A Theory of Ellipsis

A Theory of Ellipsis

This is groundbreaking linguistic scholarship that bridges the theoretical and the applied, and will interest scholars in the fields of computational, descriptive, and theoretical linguistics.

Author: Marjorie J. McShane

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780190292089

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 272

View: 235

Ellipsis is the non-expression of one or more sentence elements whose meaning can be reconstructed either from the context or from a person's knowledge of the world. In speech and writing, ellipsis is pervasive, contributing in various ways to the economy, speed, and style of communication. Resolving ellipsis is a particularly challenging issue in natural language processing, since not only must meaning be gleaned from missing elements but the fact that something meaningful is missing must be detected in the first place. Marjorie McShane presents a comprehensive theory of ellipsis that supports the formal, cross-linguistic description of elliptical phenomena taking into account the various factors that affect the use of ellipsis. A methodology is suggested for creating a parameter space describing and treating ellipsis in any language. Such "ellipsis profiles" of languages will serve a wide range of practical applications, including but not limited to natural language processing. In contrast to earlier work, this theory focuses not only on what can, in principle, be elided but in what circumstances a given category actually would or would not be elided--that is, what renders ellipsis mandatory or infelicitous. A theory of ellipsis has been elusive because to produce an adequate account of this ubiquitous phenomenon one needs to address and integrate data from a wide variety of linguistic research areas. Using data primarily from Russian, English, and Polish, McShane looks at the big picture of ellipsis, integrating the syntactic, semantic, morphological, and pragmatic heuristics and bridges work on ellipsis with the larger study of reference. This is groundbreaking linguistic scholarship that bridges the theoretical and the applied, and will interest scholars in the fields of computational, descriptive, and theoretical linguistics.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Syntax of Silence

The Syntax of Silence

The first book-length treatment of the most cross-linguistically widespread form of ellipsis: elliptical wh-questions, known as sluices.

Author: Assistant Professor in the Department of Linguistics Jason Merchant

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0199243735

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 262

View: 560

A primary goal of contemporary theoretical linguistics is to develop a theory of the correspondence between sound (or gesture) and meaning. This sound-meaning correspondence breaks down completely in the case of ellipsis, and yet various forms of ellipsis are pervasive in natural language:words and phrases which should be in the linguistic signal go missing. How this should be possible is the focus of Jason Merchant's investigation. He focuses on the form of ellipsis known as sluicing, a common feature of interrogative clauses, such as in 'Sally's out hunting - guess what!'; and'Someone called, but I can't tell you who'. It is the most frequently found cross-linguistic form of ellipsis. Dr Merchant studies the phenomenon across twenty-four languages, and attempts to explain it in linguistic and behavioural terms.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Oxford Handbook of Ellipsis

The Oxford Handbook of Ellipsis

This handbook is the first volume to provide a comprehensive, in-depth, and balanced discussion of ellipsis, a phenomena whereby expressions in natural language appear to be incomplete but are still understood.

Author: Jeroen van Craenenbroeck

Publisher: Oxford Handbooks

ISBN: 9780198712398

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 1152

View: 299

This handbook is the first volume to provide a comprehensive, in-depth, and balanced discussion of ellipsis, a phenomena whereby expressions in natural language appear to be incomplete but are still understood. It explores fundamental questions about the workings of grammar and provides detailed case studies of inter- and intralinguistic variation.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Ellipsis

Ellipsis

This book elaborates a theory of ellipsis that sheds new light on a well-known phenomenon, bringing it under the aegis of general and universal principles.

