Against the Grain

Against the Grain

The first agrarian states, says James C. Scott, were born of accumulations of domestications: first fire, then plants, livestock, subjects of the state, captives, and finally women in the patriarchal family—all of which can be viewed as a ...

Author: James C. Scott

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300231687

Category: History

Page: 336

View: 193

An account of all the new and surprising evidence now available for the beginnings of the earliest civilizations that contradict the standard narrative Why did humans abandon hunting and gathering for sedentary communities dependent on livestock and cereal grains, and governed by precursors of today’s states? Most people believe that plant and animal domestication allowed humans, finally, to settle down and form agricultural villages, towns, and states, which made possible civilization, law, public order, and a presumably secure way of living. But archaeological and historical evidence challenges this narrative. The first agrarian states, says James C. Scott, were born of accumulations of domestications: first fire, then plants, livestock, subjects of the state, captives, and finally women in the patriarchal family—all of which can be viewed as a way of gaining control over reproduction. Scott explores why we avoided sedentism and plow agriculture, the advantages of mobile subsistence, the unforeseeable disease epidemics arising from crowding plants, animals, and grain, and why all early states are based on millets and cereal grains and unfree labor. He also discusses the “barbarians” who long evaded state control, as a way of understanding continuing tension between states and nonsubject peoples.
Categories: History

Agriculture Philosophy Agricultural Science in Philosophy

Agriculture   Philosophy  Agricultural Science in Philosophy

journalCode=yisr20 5 The Odyssey, and The Iliad. 6Scott, J. (2017) Against the Grain: A Deep History of the Earliest States. Yale University Press. Pp281. 7Quoted from Algaze.

Author: Lindsay Falvey

Publisher: lindsay falvey

ISBN: 9780975100073

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 321

View: 547

Agriculture and philosophy have been parts of a whole across history and remain so. Philosophy informs wellbeing and contentment amidst the vagaries of existence, the primary concern of which has always been security of food. Science, once known as natural philosophy, is a major means of philosophical advance today. Agricultural science is presented as comprising all of these components. The philosophical quest to be at ease in nature extends from pre-historical times into our unknown future, and employs diverse vehicles to convey insights across generations via myths, legends religion, academic study and ritual practices. Expressing esoteric concepts has employed agricultural metaphor across the historical era as it has been our most common interaction with nature. Continuing as our most widespread human interaction within nature, agriculture’s role in creating civilization, and later its writing, eventually led to an urban separation from nature including food production. Unifying the philosophy, agriculture and agricultural science across cultures and traditions from pre-agricultural times through the European Enlightenment to today, this work builds on neglected ancient insights. Perhaps the most profound of these insights is that our thoughts and actions may be seen as an integral part of nature. Rather than being independent agents with free will, our fears and guilt may be seen as active forces in the dynamics of nature itself, which includes our procurement of food. This conception offers a wider interaction than can be comprehended from current popular approaches.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Understanding the Blockchain Economy

Understanding the Blockchain Economy

David R. Olson and Nancy Torrance (Cambridge University Press, 2009); Gary Giroux, Accounting History and the Rise ... in early communities and state formation is James C. Scott, Against the Grain: A Deep History of the Earliest States ...

Author: Chris Berg

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 9781788975001

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 224

View: 172

Blockchains are the distributed ledger technology that powers Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. But blockchains can be used for more than the transfer of tokens – they are a significant new economic infrastructure. This book offers the first scholarly analysis of the economic nature of blockchains and the shape of the blockchain economy. By applying the institutional economics of Ronald Coase and Oliver Williamson, this book shows how blockchains are poised to reshape the nature of firms, governments, markets, and civil society.
Categories: Business & Economics

Site Matters

Site Matters

For a more elaborate deep historical dissection of the history of environmentalism, see Christophe Bonneuil and ... 15 James C. Scott, Against the Grain, a Deep History of the Earliest States (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, ...

Author: Andrea Kahn

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9780429514432

Category: Architecture

Page: 300

View: 686

In the era of the Anthropocene, site matters are more pressing than ever. Building on the concepts, theories, and multi-disciplinary approaches raised in the first edition, this publication strives to address the changes that have taken place over the last 15 years with new material to complement and re-position the initial volume. Reaching across design disciplines, this highly illustrated anthology assembles essays from architects, landscape architects, urban designers, planners, historians, and artists to explore ways to physically and conceptually engage site. Thoughtful discourse and empirically grounded pieces combine to provide the language and theory to contextualize the meanings of site in the built environment. The increasingly complex hybridity of constructed environments today demands new tools for thinking about and working with site. Drawing contributions from outside and within the traditional design disciplines, this edition will trace important developments in site thinking with new essays on topics such as climate change, landscape as infrastructure, shifts from global to planetary urbanization debates, and the proliferation of participatory site transformation practices. Edited by two leading practitioners and academics, Site Matters juxtaposes timeless contributions from individuals including Elizabeth Meyer, Robert Beauregard, and Robin Dripps with original new writings from Peter Marcuse, Jane Wolff, Neil Brenner, and Thaisa Way, amongst others, to recontextualize and reignite the debate around site. An ideal text for students, academics, and researchers interested in site and design theory.
Categories: Architecture

The End of the Megamachine

The End of the Megamachine

According to a 2017 Harvard poll, 51 percent of 18–29 year-old US citizens are against a capitalist economy, which is a 10 percent increase ... James C. Scott: Against the Grain. A Deep History of the Earliest States, New Haven 2017, p.

