Atmospheric Reaction Chemistry

Atmospheric Reaction Chemistry

This book is aimed at graduate students and research scientists interested in gaining a deeper understanding of atmospheric chemistry, fundamental photochemistry, and gas phase and heterogeneous reaction kinetics.

Author: Hajime Akimoto

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9784431558705

Category: Science

Page: 433

View: 890

This book is aimed at graduate students and research scientists interested in gaining a deeper understanding of atmospheric chemistry, fundamental photochemistry, and gas phase and heterogeneous reaction kinetics. It also provides all necessary spectroscopic and kinetic data, which should be useful as reference sources for research scientists in atmospheric chemistry. As an application of reaction chemistry, it provides chapters on tropospheric and stratospheric reaction chemistry, covering tropospheric ozone and photochemical oxidant formation, stratospheric ozone depletion and sulfur chemistry related to acid deposition and the stratospheric aerosol layer. This book is intended not only for students of chemistry but also particularly for non-chemistry students who are studying meteorology, radiation physics, engineering, and ecology/biology and who wish to find a useful source on reaction chemistry.
Categories: Science

History Change and Sustainability

History  Change and Sustainability

Basic physical chemistry for the atmospheric sciences . ... of the Atmosphere . Springer , 593 pp . химия атмосферы , Издательство Московского yHubepcuteta , 210 pp . ... The mechanisms of reactions influencing atmospheric ozone .

Author: Detlev Möller

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 9783110561340

Category: Science

Page: 799

View: 494

Climate change is a major challenge facing modern society. The chemistry of air and its influence on the climate system forms the main focus of this book. Vol. 2 of Chemistry of the Climate System takes a problem-based approach to presenting global atmospheric processes, evaluating the effects of changing air compositions as well as possibilities for interference with these processes through the use of chemistry.
Categories: Science

The Atmospheric Chemist s Companion

The Atmospheric Chemist   s Companion

The material contained in this book was extracted from the recent and the past scientific literature; it covers essentially all aspects of atmospheric chemistry.

Author: Peter Warneck

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400722743

Category: Science

Page: 438

View: 561

This companion provides a collection of frequently needed numerical data as a convenient desk-top or pocket reference for atmospheric scientists as well as a concise source of information for others interested in this matter. The material contained in this book was extracted from the recent and the past scientific literature; it covers essentially all aspects of atmospheric chemistry. The data are presented primarily in the form of annotated tables while any explanatory text is kept to a minimum. In this condensed form of presentation, the volume may serve also as a supplement to many textbooks used in teaching the subject at various universities. Peter Warneck, a physical chemist specializing in atmospheric chemistry, received the diploma in 1954 and the doctorate in 1956 at the university in Bonn, Germany. In 1959, following several postdoctoral assignments, he joined the GCA Corporation in Bedford, Massachusetts, where he explored elementary processes in the atmospheres of the earth and other planets. He returned to Germany in 1970 to head the chemical kinetics group in the Air Chemistry Division of the Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry in Mainz. In 1974 he also became professor of physical chemistry at the university in Mainz. In 1991, following German reunification, Warneck was appointed the founding director of the new Institute for Tropospheric Research in Leipzig. He served in this position parallel to his activities in Mainz until official retirement. Warneck’s research included laboratory studies of chemical mechanisms and photochemistry as well as the development of analytical techniques for field measurements. Since 1990, his interests are focused on chemical reactions in clouds. Jonathan Williams is an atmospheric chemist. He received his BSc in Chemistry and French and his Ph.D. in Environmental Science from the University of East Anglia, England. Between 1995-1997 he worked as a postdoctoral researcher at the NOAA Aeronomy laboratory in Boulder, USA, and from 1998 to present as a member of staff at the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany. He has participated in many international field measurement campaigns on aircraft, ships and at ground stations. Dr Williams is currently an editor on three atmospheric chemistry journals. His present research involves investigating the chemistry of reactive organic species in the atmosphere, in particular over forested ecosystems and in the marine boundary layer. Dr Williams leads a research group focussed specifically on Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) at the Max Planck Institute and in 2008 he was made an honorary Reader at the University of East Anglia, UK.
Categories: Science

Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences

Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences

One characteristic of such reactions is that the activation energy may be smaller than for the equivalent ... See also: Chemistry of the Atmosphere: Laboratory Kinetics; Principles of Chemical Change. ... Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Author: Gerald R. North

