uses phylogenetic data to determine the relationships between these biotic components. Further information on fossils, phylogeographic patterns, and molecular clocks can be incorporated to identify different cenocrons. Finally, available geological knowledge can help construct a geobiotic scenario that may explain how analyzed areas were put into contact and how the biotic components and cenocrons inhabiting them evolved. Morrone compares these methods and employs case studies to make it clear which is best for the question at hand. Set problems, discussion sections, and glossaries further enhance classroom use."--Publisher's description.
370-287 BC) and Virgil (70-19 BC), whose Georgics expounded the art of
husbandry and implied many of the basic principles of countryside management
which apply today. The foundations of modern biogeography were laid in the ...
Author: James Allan Taylor
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
Biogeography has been one of the great growth areas in geography in recent years, with much new research work and many new developments taking place. This book presents an authoritative, up-to-date, international review of all the major biogeographical themes. The chapters define each theme and its place within biogeography and consider the methods of study adopted. Each chapter then assesses recent trends and the latest state of the art, and concludes by examining where future developments are likely. Many case-studies and examples are provided, from throughout the world, including North America.
of biogeographic provinces in Europe . Some of the most basic work in biogeography was done by Charles Darwin and especially A. R. Wallace ( 1876 )
, both of whom worked with terrestrial biotas . Landmark publications in the field
Author: J. Robert Dodd
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Revised and updated, it reflects the recent developments and changing emphasis in the field of paleoecology. While the basic organization remains the same as the original edition, there are several major changes, including an extensive reorganization and shortening of Chapter 2, focusing now on environmental parameters rather than individual taxonomic groups; greater use of tables with references to pertinent literature; inclusion of a new chapter on taphonomy; elimination of the chapter on skeletons as sedimentary particles; removal of many of the recurring examples from the Neogene of the Kettlemen Hills; and inclusion of new references on all topics. Older references have been kept and will serve to blend the historical and important milestones in the development of paleoecology with the most current research.
Abstract Chapter 2 deals with the bioclimatic classification of Africa within its main
bioclimatic divisions, as defined in Chapter 1: Mediterranean and Subtropical to
Tropical, and Equatorial. The Sahara is considered apart, as it experiences a ...
Author: Henry N. Houérou
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Covering an area of over 130 million km2 spanning the Mediterranean, equator and tropics, the African continent features a spectacular geographic diversity. Consequently, it is characterised by extremely variable climatic, edaphic and ecological conditions, associated with a wide range of natural vegetation and wildlife, as well as human population density, crops and livestock. In this book, Henry Le Houérou presents his bioclimatic and biogeographic classification of Africa. The extensive data provide the basis for comparisons between various African regions, and with regions on other continents such as Latin America or the Indian subcontinent. The results constitute a rational basis for national, regional and sub-regional rural development planning, and for agricultural research dealing with aspects such as plant and animal introductions, the extrapolation or interpolation of experimental or developmental findings, and ecosystems dynamics. Possible problems of applications are also examined.
The rate at which species accumulate with increasing area surveyed—the
species-area relationship—is perhaps the most basic and fundamental problem
in biogeography. Yet on first consideration, a positive species-area relationship ...
Author: Stephen P. Hubbell
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Despite its supreme importance and the threat of its global crash, biodiversity remains poorly understood both empirically and theoretically. This ambitious book presents a new, general neutral theory to explain the origin, maintenance, and loss of biodiversity in a biogeographic context. Until now biogeography (the study of the geographic distribution of species) and biodiversity (the study of species richness and relative species abundance) have had largely disjunct intellectual histories. In this book, Stephen Hubbell develops a formal mathematical theory that unifies these two fields. When a speciation process is incorporated into Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson's now classical theory of island biogeography, the generalized theory predicts the existence of a universal, dimensionless biodiversity number. In the theory, this fundamental biodiversity number, together with the migration or dispersal rate, completely determines the steady-state distribution of species richness and relative species abundance on local to large geographic spatial scales and short-term to evolutionary time scales. Although neutral, Hubbell's theory is nevertheless able to generate many nonobvious, testable, and remarkably accurate quantitative predictions about biodiversity and biogeography. In many ways Hubbell's theory is the ecological analog to the neutral theory of genetic drift in genetics. The unified neutral theory of biogeography and biodiversity should stimulate research in new theoretical and empirical directions by ecologists, evolutionary biologists, and biogeographers.
