A Descriptive Approach to Language-Theoretic Complexity

Author: James Rogers

Publisher: Center for the Study of Language and Information Publications

ISBN: 9781575861364

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 216

View: 3189

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Early formal specifications of natural language syntax were quite closely connected to the notion of abstract machines for computing them. More recently, this approach has been superseded by one in which languages are specified in terms of systems of constraints on the structure of their sentences. This has made complexity results difficult to obtain. This book introduces a way of obtaining such results. It presents a natural and quite general means of expressing constraints on the structure of trees and shows that the languages that can be specified by systems of such constraints are exactly those computable by a particular standard class of abstract machines. Thus the difficulty of processing a construction can be reduced to the difficulty of expressing the constraints that specify it.
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Two-Step Approaches to Natural Language Formalism

Author: Frank Morawietz

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110197251

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 260

View: 6758

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This book presents a unified formal approach to various contemporary linguistic formalisms such as Government & Binding, Minimalism or Tree Adjoining Grammar. Through a careful introduction of mathematical techniques from logic, automata theory and universal algebra, the book aims at graduate students and researchers who want to learn more about tightly constrained logical approaches to natural language syntax. Therefore it features a complete and well illustrated introduction to the connection between declarative approaches formalized in monadic second-order logic (MSO) and generative ones formalized in various forms of automata as well as of tree grammars. Since MSO logic (on trees) yields only context-free languages, and at least the last two of the formalisms mentioned above clearly belong to the class of mildly context-sensitive formalisms, it becomes necessary to deal with the problem of the descriptive complexity of the formalisms involved in another way. The proposed genuinely new two-step approach overcomes this limitation of MSO logic while still retaining the desired tightly controlled formal properties.
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Quantifiers and Cognition: Logical and Computational Perspectives

Author: Jakub Szymanik

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319287494

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 211

View: 9727

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This volume on the semantic complexity of natural language explores the question why some sentences are more difficult than others. While doing so, it lays the groundwork for extending semantic theory with computational and cognitive aspects by combining linguistics and logic with computations and cognition. Quantifier expressions occur whenever we describe the world and communicate about it. Generalized quantifier theory is therefore one of the basic tools of linguistics today, studying the possible meanings and the inferential power of quantifier expressions by logical means. The classic version was developed in the 1980s, at the interface of linguistics, mathematics and philosophy. Before this volume, advances in "classic" generalized quantifier theory mainly focused on logical questions and their applications to linguistics, this volume adds a computational component, the third pillar of language use and logical activity. This book is essential reading for researchers in linguistics, philosophy, cognitive science, logic, AI, and computer science.
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Syntax - Theory and Analysis

Author: Tibor Kiss

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110363704

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 652

View: 6974

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The handbook offers an overview of syntactic theory and analysis, in terms of different theories, different languages, and different methods. The Handbook presents the state of art in syntactic analysis, also dealing with the methodology employed, and the rules of argumentation required to achieve such analyses for a wide range of phenomena.
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Grammatical theory

From transformational grammar to constraint-based approaches. Second revised and extended edition

Author: Stefan Müller

Publisher: Language Science Press

ISBN: 3961100748

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 6788

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This book introduces formal grammar theories that play a role in current linguistic the- orizing (Phrase Structure Grammar, Transformational Grammar/Government & Binding, Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar, Lexical Functional Grammar, Categorial Gram- mar, Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, Construction Grammar, Tree Adjoining Grammar). The key assumptions are explained and it is shown how the respective the- ory treats arguments and adjuncts, the active/passive alternation, local reorderings, verb placement, and fronting of constituents over long distances. The analyses are explained with German as the object language. The second part of the book compares these approaches with respect to their predictions regarding language acquisition and psycholinguistic plausibility. The nativism hypothe- sis, which assumes that humans posses genetically determined innate language-specific knowledge, is critically examined and alternative models of language acquisition are dis- cussed. The second part then addresses controversial issues of current theory building such as the question of flat or binary branching structures being more appropriate, the question whether constructions should be treated on the phrasal or the lexical level, and the question whether abstract, non-visible entities should play a role in syntactic analyses. It is shown that the analyses suggested in the respective frameworks are often translatable into each other. The book closes with a chapter showing how properties common to all languages or to certain classes of languages can be captured. “With this critical yet fair reflection on various grammatical theories, Müller fills what has been a major gap in the literature.” Karen Lehmann, Zeitschrift für Rezensionen zur germanistischen Sprachwissenschaft, 2012 “Stefan Müller’ s recent introductory textbook, “Grammatiktheorie”, is an astonishingly comprehensive and insightful survey of the present state of syntactic theory for beginning students.” Wolfgang Sternefeld und Frank Richter, Zeitschrift für Sprachwissenschaft, 2012 “This is the kind of work that has been sought after for a while. [...] The impartial and objective discussion offered by the author is particularly refreshing.” Werner Abraham, Germanistik, 2012
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Computer Science Logic

18th International Workshop, CSL 2004, 13th Annual Conference of the EACSL, Karpacz, Poland, September 20-24, 2004, Proceedings

Author: Jerzy Marcinkowski

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: N.A

Category: Computer science

Page: 520

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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 18th International Workshop on Computer Science Logic, CSL 2004, held as the 13th Annual Conference of the EACSL in Karpacz, Poland, in September 2004. The 33 revised full papers presented together with 5 invited contributions were carefully reviewed and selected from 88 papers submitted. All current aspects of logic in computer science are addressed ranging from mathematical logic and logical foundations to methodological issues and applications of logics in various computing contexts.
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Logical Aspects of Computational Linguistics

Second International Conference, LACL'97, Nancy, France, September 22-24, 1997, Selected Papers

Author: Alain Lecomte,Francois Lamarche,Guy Perrier

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: N.A

Category: Computational linguistics

Page: 251

View: 5144

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This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-proceedings of the Second International Conference on Logical Aspects of Computational Linguistics, LACL '97, held in Nancy, France in September 1997. The 10 revised full papers presented were carefully selected during two rounds of reviewing. Also included are two comprehensive invited papers. Among the topics covered are type theory, various types of grammars, linear logic, parsing, type-directed natural language processing, proof-theoretic aspects, concatenation logics, and mathematical languages.
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