Airway Smooth Muscle in Health and Disease

Airway Smooth Muscle in Health and Disease

I organized this book because there is a need to put together in book form recent advances in our knowledge of how airway smooth muscle:works in health and in disease.

Author: R.F. Coburn

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461307792

Category: Science

Page: 334

View: 350

I organized this book because there is a need to put together in book form recent advances in our knowledge of how airway smooth muscle:works in health and in disease. After a period when it seemed that progress was very slow, there has been in the past few years an incredibly rapid gathering of knowledge in this area. In particular, our understanding has improved regarding the cascades of events that follow the initial binding of agonist to plasma membrane receptors and that lead to the cross-bridge movements that determine contraction. This advance in our knowledge was stimulated by use of single-and whole-cell channel recordings of plasma membrane currents and by description of the l3-receptor-GTP-binding protein-adenylate cyclase-cAMP coupling system, which serves as a model for other coupling mechanisms. The discovery of the receptor-activated inositol phospholipid transduction system has greatly stimulated research and led to advances in our understanding of mechanisms involved in smooth muscle con traction. Major advances were also triggered by the development of indicators for measuring free cytosolic calcium concentration and starting the unraveling of 2 the events involved in Ca + -dependent activation of contractile proteins. Al though most of the studies that led to our current understanding of these areas were performed on nonairway smooth muscle, these studies usually add to our understanding of airway smooth muscle, and there is an enlarging body of data that have been obtained on airway smooth muscle.
Categories: Science

Airway Smooth Muscle in Asthma and COPD

Airway Smooth Muscle in Asthma and COPD

In this book, leading researchers in medicine and molecular pharmacology explain the cellular mechanisms that control airway smooth muscle.

Author: Kian Fan Chung

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470754214

Category: Science

Page: 326

View: 156

In this book, leading researchers in medicine and molecular pharmacology explain the cellular mechanisms that control airway smooth muscle. The means by which these are disrupted in disease, and the pharmacologic strategies by which they may be modified are discussed and future therapeutic interventions are identified. Aimed at specialists in pulmonology, this volume provides the clinician with the most up to date information on one of the core physiological processes in airway disease, and offers insights into current and future approaches to management. Authoritative update on key mechanisms of airway constriction in Asthma and COPD Relates latest research to bronchodilator therapy Multi-contributed text, co-coordinated by two of the leading authorities in the field.
Categories: Science

Airway Smooth Muscle in Health and Disease

Airway Smooth Muscle in Health and Disease

The muscle was treated with cytochalasin D (CD), a known actin filament disrupter, but this provided little insight on whether the actin lattice guides myosin filament assembly, since CD had a limited effect on actin filaments but a ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:680293787

Category:

Page:

View: 762

This thesis focuses on the structure and function of airway smooth muscle (ASM) in health and disease. By employing the use of structural analysis by electron microscopy, functional analysis by mechanical measurements, and biochemical analysis, this thesis provides valuable insight into ASM pathophysiology. The first two chapters focus on the mechanisms by which the contractile apparatus is arranged within the cell. The studies examined whether the actin filament lattice acts a scaffold to facilitate myosin filament assembly within contractile units and the contractile response to potassium chloride (KCl). The muscle was treated with cytochalasin D (CD), a known actin filament disrupter, but this provided little insight on whether the actin lattice guides myosin filament assembly, since CD had a limited effect on actin filaments but a significant effect on force. KCl was found to cause contraction of similar force to acetylcholine contraction, despite the presence of fewer myosin filaments. KCl likely caused depolymerization of myosin filaments upon activation and allowed for force generation by non-filamentous myosin molecules. In the last two studies, human ASM was sourced from the tracheas of whole lungs donated for medical research. From this tissue source it was shown that, unlike in previous human ASM studies, human muscle is similar to that of other mammalian species and capable of significant isotonic shortening. This finding lends support to the use of animal ASM models as a proxy for human ASM. This also was the first study to examine human ASM in the paradigm of mechanical plasticity, using in situ muscle length as a reference length instead of the traditional Lmax, and was the first to demonstrate length adaptation in human ASM. The mechanical properties of asthmatic ASM were found to differ from those of non-asthmatic ASM at several key measurements. Asthmatic ASM was found to have an altered length-tension relationship, increased passive tension, and m.
Categories:

Vascular Smooth Muscle

Vascular Smooth Muscle

(2010) The effects of the small GTPase RhoA on the muscarinic contraction of airway smooth muscle result from its role in regulating actin polymerization.

