Artificial Intelligence

A Philosophical Introduction

Author: Jack Copeland

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119189845

Category: Philosophy

Page: 328

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Presupposing no familiarity with the technical concepts of either philosophy or computing, this clear introduction reviews the progress made in AI since the inception of the field in 1956. Copeland goes on to analyze what those working in AI must achieve before they can claim to have built a thinking machine and appraises their prospects of succeeding. There are clear introductions to connectionism and to the language of thought hypothesis which weave together material from philosophy, artificial intelligence and neuroscience. John Searle's attacks on AI and cognitive science are countered and close attention is given to foundational issues, including the nature of computation, Turing Machines, the Church-Turing Thesis and the difference between classical symbol processing and parallel distributed processing. The book also explores the possibility of machines having free will and consciousness and concludes with a discussion of in what sense the human brain may be a computer.
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Minds and Computers: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence

An Introduction to the Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence

Author: Matt Carter

Publisher: Edinburgh University Press

ISBN: 0748629300

Category: Philosophy

Page: 240

View: 544

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Could a computer have a mind? What kind of machine would this be? Exactly what do we mean by 'mind' anyway?The notion of the 'intelligent' machine, whilst continuing to feature in numerous entertaining and frightening fictions, has also been the focus of a serious and dedicated research tradition. Reflecting on these fictions, and on the research tradition that pursues 'Artificial Intelligence', raises a number of vexing philosophical issues. Minds and Computers introduces readers to these issues by offering an engaging, coherent, and highly approachable interdisciplinary introduction to the Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence.Readers are presented with introductory material from each of the disciplines which constitute Cognitive Science: Philosophy, Neuroscience, Psychology, Computer Science, and Linguistics. Throughout, readers are encouraged to consider the implications of this disparate and wide-ranging material for the possibility of developing machines with minds. And they can expect to de
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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Author: Joost Nico Kok

Publisher: EOLSS Publications

ISBN: 184826125X

Category: Artificial intelligence

Page: 418

View: 9047

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Artificial Intelligence is a component of Encyclopedia of Technology, Information, and Systems Management Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty Encyclopedias. The Theme on Artificial Intelligence provides the essential aspects and fundamentals of Artificial Intelligence: Definition, Trends, Techniques, and Cases; Logic in Artificial Intelligence (AI); Computational Intelligence; Knowledge Based System Development Tools. It is aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College Students, Educators, Professional Practitioners, Research Personnel and Policy Analysts, Managers, and Decision Makers.
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The Mechanical Mind

A Philosophical Introduction to Minds, Machines and Mental Representation

Author: Tim Crane

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317331796

Category: Philosophy

Page: 206

View: 6546

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How can the human mind represent the external world? What is thought, and can it be studied scientifically? Should we think of the mind as a kind of machine? Is the mind a computer? Can a computer think? Tim Crane sets out to answer these questions and more in a lively and straightforward way, presuming no prior knowledge of philosophy or related disciplines. Since its first publication, The Mechanical Mind has introduced thousands of people to some of the most important ideas in contemporary philosophy of mind. Crane explains the fundamental ideas that cut across philosophy of mind, artificial intelligence and cognitive science: what the mind–body problem is; what a computer is and how it works; what thoughts are and how computers and minds might have them. He examines different theories of the mind from dualist to eliminativist, and questions whether there can be thought without language and whether the mind is subject to the same causal laws as natural phenomena. The result is a fascinating exploration of the theories and arguments surrounding the notions of thought and representation. This third edition has been fully revised and updated, and includes a wholly new chapter on externalism about mental content and the extended and embodied mind. There is a stronger emphasis on the environmental and bodily context in which thought occurs. Many chapters have been reorganised to make the reader’s passage through the book easier. The book now contains a much more detailed guide to further reading, and the chronology and the glossary of technical terms have also been updated. The Mechanical Mind is accessible to anyone interested in the mechanisms of our minds, and essential reading for those studying philosophy of mind, philosophy of psychology, or cognitive psychology.
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The Mechanical Mind

A Philosophical Introduction to Minds, Machines and Mental Representation

Author: Tim Crane

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415290302

Category: Philosophy

Page: 259

View: 2766

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This edition has been fully revised and updated, and includes a new chapter on consciousness and a new section on modularity. There are also guides for further reading, and a new glossary of terms such as mentalese, connectionism, and the homunculus fallacy.
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Cognitive Science

