Algorithms for Reinforcement Learning

Author: Csaba Szepesvari

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1608454924

Category: Computers

Page: 89

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Reinforcement learning is a learning paradigm concerned with learning to control a system so as to maximize a numerical performance measure that expresses a long-term objective. What distinguishes reinforcement learning from supervised learning is that only partial feedback is given to the learner about the learner's predictions. Further, the predictions may have long term effects through influencing the future state of the controlled system. Thus, time plays a special role. The goal in reinforcement learning is to develop efficient learning algorithms, as well as to understand the algorithms' merits and limitations. Reinforcement learning is of great interest because of the large number of practical applications that it can be used to address, ranging from problems in artificial intelligence to operations research or control engineering. In this book, we focus on those algorithms of reinforcement learning that build on the powerful theory of dynamic programming.We give a fairly comprehensive catalog of learning problems, describe the core ideas, note a large number of state of the art algorithms, followed by the discussion of their theoretical properties and limitations.
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Machine Learning and Knowledge Discovery in Databases

European Conference, ECML PKDD 2012, Bristol, UK, September 24-28, 2012. Proceedings

Author: Peter A. Flach,Tijl De Bie,Nello Cristianini

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642334865

Category: Computers

Page: 867

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This two-volume set LNAI 7523 and LNAI 7524 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the European Conference on Machine Learning and Knowledge Discovery in Databases: ECML PKDD 2012, held in Bristol, UK, in September 2012. The 105 revised research papers presented together with 5 invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from 443 submissions. The final sections of the proceedings are devoted to Demo and Nectar papers. The Demo track includes 10 papers (from 19 submissions) and the Nectar track includes 4 papers (from 14 submissions). The papers grouped in topical sections on association rules and frequent patterns; Bayesian learning and graphical models; classification; dimensionality reduction, feature selection and extraction; distance-based methods and kernels; ensemble methods; graph and tree mining; large-scale, distributed and parallel mining and learning; multi-relational mining and learning; multi-task learning; natural language processing; online learning and data streams; privacy and security; rankings and recommendations; reinforcement learning and planning; rule mining and subgroup discovery; semi-supervised and transductive learning; sensor data; sequence and string mining; social network mining; spatial and geographical data mining; statistical methods and evaluation; time series and temporal data mining; and transfer learning.
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Reinforcement Learning

State-of-the-Art

Author: Marco Wiering,Martijn van Otterlo

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642276458

Category: Computers

Page: 638

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Reinforcement learning encompasses both a science of adaptive behavior of rational beings in uncertain environments and a computational methodology for finding optimal behaviors for challenging problems in control, optimization and adaptive behavior of intelligent agents. As a field, reinforcement learning has progressed tremendously in the past decade. The main goal of this book is to present an up-to-date series of survey articles on the main contemporary sub-fields of reinforcement learning. This includes surveys on partially observable environments, hierarchical task decompositions, relational knowledge representation and predictive state representations. Furthermore, topics such as transfer, evolutionary methods and continuous spaces in reinforcement learning are surveyed. In addition, several chapters review reinforcement learning methods in robotics, in games, and in computational neuroscience. In total seventeen different subfields are presented by mostly young experts in those areas, and together they truly represent a state-of-the-art of current reinforcement learning research. Marco Wiering works at the artificial intelligence department of the University of Groningen in the Netherlands. He has published extensively on various reinforcement learning topics. Martijn van Otterlo works in the cognitive artificial intelligence group at the Radboud University Nijmegen in The Netherlands. He has mainly focused on expressive knowledge representation in reinforcement learning settings.
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Planning with Markov Decision Processes

An AI Perspective

Author: Mausam,Andrey Kolobov

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1608458865

Category: Computers

Page: 194

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Markov Decision Processes (MDPs) are widely popular in Artificial Intelligence for modeling sequential decision-making scenarios with probabilistic dynamics. They are the framework of choice when designing an intelligent agent that needs to act for long periods of time in an environment where its actions could have uncertain outcomes. MDPs are actively researched in two related subareas of AI, probabilistic planning and reinforcement learning. Probabilistic planning assumes known models for the agent's goals and domain dynamics, and focuses on determining how the agent should behave to achieve its objectives. On the other hand, reinforcement learning additionally learns these models based on the feedback the agent gets from the environment. This book provides a concise introduction to the use of MDPs for solving probabilistic planning problems, with an emphasis on the algorithmic perspective. It covers the whole spectrum of the field, from the basics to state-of-the-art optimal and approximation algorithms. We first describe the theoretical foundations of MDPs and the fundamental solution techniques for them. We then discuss modern optimal algorithms based on heuristic search and the use of structured representations. A major focus of the book is on the numerous approximation schemes for MDPs that have been developed in the AI literature. These include determinization-based approaches, sampling techniques, heuristic functions, dimensionality reduction, and hierarchical representations. Finally, we briefly introduce several extensions of the standard MDP classes that model and solve even more complex planning problems. Table of Contents: Introduction / MDPs / Fundamental Algorithms / Heuristic Search Algorithms / Symbolic Algorithms / Approximation Algorithms / Advanced Notes
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Applied Machine Learning

