A Cooperative Species

Human Reciprocity and Its Evolution

Author: Samuel Bowles,Herbert Gintis

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691158169

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 280

View: 3852

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Why do humans, uniquely among animals, cooperate in large numbers to advance projects for the common good? Contrary to the conventional wisdom in biology and economics, this generous and civic-minded behavior is widespread and cannot be explained simply by far-sighted self-interest or a desire to help close genealogical kin. In A Cooperative Species, Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis--pioneers in the new experimental and evolutionary science of human behavior--show that the central issue is not why selfish people act generously, but instead how genetic and cultural evolution has produced a species in which substantial numbers make sacrifices to uphold ethical norms and to help even total strangers. The authors describe how, for thousands of generations, cooperation with fellow group members has been essential to survival. Groups that created institutions to protect the civic-minded from exploitation by the selfish flourished and prevailed in conflicts with less cooperative groups. Key to this process was the evolution of social emotions such as shame and guilt, and our capacity to internalize social norms so that acting ethically became a personal goal rather than simply a prudent way to avoid punishment. Using experimental, archaeological, genetic, and ethnographic data to calibrate models of the coevolution of genes and culture as well as prehistoric warfare and other forms of group competition, A Cooperative Species provides a compelling and novel account of how humans came to be moral and cooperative.
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The Bounds of Reason

Game Theory and the Unification of the Behavioral Sciences

Author: Herbert Gintis

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400851343

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 288

View: 8735

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Game theory is central to understanding human behavior and relevant to all of the behavioral sciences—from biology and economics, to anthropology and political science. However, as The Bounds of Reason demonstrates, game theory alone cannot fully explain human behavior and should instead complement other key concepts championed by the behavioral disciplines. Herbert Gintis shows that just as game theory without broader social theory is merely technical bravado, so social theory without game theory is a handicapped enterprise. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated. Reinvigorating game theory, The Bounds of Reason offers innovative thinking for the behavioral sciences.
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Cheating and Business Ethics

Author: Wallace R. Baker

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 1527541606

Category: Philosophy

Page: 308

View: 8054

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This volume is a unique collection of inspiring reflections designed to enhance the reader’s understanding of both the importance and the relativity of business ethics. It invites experts and specialists of business ethics to explore threads from history, religion, philosophy and biology, but will also appeal to the thoughtful citizen, academic, businessman, banker and lawyer who has chosen to critically reflect upon the value of ethical conduct in today’s world. The book draws from a rich mine of academic sources to consider how business ethics relate to today’s key concerns, including wealth inequality, the need for effective financial regulations and sustainability—how best to engage with our duties to planet earth. Nourished by the author’s life-long practice of international law and his exploration of academic thinking on ethics, this book is neither an analysis nor a sermon. It is an invitation to make the world a better place by engaging in ethical thought.
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Public Theology and Institutional Economics

All is Economy

Author: Toine van den Hoogen

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 1527541355

Category: Religion

Page: 238

View: 4345

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This book shows why, in our modern society, many important questions in our public debates urge for attention to be given to questions about economy, and why religious thinking gives unexpectedly relevant perspectives on these. Neither economy nor religion is a private matter. Our daily life and personal decisions about lifestyle are marked by our public choices and attitudes. As we are actually part of complex and disturbing processes in an information society, our daily lives are changing in rapid ways. Beginning with a discussion of what public theology is actually about, the text moves on to discuss three dimensions of these processes: namely, our capitalist market economy, our urge for a common ground in the conflicts of that economy, and our responsibility for a sustainable lifestyle in that economy. Religious thinking, especially that of Gregory of Nazianzus (329-390), confronts questions about spiritual awareness in these domains.
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The Cordial Economy - Ethics, Recognition and Reciprocity

Author: Patrici Calvo

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319907840

Category: Philosophy

Page: 187

View: 7397

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This book proposes, from a civil perspective —such as that developed by Stefano Zamagni— and a cordial perspective —such as that developed by Adela Cortina—, orientations to design an economy in tune with what the historical moment demands. Among other things, this comes from encouraging institutions, organisations and companies to include in their designs aspects as important for carrying out their activities as cordial reciprocity, mutual recognition of the communicative and affective capacities of the linked or linkable parties, public commitment and the active participation of civil society. The book first shows the conceptualisation of the process of self-interest as operating for one’s own benefit and its inclusion in the orthodox economic model. In Chapter 2 it then displays some of the logical/formal and experimental limits of the axiomatic economics model to discover the possibility of building bridges between theoretical modelling and factual validation. Chapter 3 demonstrates the fragility of a rationality model based on the paradigmatic figure of homo oeconomicus. Chapter 4 reflects on the critical process that has identified reciprocity as a determining factor for human cooperation, turning this behaviour into a paradox in which the lack of a reasonable explanation from the selfish perspective becomes inconsistent in the predominant economic theory. Chapter 5 is from a moral point of view it describes and criticises the different approaches to reciprocity observed by sociologists, biologists, psychologists and economists. Chapter 6 analyses three mutual recognition proposals as possible foundations for human cooperation, highlighting one of them –cordial recognition, developed by Cortina– because it is more closely related to studies of reciprocity, particularly the most recent contributions from the neurosciences. Chapter 7 proposes cordial reciprocity as a horizon of meaning for the various approaches to reciprocity observed. Chapter 8 explores the possible emergence and development of cordial goods, a type of relational and communicative good that enables joint actions to take place in different contexts of human activity. Chapter 9 analyses the application and implementation of cordial reciprocity at the macro, meso and micro levels of the economy. And finally, it proposes guidelines for designing a monitoring and compliance system which, based on the communication, storage and processing of big data and the committed participation of stakeholders, offers businesses the possibility of inspecting their underlying dimensions of morality, emotions and responsibility.
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Across the Continent

