A Study of Logics

Author: John P. Cleave

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198532113

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 417

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This is a new systematic study of the principles behind the variety of logical systems in mathematical logic and computer science. The technical work is illuminated by information about its historical and philosophical context.
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Handbook of Philosophical Logic

Author: Dov M. Gabbay,Franz Guenthner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401704643

Category: Philosophy

Page: 368

View: 4848

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It is with great pleasure that we are presenting to the community the second edition of this extraordinary handbook. It has been over 15 years since the publication of the first edition and there have been great changes in the landscape of philosophical logic since then. The first edition has proved invaluable to generations of students and researchers in formal philosophy and language, as well as to consumers of logic in many applied areas. The main logic article in the Encyclopaedia Britannica 1999 has described the first edition as 'the best starting point for exploring any of the topics in logic'. We are confident that the second edition will prove to be just as good! The first edition was the second handbook published for the logic com- nity. It followed the North Holland one volume Handbook of Mathematical Logic, published in 1977, edited by the late Jon Barwise. The four volume Handbook of Philosophical Logic, published 1983-1989 came at a fortunate temporal junction at the evolution of logic. This was the time when logic was gaining ground in computer science and artificial intelligence circles. These areas were under increasing commercial pressure to provide devices which help and/or replace the human in his daily activity. This pressure required the use of logic in the modelling of human activity and organi- tion on the one hand and to provide the theoretical basis for the computer program constructs on the other.
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What is Negation?

Author: Dov M. Gabbay,Heinrich Wansing

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401593094

Category: Philosophy

Page: 335

View: 4933

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The notion of negation is one of the central logical notions. It has been studied since antiquity and has been subjected to thorough investigations in the development of philosophical logic, linguistics, artificial intelligence and logic programming. The properties of negation-in combination with those of other logical operations and structural features of the deducibility relation-serve as gateways among logical systems. Therefore negation plays an important role in selecting logical systems for particular applications. At the moment negation is a 'hot topic', and there is an urgent need for a comprehensive account of this logical key concept. We therefore have asked leading scholars in various branches of logic to contribute to a volume on "What is Negation?". The result is the present neatly focused collection of re search papers bringing together different approaches toward a general characteri zation of kinds of negation and classifications thereof. The volume is structured into four interrelated thematic parts. Part I is centered around the themes of Models, Relevance and Impossibility. In Chapter 1 (Negation: Two Points of View), Arnon Avron develops two characteri zations of negation, one semantic the other proof-theoretic. Interestingly and maybe provokingly, under neither of these accounts intuitionistic negation emerges as a genuine negation. J. Michael Dunn in Chapter 2 (A Comparative Study of Various Model-theoretic Treatments of Negation: A History of Formal Negation) surveys a detailed correspondence-theoretic classifcation of various notions of negation in terms of properties of a binary relation interpreted as incompatibility.
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Agenda Relevance: A Study in Formal Pragmatics

Author: N.A

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080526874

Category: Computers

Page: 524

View: 343

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Agenda Relevance is the first volume in the authors' omnibus investigation of the logic of practical reasoning, under the collective title, A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems. In this highly original approach, practical reasoning is identified as reasoning performed with comparatively few cognitive assets, including resources such as information, time and computational capacity. Unlike what is proposed in optimization models of human cognition, a practical reasoner lacks perfect information, boundless time and unconstrained access to computational complexity. The practical reasoner is therefore obliged to be a cognitive economizer and to achieve his cognitive ends with considerable efficiency. Accordingly, the practical reasoner avails himself of various scarce-resource compensation strategies. He also possesses neurocognitive traits that abet him in his reasoning tasks. Prominent among these is the practical agent's striking (though not perfect) adeptness at evading irrelevant information and staying on task. On the approach taken here, irrelevancies are impediments to the attainment of cognitive ends. Thus, in its most basic sense, relevant information is cognitively helpful information. Information can then be said to be relevant for a practical reasoner to the extent that it advances or closes some cognitive agenda of his. The book explores this idea with a conceptual detail and nuance not seen the standard semantic, probabilistic and pragmatic approaches to relevance; but wherever possible, the authors seek to integrate alternative conceptions rather than reject them outright. A further attraction of the agenda-relevance approach is the extent to which its principal conceptual findings lend themselves to technically sophisticated re-expression in formal models that marshal the resources of time and action logics and label led deductive systems. Agenda Relevance is necessary reading for researchers in logic, belief dynamics, computer science, AI, psychology and neuroscience, linguistics, argumentation theory, and legal reasoning and forensic science, and will repay study by graduate students and senior undergraduates in these same fields. Key features: • relevance • action and agendas • practical reasoning • belief dynamics • non-classical logics • labelled deductive systems
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Protoalgebraic Logics

Author: Janusz Czelakowski

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401728070

Category: Mathematics

Page: 452

View: 322

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The main aim of this book is to present recent ideas in logic centered around the notion of a consequence operation. We wish to show these ideas in a factually and materially connected way, i.e., in the form of a consistent theory derived from several simple assumptions and definitions. These ideas have arisen in many research centers. The thorough study of their history can certainly be an exciting task for the historian of logic; in the book this aspect of the theory is being played down. The book belongs to abstract algebraic logic, the area of research that explores to a large extent interconnections between algebra and logic. The results presented here concern logics defined in zero-order languages (Le., quantifier-free sentential languages without predicate symbols). The reach of the theory expounded in the book is, in fact, much wider. The theory is also valid for logics defined in languages of higer orders. The problem of transferring the theory to the level of first-order languages has been satisfactorily solved and new ideas within this area have been put forward in the work of Blok and Pigozzi [1989].
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Change, Choice and Inference

A Study of Belief Revision and Nonmonotonic Reasoning

Author: Hans Rott

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198503064

Category: Mathematics

Page: 381

View: 9133

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Change, Choice and Inference unifies lively and significant strands of research in logic, philosophy, economics and artificial intelligence.
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Logic

from foundations to applications : European logic colloquium

Author: Wilfrid Hodges

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: N.A

Category: Mathematics

Page: 536

View: 8153

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The volume contains 21 essays by leading authorities on aspects of contemporary mathematical logic, including set theory, model theory, constructive mathematics and applications of computer science. It includes several expository papers
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