Author: Anne Lobeck

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195357930

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 224

View: 168

This book elaborates a theory of ellipsis that sheds new light on a well-known phenomenon, bringing it under the aegis of general and universal principles. Lobeck argues that ellipted categories in IP (VP Ellipsis), DP (N' Ellipsis), and CP (Sluicing) are empty, non-referential pronominals, subject to the same licensing and identification conditions as referential pro. She proposes that both types of empty pronominals must be licensed under head-government to satisfy the Empty Category Principle, and identified through strong agreement. In the case of ellipsis, agreement-type features make the empty category visible to interpretive processes of reconstruction. These licensing and identification conditions derive the result that ellipses are complements of functional categories DET, COMP, and INFL, but not of lexical categories. The analysis is supported by contrastive evidence from ellipsis in French and German, in which licensing and identification interact with Verb Raising, feature checking, and a parameter defining "strong" agreement.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Syntactic Licensing of Ellipsis

The Syntactic Licensing of Ellipsis

The analysis also extends to phenomena that do not display such a restricted extraction, such as sluicing, VP ellipsis, and pseudogapping. Hence, this work is a step towards a unified analysis of ellipsis."

Author: Lobke Aelbrecht

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027255327

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 230

View: 325

This monograph presents a theory of ellipsis licensing in terms of Agree and applies it to several elliptical phenomena in both English and Dutch. The author makes two main claims: The head selecting the ellipsis site is checked against the head licensing ellipsis in order for ellipsis to occur, and ellipsis i.e., sending part of the structure to PF for non-pronunciation occurs as soon as this checking relation is established. At that point, the ellipsis site becomes inaccessible for further syntactic operations. Consequently, this theory explains the limited extraction data displayed by Dutch modals complement ellipsis as well as British English "do" These ellipses allow subject extraction out of the ellipsis site, but not object extraction. The analysis also extends to phenomena that do not display such a restricted extraction, such as sluicing, VP ellipsis, and pseudogapping. Hence, this work is a step towards a unified analysis of ellipsis."
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Topics in Ellipsis

Topics in Ellipsis

The nature of the identity condition has in fact been one of the main topics in the
literature on ellipsis . However , with regard to verb phrase ellipsis , the very
assumption that the theory of ellipsis contains such a condition has been
questioned .

Author: Bernhard Schwarz

Publisher:

ISBN: STANFORD:36105021699884

Category: German language

Page: 178

View: 427

Categories: German language

The French Orthologer Or Complete Course of Theory and Practice on the French Language

The French Orthologer  Or  Complete Course of Theory and Practice on the French Language

ELLIPSIS . Ellipsis signifies omission ; thus there is ellipsis whenever some
words necessary to the completion of a sentence are omitted . 6 EXAMPLE : d
Les rois sont placés au - dessus des | Kings are placed above other men , autres
 ...

Author: L. A. J. Mordacque

Publisher:

ISBN: BL:A0022912139

Category: French language

Page: 31

View: 700

Categories: French language

Minimalist Parsing

Minimalist Parsing

In this chapter I focus on ellipsis” in the framework of minimalist grammars (
Stabler, 1997), in particular the theory of Kobele (2015). I show that the problem
of parsing sentences with ellipsis sites (i.e. the problem of recovering all parse
trees for ...

Author: Robert C. Berwick

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198795087

Category: Computers

Page: 256

View: 953

This book is the first dedicated to linguistic parsing - the processing of natural language according to the rules of a formal grammar - in the Minimalist Program. While Minimalism has been at the forefront of generative grammar for several decades, it often remains inaccessible to computer scientists and others in adjacent fields. This volume makes connections with standard computational architectures, provides efficient implementations of some fundamental minimalist accounts of syntax, explores implementations of recent theoretical proposals, and explores correlations between posited structures and measures of neural activity during human language comprehension. These studies will appeal to graduate students and researchers in formal syntax, computational linguistics, psycholinguistics, and computer science.
Categories: Computers

Ellipsis and Focus in Generative Grammar

Ellipsis and Focus in Generative Grammar

The parallel derivation of syntax and semantics in the D-model solves one of the
most crucial problems of the theory of ellipsis: all previous work on ellipsis faced
the difficulty that the location of the actual deletion of linguistic material and the ...

