Allegory in Iranian Cinema explains how a centuries-old means of expression, interpretation, encoding and decoding becomes, in the hands of Iran's most skilled cineastes, a powerful tool with which to critique and challenge social and ...
Author: Michelle Langford
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Category: Performing Arts
Iranian filmmakers have long been recognised for creating a vibrant, aesthetically rich cinema whilst working under strict state censorship regulations. As Michelle Langford reveals, many have found indirect, allegorical ways of expressing forbidden topics and issues in their films. But for many, allegory is much more than a foil against haphazardly applied censorship rules. Drawing on a long history of allegorical expression in Persian poetry and the arts, allegory has become an integral part of the poetics of Iranian cinema. Allegory in Iranian Cinema explores the allegorical aesthetics of Iranian cinema, explaining how it has emerged from deep cultural traditions and how it functions as a strategy for both supporting and resisting dominant ideology. As well as tracing the roots of allegory in Iranian cinema before and after the 1979 revolution, Langford also theorizes this cinematic mode. She draws on a range of cinematic, philosophical and cultural concepts - developed by thinkers such as Walter Benjamin, Gilles Deleuze, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Christian Metz and Vivian Sobchack - to provide a theoretical framework for detailed analyses of films by renowned directors of the pre-and post-revolutionary eras including Masoud Kimiai, Dariush Mehrjui, Ebrahim Golestan, Kamran Shirdel, Majid Majidi, Jafar Panahi, Marziyeh Meshkini, Mohsen Makhmalbaf, Rakhshan Bani-Etemad and Asghar Farhadi. Allegory in Iranian Cinema explains how a centuries-old means of expression, interpretation, encoding and decoding becomes, in the hands of Iran's most skilled cineastes, a powerful tool with which to critique and challenge social and cultural norms.
Offering close readings of the work of the nationally popular and internationally renowned Iranian auteurs Bahram Bayza’i, Abbas Kiarostami, and Mohsen Makhmalbaf, Mottahedeh illuminates the formal codes and conventions of post ...
Author: Negar Mottahedeh
Publisher: Duke University Press
Category: Performing Arts
Following the 1979 Iranian Revolution, Iran’s film industry, in conforming to the Islamic Republic’s system of modesty, had to ensure that women on-screen were veiled from the view of men. This prevented Iranian filmmakers from making use of the desiring gaze, a staple cinematic system of looking. In Displaced Allegories Negar Mottahedeh shows that post-Revolutionary Iranian filmmakers were forced to create a new visual language for conveying meaning to audiences. She argues that the Iranian film industry found creative ground not in the negation of government regulations but in the camera’s adoption of the modest, averted gaze. In the process, the filmic techniques and cinematic technologies were gendered as feminine and the national cinema was produced as a woman’s cinema. Mottahedeh asserts that, in response to the prohibitions against the desiring look, a new narrative cinema emerged as the displaced allegory of the constraints on the post-Revolutionary Iranian film industry. Allegorical commentary was not developed in the explicit content of cinematic narratives but through formal innovations. Offering close readings of the work of the nationally popular and internationally renowned Iranian auteurs Bahram Bayza’i, Abbas Kiarostami, and Mohsen Makhmalbaf, Mottahedeh illuminates the formal codes and conventions of post-Revolutionary Iranian films. She insists that such analyses of cinema’s visual codes and conventions are crucial to the study of international film. As Mottahedeh points out, the discipline of film studies has traditionally seen film as a medium that communicates globally because of its dependence on a (Hollywood) visual language assumed to be universal and legible across national boundaries. Displaced Allegories demonstrates that visual language is not necessarily universal; it is sometimes deeply informed by national culture and politics.
