Against Empathy

The Case for Rational Compassion

Author: Paul Bloom

Publisher: Random House

ISBN: 1473511380

Category: Philosophy

Page: 304

View: 6074

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In a divided world, empathy is not the solution, it is the problem. We think of empathy – the ability to feel the suffering of others for ourselves – as the ultimate source of all good behaviour. But while it inspires care and protection in personal relationships, it has the opposite effect in the wider world. As the latest research in psychology and neuroscience shows, we feel empathy most for those we find attractive and who seem similar to us and not at all for those who are different, distant or anonymous. Empathy therefore biases us in favour of individuals we know while numbing us to the plight of thousands. Guiding us expertly through the experiments, case studies and arguments on all sides, Paul Bloom ultimately shows that some of our worst decisions – in charity, child-raising, criminal justice, climate change and war – are motivated by this wolf in sheep's clothing. Brilliantly argued, urgent and humane, Against Empathy overturns widely held assumptions to reveal one of the most profound yet overlooked sources of human conflict.
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Moral Development and Reality

Beyond the Theories of Kohlberg, Hoffman, and Haidt

Author: John C. Gibbs

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190878231

Category: Psychology

Page: 400

View: 1588

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Moral Development and Reality explores the nature of moral development, human behavior, and social interconnections. The exploration elucidates the full range of moral development, from superficial perception to a deeper understanding and feeling through social perspective-taking. By comparing, contrasting, and going beyond the key theories of preeminent thinkers Lawrence Kohlberg, Martin Hoffman, and Jonathan Haidt, John C. Gibbs tackles vital questions: What exactly is morality and its development? Can the key theoretical perspectives be integrated? What accounts for prosocial behavior, and how can we understand and treat antisocial behavior? Does moral development, including moments of moral inspiration, reflect a deeper reality? This fourth edition of Moral Development and Reality is thoroughly updated, refined, and expanded. A major addition considers Paul Bloom's important challenge to Hoffman's theory. This book will have broad appeal across academic and applied disciplines in social and developmental psychology, education, the helping professions, and human development. Complete with case studies and chapter questions, it serves especially well as a text in advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in social/developmental psychology and human development.
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Searching for Oedipus

How I Found Meaning in an Ancient Masterpiece

Author: Kenneth Glazer

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 0761870466

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 278

View: 3642

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In Searching for Oedipus, attorney Ken Glazer recounts his decades-long quest to answer the Riddle of Oedipus: why Oedipus Rex, after 2,500 years, still wields such enormous power. Along the way he slices through the scholarly debate, laying bare the many ways this ancient masterpiece still speaks to us today.
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Understanding Others

Peoples, Animals, Pasts

Author: Dominick LaCapra

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 1501724908

Category: History

Page: 204

View: 9710

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To what extent do we and can we understand others—other peoples, species, times, and places? What is the role of others within ourselves, epitomized in the notion of unconscious forces? Can we come to terms with our internalized others in ways that foster mutual understanding and counteract the tendency to scapegoat, project, victimize, and indulge in prejudicial and narcissistic impulses? How do various fields or disciplines address or avoid such questions? And have these questions become particularly pressing and not in the least confined to other peoples, times, and places? Making selective and critical use of the thought of such important figures as Sigmund Freud, Jacques Derrida, and Mikhail Bakhtin, in Understanding Others Dominick LaCapra investigates a series of crucial topics from the current state of deconstruction, trauma studies, and the humanities to newer fields such as animal studies and posthumanist scholarship. LaCapra adroitly brings critical historical thought into a provocative engagement with politics and our current political climate. This is LaCapra at his best, critically rethinking major currents and exploring the old and the new in combination, often suggesting what this means in the age of Trump.
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Integral Ecology

Protecting Our Common Home

Author: Gerard Magill,Jordan Potter

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 152751210X

Category: Science

Page: 297

View: 7277

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This edited book is a collection of essays presented at the 2nd annual Integrity of Creation Conference at Duquesne University, USA, and thus represents the 2nd Conference Proceedings of an annual endowed series. The title of this conference was “Protecting Our Common Home,” adopted in the title of this volume. The concept of Integral Ecology conveys the indispensable inter-relation of topics, expertise, and specialties in the quest to protect the planet whose environment may face catastrophic threat. A leitmotif throughout the book is the ecological encyclical of Pope Francis called Laudato Si’: On Care for our Common Home, published in 2015. Indeed, the title of the volume refers to the phrase “integral ecology” and the challenge to “protect our common home” in the encyclical. Although the inspiration for the title comes from a religious leader, the analysis engages both secular and religious perspectives on crucial issues that threaten the ecology of our planet. The sections of the book are divided into the context of the problem, environmental science, social science, religion and ethics, and advocacy.
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The Case Against Moral Atheism

Author: Ken Wheeler

Publisher: WestBow Press

ISBN: 1490850120

Category: Religion

Page: 204

View: 3867

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What if you decided, today, that God did not exist? Would that change your morality? Would you still turn in an honest tax return? Why? If you are a single mother having a difficult time making ends meet, would you steal from the cash drawer at work to buy food for your baby? Why not? If an adult decided to prey on young children, why would that be morally different than a crocodile feasting on a baby monkey at the watering hole in the jungle? Why has the law of the jungle changed just because the jungle is now Wall Street and the Internet? If humanity evolved from primordial slime pools, who gets to declare that the pedophile is a criminal and the croc is just functioning according to his evolved DNA? Why should a person adopt moral values if he believes a Creator God does not exist? Does the "Chaos Theory" provide an answer to that question or is it just an attempt by the Atheist to fill in the blank with "anything but God" while avoiding the obvious and logical challenges produced by the concept of a Godless morality? The Case Against Moral Atheism challenges anyone who does not believe in a moral law-giver above mankind to consider why they should live moral lives if this life is all there is.
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Oxford Companion to Emotion and the Affective Sciences

Author: David Sander,Klaus Scherer

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191021016

Category: Psychology

Page: 520

View: 2742

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Few areas have witnessed the type of growth we have seen in the affective sciences in the past decades. Across psychology, philosophy, economics, and neuroscience, there has been an explosion of interest in the topic of emotion and affect. Comprehensive, authoritative, up-to-date, and easy-to-use, the new Oxford Companion to Emotion and the Affective Sciences is an indispensable resource for all who wish to find out about theories, concepts, methods, and research findings in this rapidly growing interdisciplinary field - one that brings together, amongst others, psychologists, neuroscientists, social scientists, philosophers, and historians. Organized by alphabetical entries, and presenting brief definitions, concise overviews, and encyclopaedic articles (all with extensive references to relevant publications), this Companion lends itself to casual browsing by non-specialists interested in the fascinating phenomena of emotions, moods, affect disorders, and personality as well as to focused search for pertinent information by students and established scholars in the field. Not only does the book provide entries on affective phenomena, but also on their neural underpinnings, their cognitive antecedents and the associated responses in physiological systems, facial, vocal, and bodily expressions, and action tendencies. Numerous entries also consider the role of emotion in society and social behavior, as well as in cognitive processes such as those critical for perception, attention, memory, judgement and decision-making. The volume has been edited by a group of internationally leading authorities in the respective disciplines consisting of two editors (David Sander and Klaus Scherer) as well as group of 11 associate editors (John T. Cacioppo, Tim Dalgleish, Robert Dantzer, Richard J. Davidson, Ronald B. de Sousa, Phoebe C. Ellsworth, Nico Frijda, George Loewenstein, Paula M. Niedenthal, Peter Salovey, and Richard A. Shweder). The members of the editorial board have commissioned and reviewed contributions from major experts on specific topics. In addition to comprehensive coverage of technical terms and fundamental issues, the volume also highlights current debates that inform the ongoing research process. In addition, the Companion contains a wealth of material on the role of emotion in applied domains such as economic behaviour, music and arts, work and organizational behaviour, family interactions and group dynamics, religion, law and justice, and societal change. Highly accessible and wide-ranging, this book is a vital resource for scientists, students, and professionals eager to obtain a rapid, conclusive overview on central terms and topics and anyone wanting to learn more about the mechanisms underlying the emotions dominating many aspects of our lives.
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The Disordered Mind

An Introduction to Philosophy of Mind and Mental Illness

Author: George Graham

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135088845

Category: Philosophy

Page: 288

View: 5949

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The Disordered Mind: An Introduction to Philosophy of Mind and Mental Illness, second edition examines and explains, from a philosophical standpoint, what mental disorder is: its reality, causes, consequences, and more. It is also an outstanding introduction to philosophy of mind from the perspective of mental disorder. Revised and updated throughout, this second edition includes new discussions of grief and psychopathy, the problems of the psychophysical basis of disorder, the nature of selfhood, and clarification of the relation between rationality and mental disorder. Each chapter explores a central question or problem about mental disorder, including: what is mental disorder and can it be distinguished from neurological disorder? what roles should reference to psychological, cultural, and social factors play in the medical/scientific understanding of mental disorder? what makes mental disorders undesirable? Are they diseases? mental disorder and the mind–body problem is mental disorder a breakdown of rationality? What is a rational mind? addiction, responsibility and compulsion ethical dilemmas posed by mental disorder, including questions of dignity and self-respect. Each topic is clearly explained and placed in a clinical and philosophical context. Mental disorders discussed include clinical depression, dissociative identity disorder, anxiety, religious delusions, and paranoia. Several non-mental neurological disorders that possess psychological symptoms are also examined, including Alzheimer’s disease, Down’s syndrome, and Tourette’s syndrome. Containing chapter summaries and suggestions for further reading at the end of each chapter, The Disordered Mind, second edition is a superb introduction to the philosophy of mental disorder for students of philosophy, psychology, psychiatry, and related mental health professions.
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Enraged

Why Violent Times Need Ancient Greek Myths

Author: Emily Katz Anhalt

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300231768

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 288

View: 1095

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An examination of remedies for violent rage rediscovered in ancient Greek myths Millennia ago, Greek myths exposed the dangers of violent rage and the need for empathy and self-restraint. Homer’s Iliad, Euripides’ Hecuba, and Sophocles’ Ajax show that anger and vengeance destroy perpetrators and victims alike. Composed before and during the ancient Greeks’ groundbreaking movement away from autocracy toward more inclusive political participation, these stories offer guidelines for modern efforts to create and maintain civil societies. Emily Katz Anhalt reveals how these three masterworks of classical Greek literature can teach us, as they taught the ancient Greeks, to recognize violent revenge as a marker of illogical thinking and poor leadership. These time-honored texts emphasize the costs of our dangerous penchant for glorifying violent rage and those who would indulge in it. By promoting compassion, rational thought, and debate, Greek myths help to arm us against the tyrants we might serve and the tyrants we might become.
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