Atmospheric Convection

Author: Kerry A. Emanuel

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780195066302

Category: Nature

Page: 580

View: 6328

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This graduate-level meteorology text and reference provides a scientifically rigorous description of the many types of convective circulations in the Earth's atmosphere. These range from small-scale, convectively driven turbulences in the boundary layer to precipitating systems covering many thousands of square kilometers. The text introduces the principal techniques used in understanding and predicting convective motion: theory, field experiment, and numerical modelling. Part I explores dry convection, including turbulent plumes and thermals from isolated buoyancy sources, Raleigh-Benard convection, and turbulent convection in the planetary boundary layer. Emphasis is placed on applying theoretical understanding and lessons from experiments. Part II offers a complete treatment of the thermodynamics of moist and cloudy air, including fundamental laws, conserved quantities, graphical techniques, and stability. Part III explores the characteristics of individual convective clouds, thunderstorms, squall lines, mesoscale convective systems, and slantwise convection. Part IV studies the ensemble effects of convective clouds, including stratocumulus at trade cumulus boundary layers and the representation of convective clouds in numerical models. Each chapter is followed by a set of exercises.
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The Physics and Parameterization of Moist Atmospheric Convection

Author: R.K. Smith

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401588287

Category: Science

Page: 498

View: 4147

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An up-to-date summary of our understanding of the dynamics and thermodynamics of moist atmospheric convection, with a strong focus on recent developments in the field. The book also reviews ways in which moist convection may be parameterised in large-scale numerical models - a field in which there is still some controversy - and discusses the implications of convection for large-scale flow. Audience: The book is aimed at the graduate level and research meteorologists as well as scientists in other disciplines who need to know more about moist convection and its representation in numerical models.
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Atmospheric Convection: Research and Operational Forecasting Aspects

Author: Dario B. Giaiotti,Reinhold Steinacker,Fulvio Stel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3211692916

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 222

View: 2553

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This book treats atmospheric convection from different angles including the theoretical aspects of atmospheric deep convection and the weather phenomena related to convection. The problem of boundary conditions that result in severe convective weather patterns is explored within the framework of worldwide climatology. The book bridges the gap between theory and its operational application both within the fields of weather forecasting and that of risk management.
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Parameterization of Atmospheric Convection

(In 2 Volumes)Volume 1: Theoretical Background and FormulationVolume 2: Current Issues and New Theories

Author: Robert S Plant,Jun-Ichi Yano

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 1783266929

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1172

View: 4963

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Precipitating atmospheric convection is fundamental to the Earth's weather and climate. It plays a leading role in the heat, moisture and momentum budgets. Appropriate modelling of convection is thus a prerequisite for reliable numerical weather prediction and climate modelling. The current standard approach is to represent it by subgrid-scale convection parameterization. Parameterization of Atmospheric Convection provides, for the first time, a comprehensive presentation of this important topic. The two-volume set equips readers with a firm grasp of the wide range of important issues, and thorough coverage is given of both the theoretical and practical aspects. This makes the parameterization problem accessible to a wider range of scientists than before. At the same time, by providing a solid bottom-up presentation of convection parameterization, this set is the definitive reference point for atmospheric scientists and modellers working on such problems. Volume 1 of this two-volume set focuses on the basic principles: introductions to atmospheric convection and tropical dynamics, explanations and discussions of key parameterization concepts, and a thorough and critical exploration of the mass-flux parameterization framework, which underlies the methods currently used in almost all operational models and at major climate modelling centres. Volume 2 focuses on the practice, which also leads to some more advanced fundamental issues. It includes: perspectives on operational implementations and model performance, tailored verification approaches, the role and representation of cloud microphysics, alternative parameterization approaches, stochasticity, criticality, and symmetry constraints. Contents:Volume 1:Basic Parameterization Concepts and Issues:Moist Atmospheric Convection: An Introduction and Overview (Á Horváth)Sub-Grid Parameterization Problem (J-I Yano)Scale Separation (J-I Yano)Quasi-Equilibrium (R S Plant and J-I Yano)Tropical Dynamics: Large-Scale Convectively Coupled Waves (Ž Fuchs)Mass-Flux Parameterization:Hot-Tower Hypothesis and Mass-Flux Formulation (J-I Yano)Formulation of the Mass-Flux Convective Parameterization (J-I Yano)Thermodynamic Effects of Convection under the Mass-Flux Formulation (J-I Yano)Spectral and Bulk Mass-Flux Representations (R S Plant and O Martínez-Alvarado)Entrainment and Detrainment Formulations for Mass-Flux Parameterization (W C de Rooy, J-I Yano, P Bechtold and S J Böing)Closure (J-I Yano and R S Plant)Convective Vertical Velocity (J-I Yano)Downdraughts (J-I Yano)Momentum Transfer (J-I Yano)Volume 2:Operational Issues:Convection in Global Numerical Weather Prediction (P Bechtold)Satellite Observations of Convection and Their Implications for Parameterizations (J Quaas and P Stier)Convection and Waves on Small Planets and the Real Earth (P Bechtold, N Semane and S Malardel)Microphysics of Convective Cloud and Its Treatment in Parameterization (V T J Phillips and J-I Yano)Model Resolution Issues and New Approaches in the Convection-Permitting Regimes (L Gerard)Stochastic Aspects of Convective Parameterization (R S Plant, L Bengtsson and M A Whitall)Verification of High-Resolution Precipitation Forecast with Radar-Based Data (D Řezáčová, B Szintai, B Jakubiak, J-I Yano and S Turner)Unification and Consistency:Formulations of Moist Thermodynamics for Atmospheric Modelling (P Marquet and J-F Geleyn)Representation of Microphysical Processes in Cloud-Resolving Models (A P Khain)Cumulus Convection as a Turbulent Flow (A Grant)Clouds and Convection as Subgrid-Scale Distributions (E Machulskaya)Towards a Unified and Self-Consistent Parameterization Framework (J-I Yano, L Bengtsson, J-F Geleyn and R Brozkova)Theoretical Physics Perspectives:Regimes of Self-Organized Criticality in Atmospheric Convection (F Spineanu, M Vlad and D Palade)Invariant and Conservative Parameterization Schemes (A Bihlo, E Dos Santos Cardoso-Bihlo and R O Popovych)Conclusions:Conclusions (R S Plant and J-I Yano) Readership: Atmospheric scientists and modellers. Key Features:The first coherent book to focus on convective parameterization for climate modelling and numerical weather predictionClear focus on the underpinning theory of parameterization, and its possible extensionsPlaces current efforts to improve parameterizations firmly into the theoretical context rather than focusing on details of the technical implementation or changes to overall model performanceKeywords:Atmospheric Convection;Parameterization;Numerical Modelling;Numerical Weather Prediction;Global Climate Modelling
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Parameterization of Atmospheric Convection