Indeed , it should be noted at the outset " island biogeography " is often identified
as a that island biogeography has deep roots within distinct branch or subfield .
In contrast to most the discipline , as is illustrated in our excerpt island species ...
Author: Dov V. Sax
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Foundations of Biogeography provides facsimile reprints of seventy-two works that have proven fundamental to the development of the field. From classics by Georges-Louis LeClerc Compte de Buffon, Alexander von Humboldt, and Charles Darwin to equally seminal contributions by Ernst Mayr, Robert MacArthur, and E. O. Wilson, these papers and book excerpts not only reveal biogeography's historical roots but also trace its theoretical and empirical development. Selected and introduced by leading biogeographers, the articles cover a wide variety of taxonomic groups, habitat types, and geographic regions. Foundations of Biogeography will be an ideal introduction to the field for beginning students and an essential reference for established scholars of biogeography, ecology, and evolution. List of Contributors John C. Briggs, James H. Brown, Vicki A. Funk, Paul S. Giller, Nicholas J. Gotelli, Lawrence R. Heaney, Robert Hengeveld, Christopher J. Humphries, Mark V. Lomolino, Alan A. Myers, Brett R. Riddle, Dov F. Sax, Geerat J. Vermeij, Robert J. Whittaker
... the major islands , of which all but one are of snakes . In this chapter I review
the basic elements of reptilian island biogeography in the Sea of Cortés with an
emphasis on ecological factors shaping distributions and evolutionary
Author: Ted J. Case
Publisher: Oxford University Press
This updated and expanded A New Island Biogeography of the Sea of Cortés, first published nearly 20 years ago, integrates new and broader studies encompassing more taxa and more complete island coverage. The present synthesis provides a basis for further research and exploration in upcoming years of the biologically fascinating Sea of Cortés region. The Gulf region is increasingly being exploited, for its natural resources by way of marine fisheries, and for its stunning natural beauty by way of a burgeoning tourism industry. Further, the region's human population is increasing apace. It is appropriate, therefore, that this volume discusses these evolving circumstances, and the efforts of the Mexican government to regulate and manage them. The new Biogeography includes a section on the conservation issues in the Sea of Cortés, past accomplishments and conservation needs as yet outstanding. This book should be of strong interest to conservation biologists, ecologists, and evolutionary biologists more generally.
Understanding biogeographic patterns usually requires perspectives from all of
these fields of study, and thus, research in biogeography requires a broad
perspective. As children, we have all been taught basic biogeographic patterns (
Author: Joseph P. Stoltman
This is a theoretical and practical guide on how to undertake and navigate advanced research in the arts, humanities and social sciences.
This chapter maintains this ecological emphasis , although it concerns a different biogeographical phenomenon , the geographical distribution of numbers of taxa
per unit area , or ... but a problem basic to our understanding of biogeography .
Author: R. Hengeveld
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Biogeography is an increasingly important area for ecology, dynamic biogeography being the study of biological patterns and processes on a broad scale both geographically and temporally. In this book, the spatial patterns and processes studied in dynamic biogeography are presented from an ecological perspective. Dynamic Biogeography opens with a survey of the different approaches encountered within the subject. The remainder of the book is arranged into four parts. The first is concerned with patterns of concordance; both quantitative and qualitative classifications are discussed. Geographical trends in species' diversity and biological traits are viewed, with Part 3 leading into areography or the analysis of species ranges. The book is drawn together by an overview of all the scales of variation and a glimpse into the future of biogeography.