Author: Susanne Winkler

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783110890426

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 304

View: 988

Covering linguistic research on empty categories over more than three decades, this monograph presents the result of an in-depth syntactic and focus-theoretical investigation of ellipsis in generative grammar. The phenomenon of ellipsis most generally refers to the omission of linguistic material, structure and sound. The central aim of this book is to explain on the basis of linguistic theorizing of how it is possible that we understand more than we actually hear. The answer developed throughout this book is that ellipsis is an interface phenomenon which can only be explained on the basis of the complex interaction between syntax, semantics and information structure. Scholars of grammar and cognitive scientists will profit from reading this book.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Indonesian Sluicing and Verb Phrase Ellipsis

Indonesian Sluicing and Verb Phrase Ellipsis

Natural language and linguistic theory 19 : 153-197 . McCloskey , James . 1979.
Transformational syntax and model theoretic semantics : a case study in modern
Irish . Dordrecht : Reidel . McCloskey , James . 1991. Clause structure , ellipsis ...

Author: Catherine Rose Fortin

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015070903755

Category:

Page:

View: 820

Categories:

Working Papers in Linguistics

Working Papers in Linguistics

Toward a theory of ellipsis in Japanese discourse * John Hinds Department of
East Asian Languages Comments and suggestions welcomed com 0 . This paper
examines the notion of ellipsis with specific reference to Japanese
conversational ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: STANFORD:36105007277333

Category: Linguistics

Page:

View: 293

Categories: Linguistics

Modality and Ellipsis

Modality and Ellipsis

(2) They did not search for truffles, but somebody else did [Ssearchfor trufflesS].A
theory of modals and ellipsis needs to develop an account of the two phenomena
consonant with their interface-dependency in the components of a grammar.

Author: Remus Gergel

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783110213362

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 268

View: 673

Aspects of modality and ellipsis have become prominent in theoretical linguistics over the last years. What has remained under-investigated is the fact that modals tend to make excellent ellipsis licensers and, conversely, that many of the naturally occurring cases of ellipsis are licensed by modals. The book concentrates on the syntax of the modal auxiliaries with special focus on English and investigates the grammatical relationship with the process of ellipsis that interacts most relevantly with the modals in grammaticalized fashion by including a special emphasis on verb-phrase ellipsis. After a critical discussion of pertinent approaches in the two domains, the book focuses on establishing the connection between the two areas by essentially drawing on the history of English and on observable effects in modern grammars, which it puts into perspective with semantically grounded features on the modals involved. Two major generalizations are proposed in the monograph. The first generalization concerns the treatment of the interaction between modals and ellipsis as determined by the features located in the licensing modal heads. To this end, the syntactic effects of the main semantic factors are explored in detail in English and partial effects obtaining in other languages are discussed. The second generalization concerns the syntactic component involved in ellipsis licensing. It is suggested that ellipsis types with the distributional features of verb-phrase ellipsis are licensed by interpretable features of the licensing head. The two generalizations are intertwined with one another and derive a series of further legitimate ellipsis licensers beyond the modals. The role of formal features that are interpretable is distinguished from agreement features, which are claimed not to be in charge of ellipsis licensing.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Nonsentential Constituents

Nonsentential Constituents

A theory of nonsentential constituents is presented consisting of two interacting models: an autonomous competence model of the grammar of nonsentential constituent structures, and a modular pragmatic model of the interpretation of ...

Author: Ellen L. Barton

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027250087

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 250

View: 789

Linguists traditionally have assumed that full sentence sources truncated by ellipsis rules account for the grammatical structure as well as the semantic interpretation of fragments like B below: A: What happened in 1974? B: A scandal in the White House. A sentential structure dominated by the initial node of S is reduced to a fragment by the operation of ellipsis, and it is the full sentential source that provides the semantic interpretation for the remaining fragment.Barton argues against both of these assumptions. She claims that independent major lexical categories like the example above are generated within a grammar as syntactic structures dominated by the initial node of NP, VP, and so on, rather than S. Her second claim is that the major part of the interpretation of these independent constituent utterances takes place within a pragmatic context, rather than in the semantic component of a grammar. A theory of nonsentential constituents is presented consisting of two interacting models: an autonomous competence model of the grammar of nonsentential constituent structures, and a modular pragmatic model of the interpretation of independent constituent utterances in context.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Proceedings of the 27th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics

Proceedings of the 27th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics

Focus Structure and Acceptability in Verb Phrase Ellipsis Laura Kertz University
of California , San Diego 1 . ... served as crucial evidence in support of a theory
where ellipsis is licensed by syntactic identity between antecedent and target .

