Two important issues are foregrounded in this chapter regarding a strategic
approach at macro- and exosystemic levels for access to higher education.
These issues are a central driving committee at national level for access to higher
Author: Paul Downes
Publisher: Springer Science & Business
This book identifies key elements of an international framework to develop systems-level change to promote access to education, including higher education, for socio-economically marginalized groups. It is based on interviews with senior government officials and senior management in universities, non formal education and prisons across 12 countries in Europe. The book identifies systemic obstacles to and opportunities for promotion of access to education for socio-economically excluded groups that are issues transferable to other countries’ contexts. It adopts a systemic focus on access across a range of domains of education, both formal higher education and non-formal education, as well as prison education. Through a focus on a more dynamic structuralist systems framework it develops an innovative post-Bronfenbrennerian view of system levels in lifespan developmental and educational psychology. It also develops an international agenda for reform in relation to these various system levels for access to education for socio-economically marginalized groups, through extraction of key structural indicators to evaluate reform progress in a transparent, culturally sensitive manner. The book identifies current gaps and strengths in policy, practice and structures that impact upon access to education, including higher education, across a range of countries. These gaps and strengths are illustrative and are to inform a strategic approach to system level change and development for the promotion of access to education for socio-economically marginalized groups in Europe and beyond. “Too many educational practices entrench social exclusion: it is an urgent priority across Europe that social justice policies are implemented for the inclusion of marginalised groups. Paul Downes' analysis of these issues is timely. His conclusions are considered and practical: this book is a valuable and constructive resource for practitioners, academics and the policy community.” Professor Alistair Ross, Jean Monnet ad Personam Professor of Citizenship Education in Europe, Emeritus Professor of Education, Institute for Policy Studies in Education, London Metropolitan University
Abstract In Europe and Central Asia, the poor faces three problems: 1) the education system as a whole does not work well, and hence fails to meet
adequately their needs; 2) the private cost of education has gone up, so that ' education', as a ...
Author: Nancy Vandycke
Publisher: World Bank Publications
This paper focuses on the long-term benefits of education. It also examines the supply of education, the short-term incentives to invest in education for the poor, and draws on the policy implications. This paper also stresses the need to study further the determinants of school enrollment among the poor.
Author: European Centre for Higher Education (Unesco)Publish On: 1981
Admission policies and procedures in higher education institutions in East and West Europe were studied based on responses to a 1977 questionnaire sent to European countries and through additional study.
Author: European Centre for Higher Education (Unesco)
Category: Education, Higher
Admission policies and procedures in higher education institutions in East and West Europe were studied based on responses to a 1977 questionnaire sent to European countries and through additional study. The following topics are addressed: definitions of terms related to problems of access to postsecondary education; quantitative trends; admission policies; admission procedures; the new student clientele; and problems of access, including career information and guidance available to students, and foreign students in European higher education institutions. In almost all the countries of the Europe region, admission policies are endeavoring to maintain the results of the growth in the 1960s, but to maintain this growth at a slightly slower pace. Admission policies, while remaining policies of growth, are generally selective and restrictive because of the increased numbers of qualified secondary school students. Admission of new clientele, or those who have not necessarily completed the traditional secondary education and/or who wish to continue education while working, creates a balance in relation to the selective admissions policies. Selective admission occurs because of a lack of resources or a shortage of employment opportunities, or a combination of the two factors. Attention is directed to entrance examinations and competitions; selection based on secondary school performance; selection based on geographical or social background, which allows sociological and political objectives to be considered; and selection by lottery. A questionnaire is appended. (SW)
I. Access and Participation Under socialism , the countries of Central and Eastern Europe ( CEE ) were successful at providing high levels of access to education .
Enrollment rates , especially those for pre - school and basic education equaled ...
Author: Dena Ringold
Publisher: World Bank Publications
IFC Results on the Ground No. 1. The International Finance Corporation (IFC), whose primary mission is to encourage economic development in its member countries by supporting the private sector, measures its development effectiveness through an annual project review. This report, the first in a series that examines the IFC's development impact, presents five case studies of projects carried out during 1995-96. The projects involved were chosen for their geographic diversity and because they represent a number of sectors in which the IFC has traditionally done business--banks in Africa and Latin America; an agribusiness project in Madagascar; a textile operation in Indonesia; and an infrastructure project in Argentina. Each of these studies illustrates in detail the various aspects of project contributions of projects to development and some of the residual problems that will be the subject of future work.
This is because higher education systems in Europe should be designed to quickly respond and adapt to the needs of our increasingly knowledge-based economy and societies.
Supporting the development of mass higher education systems is high on the policy agendas at both national and European levels. This is because higher education systems in Europe should be designed to quickly respond and adapt to the needs of our increasingly knowledge-based economy and societies. Likewise, to expand the knowledge-base and foster progress, an increasing amount of European citizens are required to hold higher education degrees. In Europe, the EU 2020 strategy, with a goal of 40 % completion by 2020, and the modernisation agenda, for example, both focus on increasing participation in higher education. In view of these objectives and to support optimal policy making, the Eurydice report on Modernisation of Higher Education in Europe: access, Retention and Employability examines policy and practice in Europe related to three stages of higher education: Access, which includes awareness of the availability of higher education, the requirements to be admitted, and the process of admission; retention, including progression through the study programme with support that may be provided when problems are encountered; employability, including measures supporting students' transition from higher education into the labour market. This brochure summarises key findings of the report.
Recommends that European Member States of Unesco , in order to widen access
to higher education , examine the existing system of student welfare in
consultation with student organizations , with a specific view to such measures as
"In this polemical work written for the most conservative people in Europe in this matter of female education, we may behold reflected as in a mirror the entire movement in all countries, and see all of its stages, from the initiation on to ...
Author: Helene Lange
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
Helene Lange was a prominent educationist and feminist and played an important role in the German women's movement. She demanded that the education of women should be taken out of the hands of men and tried to improve women's access to higher education institutions. "In this polemical work written for the most conservative people in Europe in this matter of female education, we may behold reflected as in a mirror the entire movement in all countries, and see all of its stages, from the initiation on to the most advanced line of progress, in one picture." W. T. Harris Reprint of the original edition from 1908.
The 201 l UNICEF position paper The Right of Roma Children to Education
estimated that only about 20 per cent of Roma children in Europe are enrolled in
primary school, and those who are enrolled are likely to drop out as the twenty-
Author: Maja Miskovic
For the last three decades, the international response to the adverse conditions of Roma has been intensive, producing a plethora of educational policies, reforms, and strategies that have been developed and implemented. This edited volume gathers together prominent international scholars, advocates and activists, with the purpose of offering a comprehensive and integrated understanding of how historical, political, and cultural forces shape educational experiences and social policy for the Roma population in Europe. The book uses theoretical and empirical lenses to understand the formal and informal education of Roma. Through the contextualised theorisation of Roma education it illustrates, illuminates and discusses issues of wider concern. Interdisciplinary conceptual frameworks bind the chapters together and offer an in-depth examination of the questions and issues relevant to the field of education, structuring the book around three central themes: -schooling and social policy; the promises and pitfalls of multiculturalism, integration and inclusion and the deconstruction of educational policies and law -education inside and outside schools; empirical accounts of life in school and the achievements and missed opportunities of the Decade of Roma Inclusion -participation, activism and advocacy; investigating the responsibilities of Roma and non-Roma intellectuals, educators, activists and advocates. Roma Education in Europe grapples with uneven economic and political developments, and as a result, with the possibilities and shortcomings of integration, social justice, and the role of supranational agencies in changing the course of schooling and education. The book will be key reading for those researching or studying Romani studies, education, sociology, and cultural, ethnicity and immigration studies.
Texts and Activities of the Council of Europe Concerning Education Council of Europe ... Equal access to education for children in vulnerable categories Special
care must be taken to ensure that vulnerable groups have a right – and equal ...
Author: Council of Europe
Publisher: Council of Europe
Category: Political Science
This publication was compiled as part of the Council of Europe 'Education of Roma children in Europe' project which is responsible for implementing Recommendation No. R (2000) 4 of the Committee of Ministers to the member states on the education of Roma/Gypsy children in Europe. It outlines the Council of Europe's official texts on Roma and Travellers, highlighting references to education, and the summary summary reviews the working context for these texts, their implementation and the activities of the Council of Europe in this area.
During and after World War I, women gained greater access to all levels of education and career opportunities than they had in the nineteenth century. Education was a key factor in women's advancement, but access to it varied
according to ...
Author: Marcelline J. Hutton
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
This ambitious study provides a sweeping overview of the position of women in England, France, Germany, and Russia/USSR from 1860-1939. The book illustrates their struggles to realize their dreams and their resourcefulness in coping with often dreary, hard, even horrifying lives. Deftly combining statistical data to underscore collective experiences and belles lettres to highlight the texture of individual women's lives, the book assesses the significance of gender, class, nationality, and religion. This richly researched work traces common patterns and unique experiences in women's lives by showing how they defined themselves, coped with daily life, and confronted disaster with courage and resourcefulness.
Author: Anna Mountford-ZimdarsPublish On: 2016-11-18
Higher Education Tuition and Fees in China: Implications and Impacts on
Affordability and Educational Equity. Current Issues ... Inequality and Access to
Tertiary Education: European Countries 1950–2005 (Working Paper). Education
Author: Anna Mountford-Zimdars
How do we understand and explain who has access to higher education? How do we make sense of persisting and new forms of inequality? How can global, national and institutional policymakers and practitioners make higher education more inclusive? Access to Higher Education: Theoretical perspectives and contemporary challenges seeks to update thinking on these questions, combining new voices and emerging perspectives with established writers in the field. This pioneering text highlights the contribution of social theory to issues of access to education, with chapters introducing and drawing on the works of key interdisciplinary thinkers including Pierre Bourdieu, Margaret Archer, Amartya Sen and Herbert Simon. It then moves to examines how theoretical perspectives can be applied to the contemporary challenges of forging more equal access, with examples drawn from a wide range of contexts, including the UK, the US, Australia, South Africa and Japan. Global in scope, this book documents the shared nature of the access challenge in a period when higher education is growing rapidly, but inequalities continue to be stark. It concludes by proposing a new direction for research and a reassertion of the role of the researcher as a social activist for disconnected and disadvantaged groups, equipped with the thinking tools needed to move the agenda forward. Access to Higher Education is a rigorous text for the global research community, with relevance to policymakers, practitioners and postgraduate students interested in social justice and social policy. It provides those with an academic interest in access and a commitment to enhancing policy with theoretical and practical ideas for moving the access agenda forward in their institutional, regional or national contexts.
Gaps in access to education among the Roma are not a new phenomenon. It was
not until the socialist regimes came to power in Central and Eastern Europe
following World War II that large numbers of Roma were compelled to participate
Author: Dena Ringold
Publisher: World Bank Publications
Category: Social Science
This report brings together the available evidence from primary and secondary sources, including household surveys and results of recent qualitative studies, to develop a picture of the development challenges facing Roma populations in Central and Eastern Europe. While living standards have declined for all population groups during the transition to a market economy, there are growing indications that conditions have deteriorated more severely for Roma than for others, and that Roma are poorly positioned to take advantage of emerging economic opportunities. This report focuses on five countries in Central and Eastern Europe: Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania the Czech Republic, and the Slovak Republic. The first chapter of the report provides the historical context and an overview of the methodological issues and main data sources; chapter two presents the available evidence on welfare status and living conditions, examining poverty, housing education, employment and health; chapter three considers issues relating to access to social services; and the final chapter reviews the opportunities for Roma participation in the design and implementation of community development policies and programmes, and outlines policy implications.
giving 'guestworkers' the right to German citizenship. It is significant that after
Solingen, the most influential political magazine, Der Spiegel, changed its
terminology from 'foreigners' to 'immigrants' and from 'Turks in Germany' to '
Malta has the highest population density in Europe, with 380,000 inhabitants at
an average of 1200 persons ... Until 1970, Maltese pupils only had access to
secondary education after passing the 11+ admission examinations or by
enrolling at ...
Author: Wolfgang Hörner
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Social Science
This unique handbook offers an analytical review of the education systems of all European countries, following common analytical guidelines, and highlighting the paradox that education simultaneously pursues a universal value as well as a national character. Coverage includes international student performance studies, and a comparison of education dynamics in Eastern "new Europe" with "older" western EU members. The book provides a differentiated analytical data base, and offers suggestions for further research.