Author: M GOPAL

Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional

ISBN: 1260456854

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 656

View: 3475

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Publisher's Note: Products purchased from Third Party sellers are not guaranteed by the publisher for quality, authenticity, or access to any online entitlements included with the product. Cutting-edge machine learning principles, practices, and applications This comprehensive textbook explores the theoretical under¬pinnings of learning and equips readers with the knowledge needed to apply powerful machine learning techniques to solve challenging real-world problems. Applied Machine Learning shows, step by step, how to conceptualize problems, accurately represent data, select and tune algorithms, interpret and analyze results, and make informed strategic decisions. Presented in a non-rigorous mathematical style, the book covers a broad array of machine learning topics with special emphasis on methods that have been profitably employed. Coverage includes: •Supervised learning•Statistical learning•Learning with support vector machines (SVM)•Learning with neural networks (NN)•Fuzzy inference systems•Data clustering•Data transformations•Decision tree learning•Business intelligence•Data mining•And much more
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Statistical Relational Artificial Intelligence

Logic, Probability, and Computation

Author: Luc De Raedt,Kristian Kersting,Sriraam Natarajan,David Poole

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1627058427

Category: Computers

Page: 189

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An intelligent agent interacting with the real world will encounter individual people, courses, test results, drugs prescriptions, chairs, boxes, etc., and needs to reason about properties of these individuals and relations among them as well as cope with uncertainty. Uncertainty has been studied in probability theory and graphical models, and relations have been studied in logic, in particular in the predicate calculus and its extensions. This book examines the foundations of combining logic and probability into what are called relational probabilistic models. It introduces representations, inference, and learning techniques for probability, logic, and their combinations. The book focuses on two representations in detail: Markov logic networks, a relational extension of undirected graphical models and weighted first-order predicate calculus formula, and Problog, a probabilistic extension of logic programs that can also be viewed as a Turing-complete relational extension of Bayesian networks.
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Multi-Objective Decision Making

Author: Diederik M. Roijers,Shimon Whiteson

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1681731827

Category: Computers

Page: 129

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Many real-world decision problems have multiple objectives. For example, when choosing a medical treatment plan, we want to maximize the efficacy of the treatment, but also minimize the side effects. These objectives typically conflict, e.g., we can often increase the efficacy of the treatment, but at the cost of more severe side effects. In this book, we outline how to deal with multiple objectives in decision-theoretic planning and reinforcement learning algorithms. To illustrate this, we employ the popular problem classes of multi-objective Markov decision processes (MOMDPs) and multi-objective coordination graphs (MO-CoGs). First, we discuss different use cases for multi-objective decision making, and why they often necessitate explicitly multi-objective algorithms. We advocate a utility-based approach to multi-objective decision making, i.e., that what constitutes an optimal solution to a multi-objective decision problem should be derived from the available information about user utility. We show how different assumptions about user utility and what types of policies are allowed lead to different solution concepts, which we outline in a taxonomy of multi-objective decision problems. Second, we show how to create new methods for multi-objective decision making using existing single-objective methods as a basis. Focusing on planning, we describe two ways to creating multi-objective algorithms: in the inner loop approach, the inner workings of a single-objective method are adapted to work with multi-objective solution concepts; in the outer loop approach, a wrapper is created around a single-objective method that solves the multi-objective problem as a series of single-objective problems. After discussing the creation of such methods for the planning setting, we discuss how these approaches apply to the learning setting. Next, we discuss three promising application domains for multi-objective decision making algorithms: energy, health, and infrastructure and transportation. Finally, we conclude by outlining important open problems and promising future directions.
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Representation Discovery Using Harmonic Analysis

Author: Sridhar Mahadevan

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1598296590

Category: Computers

Page: 147

View: 5561

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Representations are at the heart of artificial intelligence (AI). This book is devoted to the problem of representation discovery: how can an intelligent system construct representations from its experience? Representation discovery re-parameterizes the state space - prior to the application of information retrieval, machine learning, or optimization techniques - facilitating later inference processes by constructing new task-specific bases adapted to the state space geometry. This book presents a general approach to representation discovery using the framework of harmonic analysis, in particular Fourier and wavelet analysis. Biometric compression methods, the compact disc, the computerized axial tomography (CAT) scanner in medicine, JPEG compression, and spectral analysis of time-series data are among the many applications of classical Fourier and wavelet analysis. A central goal of this book is to show that these analytical tools can be generalized from their usual setting in (infinite-dimensional) Euclidean spaces to discrete (finite-dimensional) spaces typically studied in many subfields of AI. Generalizing harmonic analysis to discrete spaces poses many challenges: a discrete representation of the space must be adaptively acquired; basis functions are not pre-defined, but rather must be constructed. Algorithms for efficiently computing and representing bases require dealing with the curse of dimensionality. However, the benefits can outweigh the costs, since the extracted basis functions outperform parametric bases as they often reflect the irregular shape of a particular state space. Case studies from computer graphics, information retrieval, machine learning, and state space planning are used to illustrate the benefits of the proposed framework, and the challenges that remain to be addressed. Representation discovery is an actively developing field, and the author hopes this book will encourage other researchers to explore this exciting area of research.
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