Author: Fabian Scheidler

Publisher: John Hunt Publishing

ISBN: 9781789042726

Category: History

Page: 448

View: 501

The End of the Megamachine provides a uniquely comprehensive picture of the roots of the destructive forces that are threatening the future of humankind today. Spanning 5000 years of history, the book shows how the three tyrannies of militarized states, capital accumulation and ideological power have been steering both ecosystems and societies to the brink of collapse. With the growing instability of the Megamachine in the 21st century, new dangers open up as well as new possibilities for systemic change, to which everyone can contribute. Originally published in Germany in 2015 to great acclaim, Zero Books presents the first English language edition of The End of the Megamachine: A Brief History of a Failing Civilization. “The topic could not be more important. A very valuable and surely timely contribution.” Noam Chomsky
Categories: History

Coordination Cooperation and Control

Coordination  Cooperation  and Control

James C. Scott, Against the Grain: A Deep History of the Earliest States (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2017), p. 14. 3. James Scott, Against the Grain, p. 8. 4. James Scott, Against the Grain, p. 20. 5.

Author: Randall G. Holcombe

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030486679

Category: Political Science

Page: 328

View: 475

There are two ways people coordinate their actions: through cooperation, exercised by economic power, and through control, exercised by political power. When economic and political power are held by the same people, the result is stagnation; when those who hold economic power are not the same people who hold political power, the result is progress. This book presents the ways in which economic power and political power can be separated, and how they can remain so, by analyzing the nature of power and the differences between economic and political power. The book then discusses the history of economic and political power, including hunter-gatherer societies, agrarian societies, and modern commercial and industrial societies. This background lends insight into why political and economic power were typically held by the same people, and why recently those without political power have been able to acquire economic power. Incentives play a key role in understanding how those two types of power can become separated, and why there is always a tendency for them to recombine. But ideas also play a crucial role, including the influence of the Enlightenment, on the progress that has occurred in the last several hundred years.
Categories: Political Science

Imperial Mud

Imperial Mud

James C. Scott, Against the Grain: A Deep History of the Earliest States, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 2017, xi. 2. James C. Scott critiqued the 'nearly indelible association of civilization with the major grains' and ...

Author: James Boyce

Publisher: Icon Books

ISBN: 9781785786518

Category: Nature

Page: 256

View: 233

**WINNER OF THE HISTORY AND TRADITION CATEGORY, EAST ANGLIAN BOOK AWARDS 2020** **LONGLISTED FOR THE RSL ONDAATJE PRIZE 2021** 'A real page-turner ... a warning about what happens when the rich and powerful dress up their avarice as "progress" - a lesson we could do with learning today.' Dixe Wills, BBC Countryfile magazine FROM A MULTI-AWARD-WINNING HISTORIAN, AN ARRESTING NEW HISTORY OF THE BATTLE FOR THE FENS. Between the English Civil Wars and the mid-Victorian period, the proud indigenous population of the Fens of eastern England fought to preserve their homeland against an expanding empire. After centuries of resistance, their culture and community were destroyed, along with their wetland home – England’s last lowland wilderness. But this was no simple triumph of technology over nature – it was the consequence of a newly centralised and militarised state, which enriched the few while impoverishing the many. In this colourful and evocative history, James Boyce brings to life not only colonial masters such as Oliver Cromwell and the Dukes of Bedford but also the defiant ‘Fennish’ them- selves and their dangerous and often bloody resistance to the enclosing landowners. We learn of the eels so plentiful they became a kind of medieval currency; the games of ‘Fen football’ that were often a cover for sabotage of the drainage works; and the destruction of a bountiful ecosystem that had sustained the Fennish for thousands of years and which meant that they did not have to submit in order to survive. Masterfully argued and imbued with a keen sense of place, Imperial Mud reimagines not just the history of the Fens, but the history and identity of the English people.
Categories: Nature

The Birth of Energy

The Birth of Energy

See, for example, James Scott, Against the Grain: A Deep History of the Earliest States (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2017), and Barry Buzan and Richard Little, International Systems in World History: Remaking the Study of ...

Author: Cara New Daggett

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 9781478005346

Category: Political Science

Page: 280

View: 648

In The Birth of Energy Cara New Daggett traces the genealogy of contemporary notions of energy back to the nineteenth-century science of thermodynamics to challenge the underlying logic that informs today's uses of energy. These early resource-based concepts of power first emerged during the Industrial Revolution and were tightly bound to Western capitalist domination and the politics of industrialized work. As Daggett shows, thermodynamics was deployed as an imperial science to govern fossil fuel use, labor, and colonial expansion, in part through a hierarchical ordering of humans and nonhumans. By systematically excavating the historical connection between energy and work, Daggett argues that only by transforming the politics of work—most notably, the veneration of waged work—will we be able to confront the Anthropocene's energy problem. Substituting one source of energy for another will not ensure a habitable planet; rather, the concepts of energy and work themselves must be decoupled.
Categories: Political Science

The Invention of the Passport

The Invention of the Passport

Surveillance, Citizenship and the State John Torpey ... they seem at odds with the scorching diatribe against the emergence of states that can be found in his more recent Against the Grain: A Deep History of the Earliest States (2017).

Author: John C. Torpey

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781108473903

Category: History

Page: 278

View: 726

The definitive history of the passport and why it became so important for controlling movement in the modern world.
Categories: History

The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Administrative Law

The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Administrative Law

This is a point that James Scott stresses heavily in his widely read recent study , Against the Grain : A Deep History of the Earliest States ( 2017 ) . Scott argues that the slow historical pace of state emergence was a consequence of ...

Author: Peter Cane

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198799986

Category: Law

Page: 1168

View: 227

In this Handbook, distinguished experts in the field of administrative law discuss a wide range of issues from a comparative perspective. The book covers the historical beginnings of comparative administrative law scholarship, and discusses important methodological issues and basic concepts such as administrative power and accountability.
Categories: Law