Animal Locomotion

Author: Andrew A. Biewener

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198500223

Category: Science

Page: 281

View: 9676

DOWNLOAD NOW »

This book provides a clear foundation, based on physical biology and biomechanics, for understanding the underlying mechanisms by which animals have evolved to move in their physical environment. It integrates the biomechanics of animal movement with the physiology of animal energetics and the neural control of locomotion. The author also communicates a sense of the awe and fascination that comes from watching the grace, speed, and power of animals in motion. Movement is a fundamental distinguishing feature of animal life, and a variety of extremely effective mechanical and physiological designs have evolved. Common themes are observed for the ways in which animals successfully contend with the properties of a given physical environment across diversity of life forms and varying locomotor modes. Understanding the common principles of design that span a diverse array of animals requires a broad comparative and integrative approach to their study. This theme persists throughout the book, as various modes and mechanisms of animal locomotion are covered. Since an animal's size is equally critical to its functional design, the effects of scale on locomotor energetics and mechanics are also discussed. Biewener begins by examining the underlying machinery for movement: skeletal muscles used for force generation, skeletons used for force transmission, and spring-like elements used for energy savings. He then describes the basic mechanisms that animals have evolved to move over land, in and on the surface of the water, and in the air. Common fluid dynamic principles are discussed as background to both swimming and flight. In addition to discussing the locomotor mechanisms of complex animals, the locomotor movement of single cells is also covered. Common biochemical features of cellular metabolism are then reviewed before discussing the energetic aspects of various locomotor modes. Strategies for conserving energy and moving economically are again highlighted in this section of the book. Emphasis is placed on comparisons of energetic features across locomotor modes. The book concludes with a discussion of the neural control of animal locomotion. The basic neurosensory and motor elements common to vertebrates and arthropods are discussed, and features of sensori-motor organization and function are highlighted. These are then examined in the context of specific examples of how animals control the rhythmic patterns of limb and body movement that underlie locomotor function and stability.
Release

Aerodynamics of Low Reynolds Number Flyers

Author: Wei Shyy,Yongsheng Lian,Jian Tang,Dragos Viieru,Hao Liu

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 113946891X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: N.A

View: 3118

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Low Reynolds number aerodynamics is important to a number of natural and man-made flyers. Birds, bats, and insects have been of interest to biologists for years, and active study in the aerospace engineering community, motivated by interest in micro air vehicles (MAVs), has been increasing rapidly. The focus of this book is the aerodynamics associated with fixed and flapping wings. The book considers both biological flyers and MAVs, including a summary of the scaling laws which relate the aerodynamics and flight characteristics to a flyer's sizing on the basis of simple geometric and dynamics analyses, structural flexibility, laminar-turbulent transition, airfoil shapes, and unsteady flapping wing aerodynamics. The interplay between flapping kinematics and key dimensionless parameters such as the Reynolds number, Strouhal number, and reduced frequency is highlighted. The various unsteady lift enhancement mechanisms are also addressed.
Release

Advanced Topics on Computer Vision, Control and Robotics in Mechatronics

Author: Osslan Osiris Vergara Villegas,Manuel Nandayapa,Israel Soto

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331977770X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 432

View: 1516

DOWNLOAD NOW »

The field of mechatronics (which is the synergistic combination of precision mechanical engineering, electronic control and systems thinking in the design of products and manufacturing processes) is gaining much attention in industries and academics. It was detected that the topics of computer vision, control and robotics are imperative for the successful of mechatronics systems. This book includes several chapters which report successful study cases about computer vision, control and robotics. The readers will have the latest information related to mechatronics, that contains the details of implementation, and the description of the test scenarios.
Release

Wearable Robots

Biomechatronic Exoskeletons

Author: José L. Pons

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470987650

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 358

View: 6513

DOWNLOAD NOW »

A wearable robot is a mechatronic system that is designed around the shape and function of the human body, with segments and joints corresponding to those of the person it is externally coupled with. Teleoperation and power amplification were the first applications, but after recent technological advances the range of application fields has widened. Increasing recognition from the scientific community means that this technology is now employed in telemanipulation, man-amplification, neuromotor control research and rehabilitation, and to assist with impaired human motor control. Logical in structure and original in its global orientation, this volume gives a full overview of wearable robotics, providing the reader with a complete understanding of the key applications and technologies suitable for its development. The main topics are demonstrated through two detailed case studies; one on a lower limb active orthosis for a human leg, and one on a wearable robot that suppresses upper limb tremor. These examples highlight the difficulties and potentialities in this area of technology, illustrating how design decisions should be made based on these. As well as discussing the cognitive interaction between human and robot, this comprehensive text also covers: the mechanics of the wearable robot and it’s biomechanical interaction with the user, including state-of-the-art technologies that enable sensory and motor interaction between human (biological) and wearable artificial (mechatronic) systems; the basis for bioinspiration and biomimetism, general rules for the development of biologically-inspired designs, and how these could serve recursively as biological models to explain biological systems; the study on the development of networks for wearable robotics. Wearable Robotics: Biomechatronic Exoskeletons will appeal to lecturers, senior undergraduate students, postgraduates and other researchers of medical, electrical and bio engineering who are interested in the area of assistive robotics. Active system developers in this sector of the engineering industry will also find it an informative and welcome resource.
Release

Animal Eyes

Author: Michael F. Land,Dan-Eric Nilsson

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191625361

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 5293

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Animal Eyes provides a comparative account of all known types of eye in the animal kingdom, outlining their structure and function with an emphasis on the nature of the optical systems and the physical principles involved in image formation. A universal theme throughout the book is the evolution and taxonomic distribution of each type of eye, and the roles of different eye types in the behaviour and ecology of the animals that possess them. In comparing the specific capabilities of eyes, it considers the factors that lead to good resolution of detail and the ability to function under a wide range of light conditions. This new edition is fully updated throughout, incorporating more than a decade of new discoveries and research.
Release

Animal osmoregulation

Author: Timothy J. Bradley

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 168

View: 1128

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Water is fundamental to life and all metabolic reactions are influenced by the aqueous environment in which they occur. Osmoregulation and water balance are therefore absolutely essential topics in animal physiology. Animal Osmoregulation collates a widely dispersed literature to produce a comprehensive and authoritative synthesis of the field, providing detailed examples of osmoregulatory processes at the organismal, organ and cellular level. It incorporates clear background information on ion regulation and transport (specifically in the light of recent molecular studies) and illustrates the physical principles to which each organism must adhere, as well as the phylogenetic constraints within which it must operate. As with other titles in the Oxford Animal Biology Series, the topic is addressed using examples from throughout the animal kingdom, identifying common themes that transcend taxonomy.
Release

Energy for Animal Life

Author: R. McNeill Alexander

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780198500537

Category: Science

Page: 174

View: 7394

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Energy for Animal Life, the first book in the innovative new Oxford Animal Biology Series, is about how animals get energy, and how they use it. It explores all aspects of animal energetics, from the different levels of the food chain, the relative merits of different digestive systems or of different strategies for finding and choosing food, and the importance of temperature regulation, to the energy costs of motion, growth and reproduction. The book is truly comparative, drawing on examples from across the animal kingdom, and looking for parallels that transcend taxonomy. Lots of practical information on relevant experiments is included. Accessibly written, the book is suitable as supplementary reading for undergraduates taking a degree course in biological sciences.
Release