A Philosophical Introduction

Author: Rom Harre

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780761947479

Category: Medical

Page: 314

View: 3643

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This is the first major text to offer a truly comprehensive review of cognitive science in its fullest sense. Ranging from artificial intelligence models and cognitive psychology to recent discursive and cultural theories, Rom Harré offers a breathtakingly original yet accessible integration of the field. At its core this textbook addresses the question "is psychology a science?" with a clear account of scientific method and explanation and their bearing on psychological research. A pivotal figure in psychology and philosophy for many decades Rom Harré has turned his unmatched breadth of reference and insight for students at all levels. Whether describing, language, categorization, memory, the brain or connectionism the book always links our intuitions about beliefs, desires and their social context to the latest accounts of their place in computational and biological models. Fluently written and well structured, this an ideal text for students. The book is divided into four basic modules, with three lectures in each; the reader is guided with helpful learning points, study and essay questions and key readings for each chapter.
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Prerational Intelligence

Adaptive Behavior and Intelligent Systems Without Symbols and Logic

Author: Holk Cruse,Jeffrey Dean,Helge Ritter

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792366652

Category: Artificial intelligence

Page: 1676

View: 4514

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The focus of prerational intelligence is on the way animals and artificial systems utilize information about their surroundings in order to behave intelligently; the premise is that logic and symbolic reasoning are neither necessary nor, possibly, sufficient. Experts in the fields of biology, psychology, robotics, AI, mathematics, engineering, computer science, and philosophy review the evidence that intelligent behaviour can arise in systems of simple agents interacting according to simple rules; that self-organization and interaction with the environment are critical; and that quick approximations may replace logical analyses. It is argued that a better understanding of the intelligence inherent in procedure like those illustrated will eventually shed light on how rational intelligence is realised in humans. Readership: Scientifically literate general readers and scientists in all fields interested in understanding and duplicating biological intelligence.
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Morality and Machines

Perspectives on Computer Ethics

Author: Stacey L. Edgar

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning

ISBN: 9780763717674

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 522

View: 1961

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Morality and Machines, Second Edition examines the moral issues that emerge from the influence of computers and technology on society today. The text provides an ethical foundation upon which readers can develop informed opinions about software piracy, computer crimes, artificial intelligence and more. With in-depth analysis of current moral and social problems, this text is an ideal resource for readers interested in philosophy, technological sciences, and computer ethics. This book is unique in that it takes seriously the need to lay a sound ethical basis for dealing with the technology of computers. The first two chapters of the book take on various positions that challenge the possibility of ethics and meet them head-on with counterarguments. The possibility of a viable ethics having been defended, Chapter 3 examines the most promising approaches to ethics, so that the explorer in the new realm with have appropriate tools and, if necessary, weapons at hand. At the end of the chapter, suggestions are given for approaching any ethical problem. Once armed, the adventurer is ready to investigate the various parts of the new country, described in the remaining chapters of the book.
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Philosophy and Computing

An Introduction

Author: Luciano Floridi

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134679599

Category: Philosophy

Page: 256

View: 2738

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Philosophy and Computing explores each of the following areas of technology: the digital revolution; the computer; the Internet and the Web; CD-ROMs and Mulitmedia; databases, textbases, and hypertexts; Artificial Intelligence; the future of computing. Luciano Floridi shows us how the relationship between philosophy and computing provokes a wide range of philosophical questions: is there a philosophy of information? What can be achieved by a classic computer? How can we define complexity? What are the limits of quantam computers? Is the Internet an intellectual space or a polluted environment? What is the paradox in the Strong Artificial Intlligence program? Philosophy and Computing is essential reading for anyone wishing to fully understand both the development and history of information and communication technology as well as the philosophical issues it ultimately raises.
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Thought: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Tim Bayne

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191642533

Category: Philosophy

Page: 144

View: 3609

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There is no denying that thinking comes naturally to human beings. But what are thoughts? How is thought realized in the brain? Does thinking occur in public or is it a purely private affair? Do young children and non-human animals think? Is human thought the same everywhere, or are there culturally specific modes of thought? What is the relationship between thought and language? What kind of responsibility do we have for our thoughts? In this compelling Very Short Introduction, Tim Bayne looks at the nature of thought. Beginning with questions about what thought is and what distinguishes it from other kinds of mental states, he goes on to examine various interpretations of thought from philosophy, psychology, neuroscience, and anthropology. By exploring the logical structures of thought and the relationship between thought and other mental phenomena, as well as the mechanisms that make thought possible and the cultural variations that may exist in our thought processes, Bayne looks at what we know - and don't know - about our great capacity for thought. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
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