Author: Natasha Abner

Publisher: Cascadilla Proceedings Project

ISBN: 1574734288

Category: Language and languages

Page: 466

View: 580

This volume contains 52 of the 59 papers from the 27th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics (WCCFL 27), which was held at the University of California, Los Angeles on May 16-18, 2008. The authors present new work in syntax, semantics, morphology, and phonology. The proceedings includes Elliott Moreton's plenary paper, "Modelling Modularity Bias in Phonological Pattern Learning."
Categories: Language and languages

A New Theory of the Solar System

A New Theory of the Solar System

circular orbits , but ellipsis could not be described as the Almighty wanted them
without then introducing a third force , which is contrary to Sir Newton ' s theory .
But where there is an incessant force at work , Is the idea not included that there
is ...

Author: Thomas Job

Publisher:

ISBN: PRNC:32101058275361

Category: Astronomy

Page: 107

View: 136

Categories: Astronomy

On Ellipsis

On Ellipsis

Kamp , H . ( 1981 ) " A theory of truth and semantic representation , " in J .
Groenendijk , T . Janssen , and M . Stokhof ( eds . ) , Formal Methods in the Study
of ... Klein , E . ( 1984 ) " VP Ellipsis in DR Theory , " ms . University of Edinburgh .

Author: Wynn Chao

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: UCSC:32106015358663

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 157

View: 847

Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics Du Gen

The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics  Du Gen

( 229 ) Sentence - Bound Ellipsis : The information - structural function of
sentence - bound ellipsis is the isolation of contrastive ... The handbook of
contemporary syntactic theory . Malden , MA : Blackwell . 439 - 479 . Klein W (
1993 ) . “ Ellipse .

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015062862977

Category: Language and languages

Page:

View: 719

Categories: Language and languages

The Syntax of Ellipsis

The Syntax of Ellipsis

The Syntax of Ellipsis investigates a number of elliptical constructions found in Dutch dialects within the framework of the Minimalist Program.

Author: Jeroen Van Craenenbroeck

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199704910

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 334

View: 237

The Syntax of Ellipsis investigates a number of elliptical constructions found in Dutch dialects within the framework of the Minimalist Program. Using two case studies, Van Craenenbroeck argues that both the PF-deletion and the pro-theory of ellipsis are needed to account for the full range of elliptical phenomena attested in natural language. The first case study focuses on instances of stranding to the right of a sluiced wh-phrase: prepositions in English (What about?) and demonstrative pronouns in southern Dutch dialects (Wie dat? 'who that'). Van Craenenbroeck gives both of these phenomena a PF-deletion analysis, which turns out to have considerable repercussions for the structure of the left periphery and the syntax of wh-movement. Specifically, while minimal wh-phrases move from their IP-internal base position to specCP, complex ones are base-generated in the (split) left periphery. The second case study is concerned with Short Do Replies in southern Dutch dialects, a type of contradictory reply that at first sight bears a close resemblance to English VP-ellipsis. Van Craenenbroeck shows that in this case the ellipsis site is best represented as a null, structureless proform that is licensed by the head of a high PolP. Moreover, this pronominal is argued to occur in two other dialectal constructions as well: contradictory replies of the type Da's nie 'that is not' found in Brabant Dutch, and the occurrence of subject clitics and agreement endings on the words for yes and no in Southern Dutch dialects (e.g. Ja-n-s 'yes-PLURAL-they'). The Syntax of Ellipsis will be of interest to scholars of the left periphery, wh-movement, and Dutch dialects.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines