A New Kind of Science

Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate, One Hundred Eighth Congress, First Session, September 4, 2003

Author: United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Cellular automata

Page: 27

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A New Kind of Social Science

Study of Self-organization of Human Dynamics

Author: Vlad Dimitrov

Publisher: Lulu.com

ISBN: 1411601424

Category: Psychology

Page: 184

View: 7447

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This book introduces a new kind of social inquiry centered in exploration of the self-organizing nature of human dynamics. The author links the study of social complexity with his original research into uncertainty inherent in human knowing and learning.
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A Nonlinear Dynamics Perspective of Wolfram's New Kind of Science

Author: Leon O. Chua

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814390526

Category: Cellular automata

Page: 349

View: 3535

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This penultimate volume contains numerous original, elegant, and surprising results in 1-dimensional cellular automata. Perhaps the most exciting, if not shocking, new result is the discovery that only 82 local rules, out of 256, suffice to predict the time evolution of any of the remaining 174 local rules from an arbitrary initial bit-string configuration. This is contrary to the well-known folklore that 256 local rules are necessary, leading to the new concept of quasi-global equivalence . Another surprising result is the introduction of a simple, yet explicit, infinite bit string called the super string S, which contains all random bit strings of finite length as sub-strings. As an illustration of the mathematical subtlety of this amazing discrete testing signal, the super string S is used to prove mathematically, in a trivial and transparent way, that rule 170 is as chaotic as a coin toss . Yet another unexpected new result, among many others, is the derivation of an explicit basin tree generation formula which provides an analytical relationship between the basin trees of globally-equivalent local rules. This formula allows the symbolic, rather than numerical, generation of the time evolution of any local rule corresponding to any initial bit-string configuration, from one of the 88 globally-equivalent local rules. But perhaps the most provocative idea is the proposal for adopting rule 137, over its three globally-equivalent siblings, including the heretofore more well-known rule 110, as the prototypical universal Turing machine .
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Cellular Automata

A Discrete View of the World

Author: Joel L. Schiff

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111803063X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 272

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An accessible and multidisciplinaryintroduction to cellularautomata As the applicability of cellular automata broadens andtechnology advances, there is a need for a concise, yet thorough,resource that lays the foundation of key cellularautomata rules andapplications. In recent years, Stephen Wolfram's A New Kind ofScience has brought the modeling power that lies in cellularautomata to the attentionof the scientific world, and now, CellularAutomata: A Discrete View of the World presents all the depth,analysis, and applicability of the classic Wolfram text in astraightforward, introductory manner. This book offers anintroduction to cellular automata as a constructive method formodeling complex systems where patterns of self-organizationarising from simple rules are revealed in phenomena that existacross a wide array of subject areas, including mathematics,physics, economics, and the social sciences. The book begins with a preliminary introduction to cellularautomata, including a brief history of the topic along withcoverage of sub-topics such as randomness, dimension, information,entropy, and fractals. The author then provides a completediscussion of dynamical systems and chaos due to their closeconnection with cellular automata and includes chapters that focusexclusively on one- and two-dimensional cellular automata. The nextand most fascinating area of discussion is the application of thesetypes of cellular automata in order to understand the complexbehavior that occurs in natural phenomena. Finally, the continuallyevolving topic of complexity is discussed with a focus on how toproperly define, identify, and marvel at its manifestations invarious environments. The author's focus on the most important principles of cellularautomata, combined with his ability to present complex material inan easy-to-follow style, makes this book a very approachable andinclusive source for understanding the concepts and applications ofcellular automata. The highly visual nature of the subject isaccented with over 200 illustrations, including an eight-page colorinsert, which provide vivid representations of the cellularautomata under discussion. Readers also have the opportunity tofollow and understand the models depicted throughout the text andcreate their own cellular automata using Java applets and simplecomputer code, which are available via the book's FTP site. Thisbook serves as a valuable resource for undergraduate and graduatestudents in the physical, biological, and social sciences and mayalso be of interest to any reader with a scientific or basicmathematical background.
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'A Nonlinear Dynamics Perspective of Wolfram''s New Kind of Science'

(Volume I & II)

Author: Leon O Chua

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814478695

Category: Science

Page: 600

View: 6718

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' This novel book introduces cellular automata from a rigorous nonlinear dynamics perspective. It supplies the missing link between nonlinear differential and difference equations to discrete symbolic analysis. A surprisingly useful interpretations of cellular automata in terms of neural networks is also given. The book provides a scientifically sound and original analysis, and classifications of the empirical results presented in Wolfram''s monumental “New Kind of Science.” Readership: Graduate students, academics and researchers in nonlinear dynamics, computer science and complexity theory.Keywords:Cellular Automata;Nonlinear Dynamics;Wolfram;Neural Networks;Cellular Neural Networks;CNN;Universal Computation;Turing Machine;Chaos;Nonlinear Science;Complexity;Emergence "This book is a colourful presentation with fresh ideas and attractive illustrations … those studying non-linear sciences, electronic engineering, mathematics and logics, complexity and emergent phenomena, and possibly even chemistry and biology will certainly discover exciting concepts, analogies and research tools in this refreshing text. Anyone from freshmen to elderly academics will find parts interesting to them. The volumes are somewhat special and exciting because they possess a unique ''Chua brand'' and show gradual development of ideas and concepts in an educational and entertaining hence mathematically rigorous manner." Journal of Cellular Automata "There is much of interest here, and in particular many interesting examples presented in novel ways." Zentralblatt MATH '
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Women and Science

Social Impact and Interaction

Author: Suzanne Le-May Sheffield

Publisher: Rutgers University Press

ISBN: 0813537371

Category: Social Science

Page: 409

View: 882

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From Maria Winkelman's discovery of the comet of 1702 to the Nobel Prize-winning work of twentieth-century scientist Barbara McClintock, women have played a central role in modern science. Their successes have not come easily, nor have they been consistently recognized. This book examines the challenges and barriers women scientists have faced and chronicles their achievements as they struggled to attain recognition for their work in the male-dominated world of modern science.
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The Metaphysics of Science

An Account of Modern Science in terms of Principles, Laws and Theories

Author: Craig Dilworth

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401586217

Category: Science

Page: 246

View: 5855

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The roots of this work lie in my earlier book, Scientific Progress, which first appeared in 1981. One of its topics, the distinction between scientific laws and theories, is there treated with reference to the same distinction as drawn by N. R. Campbell in his Physics: The Elements. Shortly after completing Scientific Progress, I read Rom Harre's The Principles of Scientific Thinking, in which the concept of theory is even more clearly delineated than in Campbell, being directly con nected to the notion of a model - as it was in my book. In subsequent considerations regarding science, Harre's work thus became my main source of inspiration with regard to theories, while Campbell's re mained my main source with respect to empiricallaws. Around the same time I also read William Whewell's Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences. In this work, Whewell depicts principles as playing a central role in the formation of science, and conceives of them in much the same way as Kant conceives of fundamental syn thetic a priori judgements. The idea that science should have principles as a basic element immediately made sense to me, and from that time I have thought of science in terms of laws, theories and principles.
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