Author: Professor Faculty of Economics Samuel Bowles,Samuel Bowles

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783741117947

Category:

Page: 480

View: 2145

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Across The Continent - A Summer's Journey To The Rocky Mountains is an unchanged, high-quality reprint of the original edition of 1866. Hansebooks is editor of the literature on different topic areas such as research and science, travel and expeditions, cooking and nutrition, medicine, and other genres.As a publisher we focus on the preservation of historical literature.Many works of historical writers and scientists are available today as antiques only. Hansebooks newly publishes these books and contributes to the preservation of literature which has become rare and historical knowledge for the future.
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The Oxford Handbook of Political Science

Author: Robert E. Goodin

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191619795

Category: Political Science

Page: 1312

View: 630

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Drawing on the rich resources of the ten-volume series of The Oxford Handbooks of Political Science, this one-volume distillation provides a comprehensive overview of all the main branches of contemporary political science: political theory; political institutions; political behavior; comparative politics; international relations; political economy; law and politics; public policy; contextual political analysis; and political methodology. Sixty-seven of the top political scientists worldwide survey recent developments in those fields and provide penetrating introductions to exciting new fields of study. Following in the footsteps of the New Handbook of Political Science edited by Robert Goodin and Hans-Dieter Klingemann a decade before, this Oxford Handbook will become an indispensable guide to the scope and methods of political science as a whole. It will serve as the reference book of record for political scientists and for those following their work for years to come.
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The Oxford Handbook of Behavioral Economics and the Law

Author: Eyal Zamir,Doron Teichman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199397953

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 496

View: 6149

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The past twenty years have witnessed a surge in behavioral studies of law and law-related issues. These studies have challenged the application of the rational-choice model to legal analysis and introduced a more accurate and empirically grounded model of human behavior. This integration of economics, psychology, and law is breaking exciting new ground in legal theory and the social sciences, shedding a new light on age-old legal questions as well as cutting edge policy issues. The Oxford Handbook of Behavioral Economics and Law brings together leading scholars of law, psychology, and economics to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of this field of research, including its strengths and limitations as well as a forecast of its future development. Its 29 chapters organized in four parts. The first part provides a general overview of behavioral economics. The second part comprises four chapters introducing and criticizing the contribution of behavioral economics to legal theory. The third part discusses specific behavioral phenomena, their ramifications for legal policymaking, and their reflection in extant law. Finally, the fourth part analyzes the contribution of behavioral economics to fifteen legal spheres ranging from core doctrinal areas such as contracts, torts and property to areas such as taxation and antitrust policy.
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Human Social Evolution

The Foundational Works of Richard D. Alexander

Author: Kyle Summers,Bernard Crespi

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199339635

Category: Science

Page: 496

View: 8006

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Richard D. Alexander is an accomplished entomologist who turned his attention to solving some of the most perplexing problems associated with the evolution of human social systems. Using impeccable Darwinian logic and elaborating, extending and adding to the classic theoretical contributions of pioneers of behavioral and evolutionary ecology like George Williams, William Hamilton and Robert Trivers, Alexander developed the most detailed and comprehensive vision of human social evolution of his era. His ideas and hypotheses have inspired countless biologists, anthropologists, psychologists and other social scientists to explore the evolution of human social behavior in ever greater detail, and many of his seminal ideas have stood the test of time and come to be pillars of our understanding of human social evolution. This volume presents classic papers or chapters by Dr. Alexander, each focused on an important theme from his work. Introductions by Dr. Alexander's former students and colleagues highlight the importance of his work to the field, describe more recent work on the topic, and discuss current issues of contention and interest.
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The New Economics of Inequality and Redistribution

Author: Samuel Bowles

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139536567

Category: Business & Economics

Page: N.A

View: 6527

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Economists warn that policies to level the economic playing field come with a hefty price tag. But this so-called 'equality-efficiency trade-off' has proven difficult to document. The data suggest, instead, that the extraordinary levels of economic inequality now experienced in many economies are detrimental to the economy. Moreover, recent economic experiments and other evidence confirm that most citizens are committed to fairness and are willing to sacrifice to help those less fortunate than themselves. Incorporating the latest results from behavioral economics and the new microeconomics of credit and labor markets, Bowles shows that escalating economic disparity is not the unavoidable price of progress. Rather it is policy choice - often a very costly one. Here drawing on his experience both as a policy advisor and an academic economist, he offers an alternative direction, a novel and optimistic account of a more just and better working economy.
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