Author: Chi-Ming Hai

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789813144071

Category: Science

Page: 308

View: 980

This book presents key concepts in the structure and function of vascular smooth muscle cells in health and disease. Supplemental reading may be drawn from the extensive references listed at the end of each chapter. Vascular smooth muscle cell is the major cell type in blood vessels. Dysfunction of vascular smooth muscle cells is an important cause of vascular diseases, for example, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and circulatory shock. Vascular smooth muscle cells are phenotypically plastic, capable of switching between two major phenotypes — contractile/differentiated phenotype and invasive/proliferative phenotype in response to environmental clues. Chapter 1 introduces the major areas of research presented in this monograph. Chapters 2 to 4 address the structure and function of the contractile/differentiated phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cell. Chapters 5 and 6 address the developmental basis of vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype and structure and function of podosomes (invasive organelles) in the invasive/proliferative phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cell. Chapters 7 to 9 address the role of vascular smooth muscle cell dysfunction in vascular diseases — atherosclerosis, hypertension, and circulatory shock. Contents:Introduction (Chi-Ming Hai)Structure of Differentiated/Contractile Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (Thomas J Eddinger)Vascular Structure and Function (Paul H Ratz)Actin Filament Dynamics During Vascular Smooth Muscle Contraction (William C Cole and Michael P Walsh)Developmental Basis of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotypes (Christine Cheung and B C Narmada)Regulation of Podosomes in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Invasion of the Extracellular Matrix (Alan Mak)Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Invasion in Atherosclerosis (Chi-Ming Hai)The Role of Non-Coding RNA in the Control of Vascular Contractility and Disease (C J Nicholson and K G Morgan)Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells as Therapeutic Target for the Treatment of Circulatory Shock (Liangming Liu, Tao Li and Chengyang Duan) Readership: This book will be a useful reference for graduate students, post-doctoral fellows, and scientists who work on vascular biology, as well as physicians who work on vascular medicine.
Categories: Science

Lung Inflammation in Health and Disease Volume I

Lung Inflammation in Health and Disease  Volume I

Functional consequences of human airway smooth muscle phenotype plasticity. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;166:359–67. 147. Bai TR, Cooper J, Koelmeyer T, et al.

Author: Yong-Xiao Wang

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030630461

Category: Medical

Page: 409

View: 250

Respiratory diseases are leading causes of death and disability globally, with about 65 million people suffering from COPD, and 334 million from asthma, the most common chronic disease. Each year, tens of millions of people develop and can die from from respiratory infections such as pneumonia and TB. Systemic inflammation may induce and exacerbate local inflammatory diseases in the lungs, and local inflammation can in turn cause systemic inflammation. There is increasing evidence of the coexistence of systemic and local inflammation in patients suffering from asthma, COPD, and other lung diseases, and the co-morbidity of two or more local inflammatory diseases often occurs. For example, rheumatoid arthritis frequently occurs together with, and promotes the development of, pulmonary hypertension. This co-morbidity significantly impacts quality of life, and can result in death for those affected. Current treatment options for lung disease are neither effective, nor condition-specific; there is a desperate need for novel therapeutics in the field. Additionally, the molecular and physiological significance of most major lung diseases is not well understood, which further impedes development of new treatments, especially in the case of coexistent lung diseases with other inflammatory diseases. Great progress has been made in recent years in many areas of the field, particularly in understanding the molecular geneses, regulatory mechanisms, signalling pathways, and cellular processes within lung disease, as well as basic and clinical technology, drug discovery, diagnoses, treatment options, and predictive prognoses. This is the first text to aggregate these developments. In two comprehensive volumes, experts from all over the world present state-of-the-art advances in the study of lung inflammation in health and disease. Contributing authors cover well-known as well as emerging topics in basic, translational, and clinical research, with the aim of providing researchers, clinicians, professionals, and students with new perspectives and concepts. The editors hope these books will also help to direct future research in lung disease and other inflammatory diseases, and result in the development of novel therapeutics.
Categories: Medical

Lung Inflammation in Health and Disease Volume II

Lung Inflammation in Health and Disease  Volume II

Signaling and regulation of G protein-coupled receptors in airway smooth muscle. Respir Res. 2003;4(1):2. 6. Penn RB. Embracing emerging paradigms of G ...

Author: Yong-Xiao Wang

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030687489

Category: Medical

Page: 384

View: 269

Lung diseases are leading causes of death and disability globally, with about 65 million people suffering from COPD, and 334 million from asthma. Each year, tens of millions of people develop and can die from lung infections such as pneumonia and TB. Systemic inflammation may induce and exacerbate local inflammatory diseases in the lungs, and local inflammation can in turn cause systemic inflammation. There is increasing evidence of the coexistence of systemic and local inflammation in patients suffering from asthma, COPD, and other lung diseases, and the co-morbidity of two or more local inflammatory diseases often occurs. For example, rheumatoid arthritis frequently occurs together with, and promotes the development of, pulmonary hypertension. This co-morbidity significantly impacts quality of life, and can result in death for some patients. Current treatment options for lung disease are neither always effective, nor condition-specific; there is a desperate need for novel therapeutics in the field. Additionally, the molecular and physiological significance of most major lung diseases is not well understood, which further impedes development of new treatments, especially in the case of coexistent lung diseases with other inflammatory diseases. Great progress has been made in recent years in many areas of the field, particularly in understanding the molecular geneses, regulatory mechanisms, signalling pathways, and cellular processes within lung disease, as well as basic and clinical technology, drug discovery, diagnoses, treatment options, and predictive prognoses. This is the first text to aggregate these developments. In two comprehensive volumes, experts from all over the world present state-of-the-art advances in the study of lung inflammation in health and disease. Contributing authors cover well-known as well as emerging topics in basic, translational, and clinical research, with the aim of providing researchers, clinicians, professionals, and students with new perspectives and concepts. The editors hope these books will also help to direct future research in lung disease and other inflammatory diseases, and result in the development of novel therapeutics.
Categories: Medical

Pulmonary Biology in Health and Disease

Pulmonary Biology in Health and Disease

Pulmonary Biology in Health and Disease was conceived as a companion to a handful of expensive, multivolume textbooks. This is part of the promising trend to publish shorter textbooks on the subjects of lung biology and remodeling.

Author: Edward E. Bittar

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387224350

Category: Science

Page: 428

View: 518

Pulmonary Biology in Health and Disease was conceived as a companion to a handful of expensive, multivolume textbooks. This is part of the promising trend to publish shorter textbooks on the subjects of lung biology and remodeling. Whoever is familiar with human biology and the far-reaching consequences of the genome and postgenome revolutions is apt to concede that the centerpiece in remodeling lies in the ?eld of m- ecular cardiobiology. The ?eld of molecular cardiobiology includes the syndrome of chronic heart failure as well as ischemic cardioprotection. By analogy, the centerpiece in pulmonobiology is chronic asthma. Key topics in the present volume include s- naling mechanisms regulating the endothelium and smooth muscle cells,in?ammatory cells, mediators, airway surface liquid, and pharmacological therapy that focuses on how in?amed airways are altered. Written primarily for predoctoral and postdoctoral graduates in the basic medical sciences, the medical student and postdoctoral physician, graduates in the allied s- ences, nurses, pulmonologists, and physicians in critical care medicine, this book p- vides many of the fundamentals of contemporary pulmonology. It is divided into several parts devoted to the control of respiration, arterial chemoreceptors,muscles of ventilation, pulmonary physiology, and gas exchange in health, exercise, and disease. Special emphasis is placed on emphysema and its pathobiology, acute lung injury, asthma and inhaled toxicants. Because the ?eld is always evolving, each chapter includes recommended readings that lead the reader to sources of additional information, such as the review on remodeling of the blood gas barrier by West and Mathieu-Costello.
Categories: Science

The Pulmonary Epithelium in Health and Disease

The Pulmonary Epithelium in Health and Disease

There is overwhelming evidence that the airway smooth muscle in asthma is highly abnormal. Not only does it exhibit abnormal contractile features but it ...

Author: David Proud

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470727004

Category: Science

Page: 460

View: 180

"This is essential reading for everyone who would like to update their knowledge of the pulmonary epithelium. It offers a comparison between laboratory animal models and human lungs, highlighting the differences and the similarities between the two, which will be particularly useful to researchers." –Doody's, April 2009 The past two decades have seen extraordinary advances in our understanding of the role of the pulmonary epithelium in airway health and disease. Our understanding of epithelial biology has expanded exponentially in the past decade. This book provides a unique comprehensive description of the structure of the epithelium, its damage by various agents and the mechanism of epithelial repair. In addition, it's detailed coverage includes not only the multiple ways in which the epithelium contributes to host defence, but also the nature and functional consequences of the interactions of inhaled pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, allergens and pollutants. the role of the epithelium in regulating airway inflammation and structure is also discussed, as is the role of the epithelium as a target for inhaled medications and as a route for novel drug delivery. Containing chapters on multiple aspects of epithelial function in health and disease, each one is written by a leader in the field. This is essential reading for pulmonary researchers and physicians requiring detailed advanced understanding of the epithelium as well as those working in allergy, biomedical and pharmaceutical research.
Categories: Science

Airway Smooth Muscle

Airway Smooth Muscle

Daniel , E. E. , Control of airway smooth muscle , in The Airways Neural Control in Health and Disease , Kaliner , M. A. and Barnes , P. J. , Eds . , Marcel ...

Author: Devendra K. Agrawal

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 084935904X

Category: Medical

Page: 312

View: 676

Airway smooth muscle plays a dominant role in bronchial asthma, as well as a significant role in various pulmonary diseases, such as chronic bronchitis, cystic fibrosis and emphysema. Myogenic, neurogenic, and humoral factors control airway smooth-muscle tone. This text provides a state-of-the-art summary and critical discussion of airway smooth muscle from a multidisciplinary point of view. Topics discussed include morphology, biochemical regulation, mechanical and electrophysiological behavior and reflex control of smooth muscle; the epithelium-derived relaxing factor; and methods to measure smooth muscle function in vivo in humans and experimental animals, as well as in vitro in isolated airway tissues. Also discussed are calcium and potassium channels and receptors for adrenergic, cholinergic and histaminergic systems in modulating receptor-response coupling in airway smooth muscle. Airway Smooth Muscle: Modulation of Receptors and Response provides essential information for researchers, teachers, pulmonary specialists and allergists, and students interested in learning about airway smooth muscle.
Categories: Medical

Airways Smooth Muscle

Airways Smooth Muscle

Gabella G. Innervation of airways smooth muscle: Fine structure. Ann Rev Physiol 1987; 49: 583–594. ... The airways – Neural control in health and disease.

Author: David Raeburn

Publisher: Birkhäuser

ISBN: 9783034875585

Category: Medical

Page: 332

View: 529

Many factors may influence the release of neurotransmitters from airway nerves [1]. This is likely to be important in physiological control of airway functions and may be particularly relevant in airway diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Neural elements in airways interact in a complex manner and the activation of certain neural pathways may profoundly influence the release of transmitters from other neural pathways. Similarly inflamma tory mediators released from inflammatory cells in the airways may also modulate neurotransmitter release. There are marked differences be tween species in airway innervation and in neuromodulatory effects and, wherever possible, studies in human airways have been emphasised, although information on neuromodulation in human airways is some what limited at present. Release of neurotransmitters from nerve terminals occurs via a Ca2+ dependent secretion evoked by a nerve action potential, but may also be evoked experimentally by a high extracellular K + concentration which directly depolarises the nerve terminal membrane. Modulation refers to the alteration of neurotransmitter release, which may either be increased (facilitation) or reduced (inhibition) by the action of a particular agent, thus changing the magnitude of the neurally-mediated response. Such agents would normally act on receptors on the nerve terminal which are referred to as pre-junctional (or presynaptic) receptors, in contrast to post-junctional (or post-synaptic) receptors located on the target cells which are influenced by that particular transmitter.
Categories: Medical

Analysing Airway Dynamics Using 2D Iterated Maps and Systems of ODEs

Analysing Airway Dynamics Using 2D Iterated Maps and Systems of ODEs

In this work, an extension of an existing 1D iterated map for modelling airway dynamics to a 2D iterated map, which includes a non-constant force-length relationship for airway smooth muscle, is examined.

Author: Mo Wu

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:876082058

Category: Airway (Medicine)

Page: 117

View: 386

The airway, providing a means for respiration, is important to human health. An understanding of the behaviour of the airways and their major structural components, such as airway smooth muscle, may give important insights into human health and disease processes. As such, the dynamics of both the airways and airway smooth muscle have been popular areas of research. Airway and airway smooth muscle dynamics have previously been studied separately from one another. However, it is known that there are important connections between the behaviour of these two systems. In this work, an extension of an existing 1D iterated map for modelling airway dynamics to a 2D iterated map, which includes a non-constant force-length relationship for airway smooth muscle, is examined. Adding a force-length relationship and length adaptation to the original 1D map is shown to not affect the stability of stationary points or the period-two oscillatory dynamics in the region of interest. However, a period-three oscillation was discovered which was not seen in the 1D map, implying the oscillatory dynamics have been changed by adding the force-length relationship and length adaptation. The work has extended this 2D iterated map into a 2D system of ODEs and examined the behaviour of this new, continuous model, through analytical and numerical approaches. The continuous model has been found to lack the oscillatory behaviour associated with the discrete maps. This approach for producing the continuous model and the subsequent analysis is expected to have important implications in the future for coupling airway dynamics with full PDE-based airway smooth muscle dynamics. The behavioural similarities and differences between the 1D, 2D discrete and ODE models have been examined, showing that much of the behaviour of this family of models is highly similar, however, differences, particularly in respect to the appearance of oscillatory behaviour, have been shown to exist.
Categories: Airway (Medicine)

Handbook of the Autonomic Nervous System in Health and Disease

Handbook of the Autonomic Nervous System in Health and Disease

Figure 6 Adrenergic control of airway smooth muscle. ... has not been substantiated, and any defect in β-receptors is likely to be secondary to the disease, ...