27. 28. Mottahedeh, Displaced Allegories, 2. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. Hamid Naficy, “ Iranian Cinema under the Islamic Republic,” American 35. 36. 37. 38. Hamid
Naficy, “Iranian Cinema under the Islamic Republic,” American Anthropologist 97,
Author: Peter Decherney
Category: Social Science
Iranian films have been the subject of much critical and scholarly attention over the past several decades, and Iranian filmmakers are mainstays of international film festivals. Yet most of the attention has been focused on a small segment of Iranian film production: auteurist art cinema. Iranian Cinema in a Global Context, on the other hand, takes account of the wide range of Iranian cinema, from popular youth films to low budget underground films. The volume also reassesses the global circulation of Iranian art cinema, looking at its reception at international festivals, in university curricula, and at the Academy Awards. A final theme of the volume explores the intersection between politics and film, with essays on post-Khatami reform influences, representations of ineffective drug policies, and the representation of Jewish characters in Iranian film. Taken together, the essays in this volume present a new definition of the field of Iranian film studies, one that engages global media flows, transmedia interaction, and a heterogeneous Iranian national cinema.
38 Deleuze , Cinema 2. p . 93 . recognize ... the tendency towards the allegorical
evident in New Iranian Cinema pulls the films ' open images towards narrative
determinism . The Apple , for instance , can be read in terms of feminist allegory .
Makhmalbaf in this allegory of filmmaking in Iran reviews the archive of Iranian cinema and – although only symbolically and in a thinly veiled critique of the
Monarchy - shows that B - rated films , then and now , can still be more successful
HOW IRAN'S NEW WAVE COMPARES WITH INDIA'S By Darryl D'Monte RAN'S CINEMA is not altogether unlike India's . It has , on the one hand , a ... Allegorical
Themes What does the new cinema of Iran concern itself with ? Its most famous ...
... attempted to capitalize on the success of Nanook by pursuing the nomadic
Bakhtiari tribe of Persia ( modern - day Iran ) as they made their seasonal trek
through difficult mountains with their herds . This film is another example of a
Author: David Melbye
Publisher: Palgrave MacMillan
This interdisciplinary study offers an introduction to the relatively unexplored area of the form of cinematic space referred to as “the landscape of the mind.” Exploring the psychological use of natural setting in both avant-garde and mainstream cinema, this study seeks to understand how these settings serve as outward manifestations of characters’ inner subjective states. David Melbye traces cultural trajectories of landscape depiction as far back as the Middle Ages in painting and literature to nurture a greater awareness of visual allegory in the films of the silent era up through the present, focusing specifically on the prolific appearance of landscape allegory in films of the 1960s and ‘70s.
TWENTY The Averted Gaze : Love and Death in Iranian Cinema Until the
revolution in 1979 , going to the cinema was a ... Trained abroad and with liberal
educations , they drew on Iran ' s history to produce allegorical films with a
Author: Trevor Mostyn
Publisher: Al Saqi
This concise history of Islamic censorship examines the turbulent question of freedom of expression in Islamic societies. The book ranges from the ancient Arabians, to Muhammad's charter offering freedom of expression to Muslims, to modern history, when control of communication shifted to the secularists. Trevor Mostyn's incisive book culminates in an analysis of the current political direction of censorship, and the control of freedom of expression.
And it has nothing to do with the false notion that “ all Third World literature is an allegory of nationalism , ” as Fredric Jameson once said . No : The political
predisposition of Iranian literature does not turn the entire creative oeuvre of a
Author: Hamid Dabashi
Publisher: Mage Pub
Category: Performing Arts
The rise of Iranian cinema to world prominence over the last few decades is one of the most fascinating cultural stories of our time. This book is narrated around 15 of the best Iranian filmmakers of the past half-century and takes a close look at both their lives and their greatest works.
This "movement" in cinematic modernism first emerged from within the documentary mode, which began to flourish in Iran from the 1960s.
