Animal Personalities

Animal Personalities

But why the differences, and how are personalities shaped by genes and environment? How did they evolve? The essays in Animal Personalities reveal that there is much to learn from our furred and feathered friends.

Author: Claudio Carere

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226922058

Category: Science

Page: 507

View: 619

Ask anyone who has owned a pet and they’ll assure you that, yes, animals have personalities. And science is beginning to agree. Researchers have demonstrated that both domesticated and nondomesticated animals—from invertebrates to monkeys and apes—behave in consistently different ways, meeting the criteria for what many define as personality. But why the differences, and how are personalities shaped by genes and environment? How did they evolve? The essays in Animal Personalities reveal that there is much to learn from our furred and feathered friends. The study of animal personality is one of the fastest-growing areas of research in behavioral and evolutionary biology. Here Claudio Carere and Dario Maestripieri, along with a host of scholars from fields as diverse as ecology, genetics, endocrinology, neuroscience, and psychology, provide a comprehensive overview of the current research on animal personality. Grouped into thematic sections, chapters approach the topic with empirical and theoretical material and show that to fully understand why personality exists, we must consider the evolutionary processes that give rise to personality, the ecological correlates of personality differences, and the physiological mechanisms underlying personality variation.
Categories: Science

Animal Personalities

Animal Personalities

Some animals, after an operation where anaesthetics are used, awake with a
permanent grudge against the human race. ... which now and Kessuadeox{sqq“
10 A9) eųwsuse IqON then jump over into the pens 234 ANIMAL
PERSONALITIES.

Author: Samuel Arthur Derieux

Publisher:

ISBN: UCAL:B3319716

Category: Animal behavior

Page: 298

View: 545

Categories: Animal behavior

Variation despite Standardization Evidence for Animal Personality in Laboratory Mice

Variation despite Standardization  Evidence for Animal Personality in Laboratory Mice

Therefore, the following understanding of the concept is proposed: Personality
refers to the intra-individual consistency ... This definition reflects three major
insights of the existing literature on animal personalities: First, one has to
consider the ...

Author: Mieke Heidenreich

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 9783656273899

Category: Science

Page: 43

View: 170

Bachelor Thesis from the year 2011 in the subject Biology - Behaviour, grade: 1,7, University of Münster (Department of Behavioural Biology), language: English, abstract: It is generally assumed that human beings have personalities, while animals do not. This assumption is not only derived from common sense, but also a basic principle of western philosophy and social theory (Mead, 1934). Still, dog owners will not stop mumbling about their cute puppy's unique personality. And they find support from unexpected source: Biologists argue that humans are nothing more, nothing less than animals. So they, too, begin to take into consideration that animals – including humans – might have a personality. What seems like a solely philosophical question at first glance, has important practical impacts, because the existence of animal personality contradicts the assumption that animals used in biological experiments can be standardized, and have uniform properties. If despite all efforts of standardization a residual variation cannot be eliminated, pharmaceutical and medical experiments might lose part of their validity. Therefore the hypothesis that laboratory mice possess a personality was tested in an empirical study. In this study a set of standard behavior tests was performed with 40 female mice of the strain C57BL/6N. The data was then analyzed for correlations over time and across contexts, since this is a requirement for animal personality.
Categories: Science

From Genes to Animal Behavior

From Genes to Animal Behavior

Social Structures, Personalities, Communication by Color Miho Inoue-Murayama,
Shoji Kawamura, Alexander Weiss. Uher J ... Anim Behav 75:99–112 van Oers K
(2008) Animal personality, behaviours or traits: what are we measuring?