4.1 BIOGEOGRAPHY AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Traditionally defined as the
study of spatial patterns of organisms and ... the factors structuring current
distributions of biota, an awareness of basic landscape ecological principles is
Author: Andrew Millington
"A superb resource for understanding the diversity of the modern discipline of biogeography, and its history and future, especially within geography departments. I expect to refer to it often." - Professor Sally Horn, University of Tennessee "As you browse through this fine book you will be struck by the diverse topics that biogeographers investigate and the many research methods they use.... Biogeography is interdisciplinary, and a commonly-voiced concern is that one biogeographer may not readily understand another's research findings. A handbook like this is important for synthesising, situating, explaining and evaluating a large literature, and pointing the reader to informative publications." - Geographical Research "A valuable contribution in both a research and teaching context. If you are biologically trained, it provides an extensive look into the geographical tradition of biogeography, covering some topics that may be less familiar to those with an evolution/ecology background. Alternatively, if you are a geography student, researcher, or lecturer, it will provide a useful reference and will be invaluable to the non-biogeographer who suddenly has the teaching of an introductory biogeography course thrust upon them." - Adam C. Algar, Frontiers of Biogeography The SAGE Handbook of Biogeography is a manual for scoping the past, present and future of biogeography that enable readers to consider, where relevant, how similar biogeographical issues are tackled by researchers in different 'schools'. In line with the concept of all SAGE Handbooks, this is a retrospective and prospective overview of biogeography that will: Consider the main areas of biogeography researched by geographers Detail a global perspective by incorporating the work of different schools of biogeographers Ecplore the divergent evolution of biogeography as a discipline and consider how this diversity can be harnessed Examine the interdisciplinary debates that biogeographers are contributing to within geography and the biological sciences. Aimed at an international audience of research students, academics, researchers and practitioners in biogeography, the text will attract interest from environmental scientists, ecologists, biologists and geographers alike.
ECOLOGY Ted Case INTRODUCTION Ideally any biogeographic account of a
region should explain the factors that have ... In this chapter I review the basic
facts of reptilian island biogeography in the Sea of Cortéz with an eye towards ...
PEARS , N . 1977 : Basic biogeography . London : Longmans . PEARSALL , W .
H . 1968 : Mountains and moorlands , 2nd edn , revised by W . Pennington .
London : Collins . PEDEN , D . G . , VAN DYNE , G . M . , RICE , R . W . and
Certain to challenge, Plants on Islands is among the first books to critically analyze the central tenets of the theory of island biogeography.
Author: Martin L. Cody
Publisher: University of California Press
This thorough and meticulous study, the result of nearly a quarter-century of research, examines the island biogeography of plants on continental islands in Barkley Sound, British Columbia. Invaluable both because of its geographical setting and because of the duration of the study, Plants on Islands summarizes the diversity, dynamics, and distribution of the approximately three hundred species of plants on more than two hundred islands. Martin Cody uses his extensive data set to test various aspects of island biogeographic theory. His thoughtful analysis, constrained by taxon and region, elucidates and enhances the understanding of the biogeographic patterns and dynamics. He provides an overview of the basic theory, concepts, and analytical tools of island biogeography. Also discussed are island relaxation to lower equilibrium species numbers post-isolation, plant distributions variously limited by island area, isolation and climatic differences, adaptation to local abiotic and biotic environments within islands, and the evolution of different island phenotypes. The book concludes with a valuable consideration of equilibrium concepts and of the interplay of coexistence and competition. Certain to challenge, Plants on Islands is among the first books to critically analyze the central tenets of the theory of island biogeography.
A basic tenet of biogeography is that the earth and its biota have evolved
together and share a common history , a view strengthened by the widespread
acceptance of the theory of plate tectonics in the 1970s and ' the idea that
disjunct biotic ...
Author: Thomas H. Nash
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
A broad-ranging review of organisms which have long-fascinated biologists, ecologists and chemists.
Biogeographical studies are also called Geographical Ecology and denote the
patterns in the distribution of species of plants and animals . Mac Arthur ( 1984 )
... Pears , N. ( 1985 ) , Basic Biogeography ; Longman , London . 7. Robinson , H.
Author: H. S. Mathur
This Book Delineates The Fundamental Principles Of The Biospheric Systems Of Our Planet In The Context Of Which An Understanding Of The Myriad Environmental Factors That Lead To A Close Relationship With Mankind Is Established.