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780123822260

Category: Science

Page: 2998

View: 455

Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences, 2nd Edition is an authoritative resource covering all aspects of atmospheric sciences, including both theory and applications. With more than 320 articles and 1,600 figures and photographs, this revised version of the award-winning first edition offers comprehensive coverage of this important field. The six volumes in this set contain broad-ranging articles on topics such as atmospheric chemistry, biogeochemical cycles, boundary layers, clouds, general circulation, global change, mesoscale meteorology, ozone, radar, satellite remote sensing, and weather prediction. The Encyclopedia is an ideal resource for academia, government, and industry in the fields of atmospheric, ocean, and environmental sciences. It is written at a level that allows undergraduate students to understand the material, while providing active researchers with the latest information in the field. Covers all aspects of atmospheric sciences—including both theory and applications Presents more than 320 articles and more than 1,600 figures and photographs Broad-ranging articles include topics such as atmospheric chemistry, biogeochemical cycles, boundary layers, clouds, general circulation, global change, mesoscale meteorology, ozone, radar, satellite remote sensing, and weather prediction An ideal resource for academia, government, and industry in the fields of atmospheric, ocean, and environmental sciences
Categories: Science

Lectures in Meteorology

Lectures in Meteorology

Lectures in Meteorology is a comprehensive reference book for meteorologists and environmental scientists to look up material on the thermodynamics, dynamics and chemistry of the troposphere.

Author: Nicole Mölders

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319021447

Category: Science

Page: 591

View: 422

Lectures in Meteorology is a comprehensive reference book for meteorologists and environmental scientists to look up material on the thermodynamics, dynamics and chemistry of the troposphere. The lectures demonstrate how to derive/develop equations – an essential tool for model development. All chapters present applications of the material including numerical models. The lectures are written in modular form, i.e. they can be used at the undergraduate level for classes covered by the chapters or at the graduate level as a comprehensive, intensive course. The student/instructor can address chapters 2 (thermodynamics) and 4 (radiation) in any order. They can also switch the order of chapter 5 (chemistry) and 6 (dynamics). Chapter 7 (climatology and climate) requires an understanding of all chapters. Chapter 3 (cloud physics) needs basics from chapter 2 to understand the cloud microphysical processes. The governing conservation equations for trace constituents, dry air, water substances, total mass, energy, entropy and momentum are presented, including simplifications and their application in models. A brief introduction to atmospheric boundary layer processes is presented as well. Basic principles of climatology discussed include analysis methods, atmospheric waves and their analytical solutions, tropical and extra-tropical cyclones, classical and non-classical mesoscale circulations, and the global circulation. The atmospheric chemistry section encompasses photolytic and gas-phase processes, aqueous chemistry, aerosol processes, fundamentals of biogeochemical cycles and the ozone layer. Solar and terrestrial radiation; major absorber; radiation balance; radiative equilibrium; radiative-convective equilibrium; and basics of molecular, aerosol and cloud adsorption and scattering and their use in remote sensing are also presented.
Categories: Science

Chemistry of Multiphase Atmospheric Systems

Chemistry of Multiphase Atmospheric Systems

Thus in addition to the gaseous state, a liquid and solid state exists within the troposphere. The solid phase consists of atmospheric conversion products or fly ash and mineral dust.

Author: Wolfgang Jaeschke

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642706271

Category: Science

Page: 773

View: 666

Rapidly increasing interest in the problems of air pollution and source-receptor relationships has led to a significant expansion of knowledge in the field of atmospheric chemistry. In general the chemistry of atmospheric trace constituents is governed by the oxygen content of the atmosphere. Upon entering the atmosphere in a more or less reduced state, trace substances are oxidized via various pathways and the generated products are often precursors of acidic compounds. Beside oxidation processes occurring in the gas phase, gaseous compounds are often converted into solid aerosol particles. The various steps within gas-to-particle conversion are constantly interacting with condensation processes, which are caused by the tropospheric water content. Thus in addition to the gaseous state, a liquid and solid state exists within the troposphere. The solid phase consists of atmospheric conversion products or fly ash and mineral dust. The liquid phase consists of water, conversion products and soluble compounds. The chemistry occurring within this system is often referred to as hydrogeneous chemistry. The chemist interprets this term, however, more strictly as reactions which occur only at an interphase between phases. This, however, is not always what happens in the atmosphere. There are indeed heterogeneous processes such as reactions occurring on the surface of dry aerosol particles. But apart from these, we must focus as well on reactions in the homogeneous phase, which are single steps of consecutive reactions running through various phases.
Categories: Science

AFOSR Chemical Atmospheric Sciences Program Review

AFOSR Chemical   Atmospheric Sciences Program Review

Air Force. Directorate of Chemical and Atmospheric Sciences. " Study of Excited Fragment Emission from the Electron ... Effect of Reagent Orientation and Rotation upon Product State Distribution in the Reaction Sr + HF ( v = 1,1 ) + SrF ...