Author: Miho Inoue-Murayama

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9784431538929

Category: Science

Page: 413

View: 227

The biological and genetic bases of behavioral diversity have long been topics of study within many disciplines, including evolutionary biology, genetics, ethology, sociobiology, and comparative psychology, but only relatively recently have attempts been made to bring these different approaches together. This volume covers a wide range of interdisciplinary research which uses some of the newest and most promising methods and technologies. Presented here is an overview of findings in the ongoing search for the ultimate causes of behavior in several different species, including primates, dogs, rodents, birds, and fish. Divided into five parts, the work describes research on sexual and kin selection, personality and temperament, molecular genetics of personality, color vision and body coloration, and the neurological underpinnings of complex behaviors. Valuable for researchers as well as graduate students in a wide range of fields from neuroscience to ecology, the book is also useful to those seeking to move beyond the boundaries of their own discipline and to expand their knowledge.
Categories: Science

Animal Behavior How and Why Animals Do the Things They Do 3 volumes

Animal Behavior  How and Why Animals Do the Things They Do  3 volumes

In this chapter, I will first summarize recent work on personality differences in
aggression to explore the novel insights this work poses for ... The study of
nonhuman animal personalities is a recent addition to the field of behavioral ...

Author: Ken Yasukawa

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 9780313398711

Category: Nature

Page: 1235

View: 800

Discover why animals do what they do, based on their genes, physiologies, cultures, traditions, survival and mating advantages, and evolutionary histories—and find out how studying behavior in the animal world helps us understand human behavior. • Provides readers with personal narratives from the researchers themselves, enabling rare insights into how researchers think and what drives their studies • Explains animal behavior on the animal's terms rather than anthropomorphizing its actions as is often done in the popular press and the media • Includes a comprehensive glossary of behavioral terms
Categories: Nature

Animal Movement Across Scales

Animal Movement Across Scales

animal. personality. JanÅke Nilsson, Christer Brönmark, LarsAnders Hansson,
and Ben B. Chapman Animal Movement Across Scales. ... Besides accumulating
more and more examples of the existence of animal personalities from a ...

Author: Lars-Anders Hansson

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191664878

Category: Science

Page: 360

View: 977

Movement, dispersal, and migration on land, in the air, and in water, are pervading features of animal life. They are performed by a huge variety of organisms, from the smallest protozoans to the largest whales, and can extend over widely different distance scales, from the microscopic to global. Integrating the study of movement, dispersal, and migration is crucial for a detailed understanding of the spatial scale of adaptation, and for analysing the consequences of landscape and climate change as well as of invasive species. This novel book adopts a broad, cross-taxonomic approach to animal movement across both temporal and spatial scales, addressing how and why animals move, and in what ways they differ in their locomotion and navigation performance. Written by an integrated team of leading researchers, the book synthesizes our current knowledge of the genetics of movement, including gene flow and local adaptations, whilst providing a future perspective on how patterns of animal migration may change over time together with their potential evolutionary consequences. Novel technologies for tracking the movement of organisms across scales are also discussed, ranging from satellite devices for tracking global migrations to nanotechnology that can follow animals only a millimetre in size. Animal Movement Across Scales is particularly suitable for graduate level students taking courses in spatial animal ecology, animal migration, and 'movement ecology', as well as providing a source of fresh ideas and opinions for those already active within the field. It will also be of interest and use to a broader audience of professional biologists interested in animal movements and migrations.
Categories: Science

Animal Oppression and Human Violence

Animal Oppression and Human Violence

Nathaniel Southgate Shaler, Domesticated Animals: Their Relation to Man and to
His Advancement in Civilization (New ... On the issue of animal personality, see,
for example, Michael Breed and Janice Moore, Animal Behavior (Salt Lake City, ...

Author: David A. Nibert

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 9780231525510

Category: Nature

Page: 352

View: 555

Jared Diamond and other leading scholars have argued that the domestication of animals for food, labor, and tools of war has advanced the development of human society. But by comparing practices of animal exploitation for food and resources in different societies over time, David A. Nibert reaches a strikingly different conclusion. He finds in the domestication of animals, which he renames "domesecration," a perversion of human ethics, the development of large-scale acts of violence, disastrous patterns of destruction, and growth-curbing epidemics of infectious disease. Nibert centers his study on nomadic pastoralism and the development of commercial ranching, a practice that has been largely controlled by elite groups and expanded with the rise of capitalism. Beginning with the pastoral societies of the Eurasian steppe and continuing through to the exportation of Western, meat-centered eating habits throughout today's world, Nibert connects the domesecration of animals to violence, invasion, extermination, displacement, enslavement, repression, pandemic chronic disease, and hunger. In his view, conquest and subjugation were the results of the need to appropriate land and water to maintain large groups of animals, and the gross amassing of military power has its roots in the economic benefits of the exploitation, exchange, and sale of animals. Deadly zoonotic diseases, Nibert shows, have accompanied violent developments throughout history, laying waste to whole cities, societies, and civilizations. His most powerful insight situates the domesecration of animals as a precondition for the oppression of human populations, particularly indigenous peoples, an injustice impossible to rectify while the material interests of the elite are inextricably linked to the exploitation of animals. Nibert links domesecration to some of the most critical issues facing the world today, including the depletion of fresh water, topsoil, and oil reserves; global warming; and world hunger, and he reviews the U.S. government's military response to the inevitable crises of an overheated, hungry, resource-depleted world. Most animal-advocacy campaigns reinforce current oppressive practices, Nibert argues. Instead, he suggests reforms that challenge the legitimacy of both domesecration and capitalism.
Categories: Nature