Author: Liana Bolis

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0203908899

Category: Medical

Page: 696

View: 880

Examines the role of the ANS in the maintenance and control of bodily homeostasis, as well as in the pathogenesis, pathophysiology, and treatment of disorders such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, asthma, arrhythmia, diabetes, ischemia, myocardial infarction, urinary retention, and depression.
Categories: Medical

Mitochondrial Function in Lung Health and Disease

Mitochondrial Function in Lung Health and Disease

Currently, there is no overview on the role of mitochondria in pulmonary diseases and this volume focuses on the mitochondrial metabolism, redox signaling, and mechanisms of mitochondrial pathways in lung injury, inflammation, repair and ...

Author: Viswanathan Natarajan

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781493908295

Category: Medical

Page: 222

View: 741

Mitochondria, often referred to as the “powerhouses” of the cell, generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by oxidative phosphorylation or OXPHOS, and maintain cellular homeostasis. In addition to generating ATP, mitochondria are involved in regulation of cell cycle, proliferation, free radical production, innate immune responses and apoptosis. Mitochondrial Function in Lung Health and Disease fills the current gap in the literature and outlines the growing clinical relevance of mitochondrial dysfunction. Currently, there is no overview on the role of mitochondria in pulmonary diseases and this volume focuses on the mitochondrial metabolism, redox signaling, and mechanisms of mitochondrial pathways in lung injury, inflammation, repair and remodeling. Furthermore, in addition to their well-recognized role in cellular energy production and apoptosis, mitochondria appear to play a role in many respiratory diseases and lung cancer. Chapters are written by top notch researchers and clinicians and outline the evidence for mitochondrial biogenesis in inhalational lung injury, COPD and asthma.
Categories: Medical

An Introduction to Smooth Muscle Mechanics 2nd Edition

An Introduction to Smooth Muscle Mechanics  2nd Edition

This second edition is an updated version of an introductory level textbook intended for students who are interested in understanding the mechanical properties of smooth muscle.

Author: Chun Y. Seow

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 9781527562288

Category: Medical

Page: 189

View: 778

This second edition is an updated version of an introductory level textbook intended for students who are interested in understanding the mechanical properties of smooth muscle. Compared with skeletal and cardiac muscles, smooth muscle is the least understood in terms of its contraction mechanism and the structure of its contractile apparatus. Nevertheless, it is an important tissue that is vital in many organ functions, such as blood pressure control, intestinal peristalsis, and the emptying of the bladder. Dysfunction of the muscle has been implicated in many diseases such as high blood pressure, asthma, and overactive bladders. This is the only book-length treatment of functional models of a variety of smooth muscle behaviors with their corresponding mathematical descriptions, and offers an easy-to-follow, step-by-step mathematical derivation that will help students to appreciate the muscle cell as a fine-tuned aggregate of mechanisms governed by the fundamental laws of physics. In addition to providing a detailed description of the known subcellular structure and mechanical function of the contractile apparatus of smooth muscle, it also covers experimentation techniques, instrumentation, and data analysis. The book is a must-have information source for anyone interested in smooth muscle cell ultrastructure, physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology.
Categories: Medical

The Cytoskeleton in Health and Disease

The Cytoskeleton in Health and Disease

Asthma is one of the common chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases with airway inflammation and abnormal airway smooth muscle contraction, which is due to ...

Author: Heide Schatten

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781493929047

Category: Science

Page: 395

View: 751

This volume addresses the structural and functional roles of the cytoskeleton and its dysfunctions which often lead to disease. It provides thorough discussion of microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and cytoskeletal functions and dysfunctions in different organ systems. Comprehensive yet concise. The Cytoskeleton In Health And Disease presents cutting-edge discoveries balanced with background information and highlights the new aspects of the research and its impact on the design of new strategies or the identification of new targets for therapeutic intervention. There is a significant need for a book on this topic, as interest in the cytoskeleton continues to grow as causes and cures for cytoskeletal diseases are further explored in biomedical research. This book is essential reading for scientists, students, and teachers interested in expanding their knowledge related to the cytoskeleton. New researchers entering the field will find classic and well as contemporary information not easily found in the current literature or internet resources.
Categories: Science