Author: United States. Air Force. Directorate of Chemical and Atmospheric Sciences

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015068671182

Category: Atmospheric chemistry

Page: 594

View: 405

Categories: Atmospheric chemistry

Environmental Science and Technology

Environmental Science and Technology

A Sustainable Approach to Green Science and Technology, Second Edition Stanley E. Manahan ... Fogg, Peter and James Sangster, C Fogg, Peter and James Sangster, Chemicals in the Atmosphere: Solubility, Sources, hemicals in the ...

Author: Stanley E. Manahan

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420003215

Category: Science

Page: 647

View: 844

Formally established by the EPA nearly 15 years ago, the concept of green chemistry is beginning to come of age. Although several books cover green chemistry and chemical engineering, none of them transfer green principles to science and technology in general and their impact on the future. Defining industrial ecology, Environmental Science and Technology: A Sustainable Approach to Green Science and Technology provides a general overview of green science and technology and their essential role in ensuring environmental sustainability. Written by a leading expert, the book provides the essential background for understanding green science and technology and how they relate to sustainability. In addition to the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, and biosphere traditionally covered in environmental science books, this book is unique in recognizing the anthrosphere as a distinct sphere of the environment. The author explains how the anthrosphere can be designed and operated in a manner that does not degrade environmental quality and, in most favorable circumstances, may even enhance it. With the current emphasis shifting from end-of-pipe solutions to pollution prevention and control of resource consumption, green principles are increasingly moving into the mainstream. This book provides the foundation not only for understanding green science and technology, but also for taking its application to the next level.
Categories: Science

Stratosphere Troposphere Interactions

Stratosphere Troposphere Interactions

Springer is proud to announce that Stratosphere Troposphere Interactions has been awarded for 2008 ASLI Choice, this is an award for the best book of 2008 in the fields of meteorology, climatology, atmospheric sciences.

Author: K. Mohanakumar

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402082160

Category: Science

Page: 416

View: 258

Stratospheric processes play a signi?cant role in regulating the weather and c- mate of the Earth system. Solar radiation, which is the primary source of energy for the tropospheric weather systems, is absorbed by ozone when it passes through the stratosphere, thereby modulating the solar-forcing energy reaching into the t- posphere. The concentrations of the radiatively sensitive greenhouse gases present in the lower atmosphere, such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, and ozone, control the radiation balance of the atmosphere by the two-way interaction between the stratosphere and troposphere. The stratosphere is the transition region which interacts with the weather s- tems in the lower atmosphere and the richly ionized upper atmosphere. Therefore, this part of the atmosphere provides a long list of challenging scienti?c problems of basic nature involving its thermal structure, energetics, composition, dynamics, chemistry, and modeling. The lower stratosphere is very much linked dynamically, radiatively,and chemically with the upper troposphere,even though the temperature characteristics of these regions are different. The stratosphere is a region of high stability, rich in ozone and poor in water - por and temperature increases with altitude. The lower stratospheric ozone absorbs the harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun and protects life on the Earth. On the other hand, the troposphere has high concentrations of water vapor, is low in ozone, and temperature decreases with altitude. The convective activity is more in the troposphere than in the stratosphere.
Categories: Science

Atmospheric Environmental Research

Atmospheric Environmental Research

This is an extended version of lectures that were held at the summer workshop Atmosphiirische Umweltforschung im Spannungsfeld zwischen Technik und Natur (At mospheric Environmental Research between Technology and Nature) at the Techni 16, ...

Author: Detlev Möller

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642583827

Category: Science

Page: 186

View: 960

This is an extended version of lectures that were held at the summer workshop Atmosphiirische Umweltforschung im Spannungsfeld zwischen Technik und Natur (At mospheric Environmental Research between Technology and Nature) at the Techni 16, 1996. We were very happy to have Paul J. Crutzen, cal University in Cottbus on July winner of the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1995, presenting the key lecture on glo bally changing chemistry in the atmosphere. Over the last decades, atmospheric chem istry has been established step by step, not just as an applied discipline of chemistry, but also as a key discipline for our understanding of air pollution, biogeochemical cycling, and climactic processes as well. In fact, the new definition of meteorology as the science of physics and chemistry of the atmosphere expresses this development very well. The chemistry of the atmosphere is strongly influenced by anthropogenic emissions, even on a global scale. As a result of emissions and chemical reactions, the chemical composition of the atmosphere influences the ecosystems directly via depo sition of trace substances, and indirectly by changing the physical climate. Therefore, in this book we combined state-of-the-art lectures describing the physical and chemi cal status of the atmosphere and selected issues representing the interface between atmosphere, technology and nature. Oxidising capacity, heterogeneous processes and acidity still remain as key issues in atmospheric chemistry, even in regions where efficient air control measures have been adopted resulting in reduction of primary atmospheric pollutants.
Categories: Science