Doves Diplomats and Diabetes

Doves  Diplomats  and Diabetes

For example any reference of animal personalities still evokes strong reactions
from many sectors. Personality is about consistent and intrinsic individual
differences. There is increasing evidence that individual animals consistently
differ in ...

Author: Milind Watve

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461444091

Category: Science

Page: 380

View: 230

Darwinian medicine looks at the ecological and evolutionary roots of disease. A disease is an interaction between a genome and its biotic or abiotic environment and therefore a disease is essentially an ecological process. Good understanding of ecology and a Darwinian way of thinking can give us novel and useful perspectives on health and disease. If we understand the disease process better, we can certainly prevent, control as well as treat diseases in a better way. Although the thought that the origins of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) might lie in our hunter gatherer adaptations is not new, research over the last decade makes us rethink many of the classical concepts. Brain and behavior is increasingly being recognized as central to all the endocrine, metabolic and immunological changes that earmark type 2 diabetes and other metabolic syndrome disorders. A major change in paradigm appears to be on the horizon and the proposed book intends to speed up the paradigm shift by raising important questions, pointing out flaws and inadequacies in the prevalent paradigm and stimulating radical rethinking which would redirect and refine the line of research as well as bring some fundamental changes in drug discovery and clinical practice. ​
Categories: Science

Fish Cognition and Behavior

Fish Cognition and Behavior

Personality Traits and Behaviour 165 Svartberg, K. (2002) Shyness-boldness
predicts performance in working dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 79,
157–174. Tinbergen, N. (1963) On aims and methods of ethology. Zeitschrift f ̈ur
 ...

Author: Culum Brown

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781444342512

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 472

View: 760

In the second edition of this fascinating book an international team of experts have been brought together to explore all major areas of fish learning, including: Foraging skills Predator recognition Social organisation and learning Welfare and pain Three new chapters covering fish personality, lateralisation, and fish cognition and fish welfare, have been added to this fully revised and expanded second edition. Fish Cognition and Behavior, Second Edition contains essential information for all fish biologists and animal behaviorists and contains much new information of commercial importance for fisheries managers and aquaculture personnel. Libraries in all universities and research establishments where biological sciences, fisheries and aquaculture are studied and taught will find it an important addition to their shelves.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Handbook of Personality

Handbook of Personality

Personality. in. animals. Tamara. A. R. Weinstein. John. P. capitanio. samuel. d.
gosling. C. onsider the following hypothetical study of personality. A set of
individuals, whose genetic lineage is known, is monitored from conception to
birth and ...

Author: Oliver P. John

Publisher: Guilford Press

ISBN: 9781609180591

Category: Psychology

Page: 862

View: 816

This authoritative handbook is the reference of choice for researchers and students of personality. Leading authorities describe the most important theoretical approaches in personality and review the state of the science in five broad content areas: biological bases; development; self and social processes; cognitive and motivational processes; and emotion, adjustment, and health. Within each area, chapters present innovative ideas, findings, research designs, and measurement approaches. Areas of integration and consensus are discussed, as are key questions and controversies still facing the field.
Categories: Psychology

Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience

Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience

European Journal of Personality 22: 427–455. van Oers K, de Jong G, van
Noordwijk AJ, Kempenaers B, and Drent PJ (2005) Contribution of genetics to the
study of animal personalities: A review of case studies. Behaviour 142: 1191–
1212.