Author: Farbod Honarpisheh
This “movement” in cinematic modernism first emerged from within the documentary mode, which began to flourish in Iran from the 1960s. Cutting right across this study, the perceived divide between the urban and the rural finds its reflection even in the way that some of its chapters are organized. Hence, the allegory of the city, and that of the country. But, where ends the national allegory, a matter still conditional on imagined continuity, other forms of allegory come to the surface. Critical reading in this sense becomes an act of reproduction, further opening up fissures and discontinuities of what is already deemed as petrified, whether of the national or of realism. Retaining a faith in the cinema’s ability to redeem physical reality though, certain manifestations of materiality come to the fore through my close readings of films from the New Wave. A number of these material formations come to focus as the “objects” of the study: the museum display, the ruin, the body, the mud brick wall, the moving car, and the old neighborhood passageway.
Given the amount abroad have recently championed the Iranian of official
scrutiny cinema has faced in Iran , that art film ... yet poetic and allegorical style .
dience and , increasingly , production conditions Any mention of the cinema of
In its unyielding determination, the film creates an allegory not only for Iranian
people but also for third-world people ... cinema emerging after the revolution,
created by a director who has been active in cinema since before the revolution.
At all times , they have stimulated , both in Iran and the world , strong and varied
reactions from viewers and critics alike . ... with those who had died in the 1979
revolution ; the award - winning Once Upon a Time , Cinema , was at once a
dense tapestry of , and a tribute to , Iranian cinema . ... Became a Woman , set
around three stages in a woman ' s life , lies somewhere between realism and allegory .
His most recent books as ( co - ) editor include Cinema Futures : Cain , Abel or
Cable ? ( 1998 ) , The BFI Companion to German ... Her current research looks at
the allegorical dimensions of Iranian cinema . She is author of Allegorical Images
Author: Bruce Bennett
Publisher: Palgrave MacMillan
Category: Business & Economics
The essays collected in Cinema and Technology map out a new interdisciplinary terrain, combining contemporary analyses of material and visual culture, deploying the methods of film studies, media and cultural studies, media anthropology, and science and technology studies. Rather than describing a technological "crisis," or separating the technological and aesthetic halves of the cinema, they present a manifold, expansive reconsideration of the life of technologies in the cultures, theories and practices of cinematic production and consumption.
Author: Michael M. J. FischerPublish On: 2004-08-16
He examines a range of narrative influences on this expressive idiom and imagery, including Zoroastrian ritual as it is practiced in Iran, North America, and India; the mythic stories, moral lessons, and historical figures written about in ...
Author: Michael M. J. Fischer
Publisher: Duke University Press
Category: Performing Arts
Over the past decade Iranian films have received enormous international attention, garnering both critical praise and popular success. Combining his extensive ethnographic experience in Iran and his broad command of critical theory, Michael M. J. Fischer argues that the widespread appeal of Iranian cinema is based in a poetics that speaks not only to Iran’s domestic cultural politics but also to the more general ethical dilemmas of a world simultaneously torn apart and pushed together. Approaching film as a tool for anthropological analysis, he illuminates how Iranian filmmakers have incorporated and remade the rich traditions of oral, literary, and visual media in Persian culture. Fischer reveals how the distinctive expressive idiom emerging in contemporary Iranian film reworks Persian imagery that has itself been in dialogue with other cultures since the time of Zoroaster and ancient Greece. He examines a range of narrative influences on this expressive idiom and imagery, including Zoroastrian ritual as it is practiced in Iran, North America, and India; the mythic stories, moral lessons, and historical figures written about in Iran’s national epic, the Shahnameh; the dreamlike allegorical world of Persian surrealism exemplified in Sadeq Hedayat’s 1939 novella The Blind Owl; and the politically charged films of the 1960s and 1970s. Fischer contends that by combining Persian traditions with cosmopolitan influences, contemporary Iranian filmmakers—many of whom studied in Europe and America—provide audiences around the world with new modes of accessing ethical and political experiences.
While important work needs to be done on the way that allegory is used in
contemporary Iranian cinema to avoid censorship of political or social criticism , I
want to emphasize here the conjunctions that I see in the allegorical structures of