Author: Robert S. Plant,Jun-Ichi Yano

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781783266944

Category: Atmospheric physics

Page: 617

View: 9003

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"This two-volume set combines theoretical and statistical physics ideas on convective parameterization with a wealth of information on the practical and operational use of parameterizations in weather forecast and climate models. The motivation for this approach is the assumption that future advances in the subject are most likely to arise from the application of theoretical concepts to practical problems, a feeling within the community that has led to the EU-funded COST Action investigative project. Contributors to the book are leading participants in Action, all of whom have devoted much attention over the last few years to building up a thorough knowledge of both theory and practice. Parameterization of Atmospheric Convection intends to equip theoretically oriented scientists with a firm grasp of the important practical issues, and vice versa to equip application-oriented scientists with a firm grasp of the important theoretical tools. This makes the parameterization problem accessible to a wider range of scientists than before. At the same time, by providing a solid bottom-up presentation of the principles and practice of parameterization, this two-volume set is the definitive reference point for current atmospheric scientists and modellers working on such problems"--
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Atmospheric Circulation Dynamics and Circulation Models

Author: Masaki Satoh

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540426387

Category: Nature

Page: 643

View: 6888

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This book describes the methods used to construct general circulation models of the atmosphere, and how such models perform in applications relating to the real climate and environmental systems. The author describes the fundamental dynamics of the atmospheric circulation, modelling of the general circulation, and applications of GCMs. The book consists of three parts: - Part 1 summarizes the physical processes involved, including basic equations, waves and instabilities; - Part 2 covers atmospheric structures, including various types of one- and two-dimensional structures and circulations; - Part 3 describes the basic notions for construction of general circulation models of the atmosphere and their applications. Atmospheric Circulation Dynamics and General Circulation Methods includes an appendix incorporating the basic data and mathematical formulae required to enable readers to construct GCMs for themselves.
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Atmospheric Turbulence and Air Pollution Modelling

A Course held in The Hague, 21–25 September, 1981

Author: F.T. Nieuwstadt,H. Van Dop

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401091129

Category: Science

Page: 358

View: 6469

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The study of turbulence in the atmosphere has seen considerable progress in the last decade. To put it briefly: boundary-layer meteorology, the branch of atmospheric science that concentrates on turbulence in the lower atmosphere, has moved from the surface layer into the boundary layer itself. The progress has been made on all fronts: theoretical, numerical and observational. On the other hand, air pollution modeling has not seen such a rapid evolution. It has not benefited as much as it should have from the increasing knowledge in the field of atmospheric turbulence. Air pollution modeling is still in many ways based on observations and theories of the surface layer only. This book aims to bring the reader up to date on recent advances in boundary-layer meteorology and to pave the path for applications in air pollution dispersion problems. The text originates from the material presented during a short course on Atmospheric Turbulence and Air Pollution Modeling held in The Hague during September 1981. This course was sponsored and organized by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, xi xii PREFACE to which both editors are affiliated. The Netherlands Government Ministry of Health and Environmental Protection and the Council of Europe also gave support.
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