Author:

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080453965

Category: Psychology

Page: 1816

View: 137

Behavioral Neuroscientists study the behavior of animals and humans and the neurobiological and physiological processes that control it. Behavior is the ultimate function of the nervous system, and the study of it is very multidisciplinary. Disorders of behavior in humans touch millions of people’s lives significantly, and it is of paramount importance to understand pathological conditions such as addictions, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, autism among others, in order to be able to develop new treatment possibilities. Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience is the first and only multi-volume reference to comprehensively cover the foundation knowledge in the field. This three volume work is edited by world renowned behavioral neuroscientists George F. Koob, The Scripps Research Institute, Michel Le Moal, Université Bordeaux, and Richard F. Thompson, University of Southern California and written by a premier selection of the leading scientists in their respective fields. Each section is edited by a specialist in the relevant area. The important research in all areas of Behavioral Neuroscience is covered in a total of 210 chapters on topics ranging from neuroethology and learning and memory, to behavioral disorders and psychiatric diseases. The only comprehensive Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience on the market Addresses all recent advances in the field Written and edited by an international group of leading researchers, truly representative of the behavioral neuroscience community Includes many entries on the advances in our knowledge of the neurobiological basis of complex behavioral, psychiatric, and neurological disorders Richly illustrated in full color Extensively cross referenced to serve as the go-to reference for students and researchers alike The online version features full searching, navigation, and linking functionality An essential resource for libraries serving neuroscientists, psychologists, neuropharmacologists, and psychiatrists
Categories: Psychology

Quantitative Genetics in the Wild

Quantitative Genetics in the Wild

Journal of Animal Ecology, 79, 13–26. Wolf, M., van Doorn, G.S., Leimar, O. &
Weissing, F.J. (2007) Life-history trade-offs favour the evolution of animal
personalities. Nature, 447,581–585. Wolf, M., van Doorn, G.S. & Weissing, F.J. (
2008) ...

Author: Anne Charmantier

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191655968

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 690

Although the field of quantitative genetics - the study of the genetic basis of variation in quantitative characteristics such as body size, or reproductive success - is almost 100 years old, its application to the study of evolutionary processes in wild populations has expanded greatly over the last few decades. During this time, the use of 'wild quantitative genetics' has provided insights into a range of important questions in evolutionary ecology, ranging from studies conducting research in well-established fields such as life-history theory, behavioural ecology and sexual selection, to others addressing relatively new issues such as populations' responses to climate change or the process of senescence in natural environments. Across these fields, there is increasing appreciation of the need to quantify the genetic - rather than just the phenotypic - basis and diversity of key traits, the genetic basis of the associations between traits, and the interaction between these genetic effects and the environment. This research activity has been fuelled by methodological advances in both molecular genetics and statistics, as well as by exciting results emerging from laboratory studies of evolutionary quantitative genetics, and the increasing availability of suitable long-term datasets collected in natural populations, especially in animals. Quantitative Genetics in the Wild is the first book to synthesize the current level of knowledge in this exciting and rapidly-expanding area. This comprehensive volume also offers exciting perspectives for future studies in emerging areas, including the application of quantitative genetics to plants or arthropods, unraveling the molecular basis of variation in quantitative traits, or estimating non-additive genetic variance. Since this book deals with many fundamental questions in evolutionary ecology, it should be of interest to graduate, post-graduate students, and academics from a wide array of fields such as animal behaviour, ecology, evolution, and genetics.
Categories: Science

Octopus

Octopus

Bringing the octopus into the study of personalities, the first time for invertebrates,
reminds us of how strongly scientific ... He argued that through animals, we can
learn about the biological basis for human personality reactions and the ...

Author: Jennifer A. Mather

Publisher: Timber Press

ISBN: 9781604695007

Category: Nature

Page: 240

View: 782

The visually arresting and often misunderstood octopus has long captured popular imagination. With an alien appearance and an uncanny intellect, this exceptional sea creature has inspired fear in famous lore and legends—from the giant octopus attack in 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea to Ursula the sea witch in The Little Mermaid. Yet its true nature is more wondrous still. After decades of research, the authors reveal a sensitive, curious, and playful animal with remarkable intelligence, an ability to defend itself with camouflage and jet propulsion, an intricate nervous system, and advanced problem-solving abilities. In this beautifully photographed book, three leading marine biologists bring readers face to face with these amazingly complex animals that have fascinated scientists for decades. From the molluscan ancestry of today’s octopus to its ingenious anatomy, amazing mating and predatory behaviors, and other-worldly relatives, the authors take readers through the astounding life cycle, uncovering the details of distinctive octopus personalities. With personal narratives, underwater research, stunning closeup photography, and thoughtful guidance for keeping octopuses in captivity, Octopus is the first comprehensive natural history of this smart denizen of the sea.
Categories: Nature

Animal Spirit Guides

Animal Spirit Guides

An Easy-to-Use Handbook for Identifying and Understanding Your Power
Animals and Animal Spirit Helpers Steven D. Farmer, ... It's a highly personal and
specialized relationship with an animal spirit guide, one in which the personality
and ...

Author: Steven D. Farmer, Ph.D

Publisher: Hay House, Inc

ISBN: 1401932126

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 480

View: 197

After the publication of his best-selling book Power Animals, many people inquired about the meaning of spirit animals that were not contained in that work. In Animal Spirit Guides, Dr. Farmer provides concise, relevant details about the significance of more than 200 animals that may come to you in physical or symbolic form as guides and teachers. With each animal listed, you’ll find general meanings of the visitation; practical ways that they can help you as spirit guides; and how, as your power animal, they reflect characteristics that you possess. You’ll also find a "whom-to-call-on" section that will tell you which animal spirit guide to call on for any specific purpose.
Categories: Body, Mind & Spirit

Life

Life

The knowledge which stands next to it in point of sureness is the knowledge of
our animal personality , striving towards ... After this , in point of sureness of
knowledge , is the knowledge of animal personalities , similar to ourselves , in
which we ...

Author: graf Leo Tolstoy

Publisher:

ISBN: STANFORD:36105005620161

Category: Life

Page: 295

View: 783

Categories: Life

Personality

Personality

Box 1 - 1 ANIMAL PERSONALITIES As long as people have walked the earth ,
they have depended on other animals for their very existence . Recognition of the
importance of animals – for food , clothing , shelter , transportation , various ...

Author: Lewis R. Aiken

Publisher: Charles C Thomas Pub Limited

ISBN: 0398071101

Category: Psychology

Page: 461

View: 251

Categories: Psychology

What is to be done Life

What is to be done  Life

The knowledge which stands next to it in point of sureness is the knowledge of
our animal personality , striving toward ... After this , in point of sureness of
knowledge , is the knowledge of animal personalities , similar to ourselves , in
which we ...

Author: graf Leo Tolstoy

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39076006812593

Category:

Page:

View: 924

Categories:

The Novels and Other Works of Lyof N Tolsto

The Novels and Other Works of Lyof N  Tolsto

The knowledge which stands next to it in point of sureness is the knowledge of
our animal personality , striving toward ... After this , in point of sureness of
knowledge , is the knowledge of animal personalities , similar to ourselves , in
which we ...

Author: graf Leo Tolstoy

Publisher:

ISBN: NYPL:33433069881179

Category: Russian literature

Page:

View: 368

Categories: Russian literature

The Complete Works of Lyof N Tolsto

The Complete Works of Lyof N  Tolsto

The knowledge which stands next to it in point of sureness is the knowledge of
our animal personality , striving toward ... After this , in point of sureness of
knowledge , is the knowledge of animal personalities , similar to ourselves , in
which we ...

Author: graf Leo Tolstoy

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015011686386

Category:

Page:

View: 791

Categories:

What is to be Done

What is to be Done

The knowledge which stands next to it in point of sureness is the knowledge of
our animal personality , striving toward ... After this , in point of sureness of
knowledge , is the knowledge of animal personalities , similar to ourselves , in
which we ...

Author: graf Leo Tolstoy

Publisher: New York : s.n.

ISBN: MSU:31293104216092

Category: Christianity

Page: 441

View: 782

Categories: Christianity