A school does not function as a closed circuit. ... D. Educational reforms and
suggested reforms Change and planning The history of education in all European countries consists of a long succession of proposed reforms and of
actual reforms, ...
Author: A. Sauvy
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
It is difficult for us today to imagine that equal educational opportunity, with which we are so deeply preoccupied, was at one time considered to be if not an evil at least a futile objective, and that those who held such an opinion were completely insincere and even disinterested. For a vertically stratified society equality of education had to be opposed be cause it would disturb an equilibrium as vital as that of a building. In the Middle Ages only the Church was able to look for new members at the bottom of the social ladder, since ecclesiastical office was not inherited by birth. But efforts in this direction were necessarily very limited, even if only because of the material obstacles to such an aim. Equality of education, as well as any other type of equality could not even be imagined by the aristocracy whose very existence would have been threatened. Its initial indifference was followed by active opposition. When it became possible to formulate the question of the diffusion of education, in the 17th and 18th centuries, the principle itself met with a fundamental objection. The ruling class, idle by its very nature, feared that the workers and especially those on the land would abandon their productive labours, now felt to be degrading, and swell the ranks of the parasites in the cities.
With this book GENE - Global Education Network Europe - marks 15 years of its work, networking policymakers for increased and improved Global Education in Europe.
Author: Helmuth Hartmeyer
Publisher: Waxmann Verlag
Global Education is an area of policy, practice, research and educational advocacy. It is an umbrella term that encompasses a variety of areas with differing terminologies: development education, human rights education, education for sustainable development, education for global citizenship. Global Education has become increasingly central to education policy and practice. With this book GENE - Global Education Network Europe - marks 15 years of its work, networking policymakers for increased and improved Global Education in Europe. The book explores key issues in contemporary Global Education in Europe: issues of national strategy, of structure development, of policy learning and engagement within education systems. It outlines challenges in research, practice, policy and conceptual development, through detailed analysis of national and international case studies. The book will be of use to policymakers, educationalists, researchers, and practitioners in the fields of education, international development, human rights and sustainability. GENE intends it as a contribution to the ongoing dialogue in this field, towards the day when all people in Europe - in solidarity with peoples globally - might have access to quality Global Education.
John Brennan is Director of the Centre for Higher Education Research and
Information and Professor of Higher Education ... These include College Entry in
Focus: A Fourth National Survey of Access to Higher Education (Dublin: Higher ...
Author: James S. Taylor
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Today, a substantial portion of higher education is provided outside of the traditional universities in non-university institutions with a multitude of varied characteristics. In recent decades, higher education systems have been subjected to many changes and reforms throughout the world. One of the most important was undoubtedly the expansion of higher education in the second half of the last century from an elite system to one for the masses. While institutions of higher learning have been in existence for approximately 1,000 years, this exponential growth has been much more recent. This movement toward mass higher education has created substantial national impacts on the development of the systems of higher education. While common denominators of change and adaptation can be identified globally, there remain important differences from country to country. There are many factors challenging higher education today and in the foreseeable future. In one form or another, these issues and trends can be seen in higher education systems throughout the world. They include chronic underfunding, marketisation and competition, alternative providers, massification, internationalisation, governance, leadership, strategic management, accountability, accreditation, and social relevance. Another key factor for many countries, especially in Europe, and the focus of this book, is the current and future status of the higher education systems that differentiate the university and non-university sectors.
As in England, the Swedish state school system emerged out of a school system
provided by the church. ... With regard to religious education in Sweden, the right
of children to access broad information, is regarded as more important than the ...
Author: Wanda Alberts
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
This book is a contribution to the development of a didactics of the Study of Religions (“Religionswissenschaft”). Based on a discussion of recent theory and methodology in the academic study of religions and in education, current models of integrative religious education in Europe (i.e. education about different religions in religiously mixed classrooms) are analysed and evaluated, with a special focus on England and Sweden. The book concludes with the suggestion of a European framework for integrative religious education from a study-of-religions perspective.