3D Flash Memories

Author: Rino Micheloni

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9401775125

Category: Computers

Page: 380

View: 8079

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This book walks the reader through the next step in the evolution of NAND flash memory technology, namely the development of 3D flash memories, in which multiple layers of memory cells are grown within the same piece of silicon. It describes their working principles, device architectures, fabrication techniques and practical implementations, and highlights why 3D flash is a brand new technology. After reviewing market trends for both NAND and solid state drives (SSDs), the book digs into the details of the flash memory cell itself, covering both floating gate and emerging charge trap technologies. There is a plethora of different materials and vertical integration schemes out there. New memory cells, new materials, new architectures (3D Stacked, BiCS and P-BiCS, 3D FG, 3D VG, 3D advanced architectures); basically, each NAND manufacturer has its own solution. Chapter 3 to chapter 7 offer a broad overview of how 3D can materialize. The 3D wave is impacting emerging memories as well and chapter 8 covers 3D RRAM (resistive RAM) crosspoint arrays. Visualizing 3D structures can be a challenge for the human brain: this is way all these chapters contain a lot of bird’s-eye views and cross sections along the 3 axes. The second part of the book is devoted to other important aspects, such as advanced packaging technology (i.e. TSV in chapter 9) and error correction codes, which have been leveraged to improve flash reliability for decades. Chapter 10 describes the evolution from legacy BCH to the most recent LDPC codes, while chapter 11 deals with some of the most recent advancements in the ECC field. Last but not least, chapter 12 looks at 3D flash memories from a system perspective. Is 14nm the last step for planar cells? Can 100 layers be integrated within the same piece of silicon? Is 4 bit/cell possible with 3D? Will 3D be reliable enough for enterprise and datacenter applications? These are some of the questions that this book helps answering by providing insights into 3D flash memory design, process technology and applications.
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NAND Flash Memory Technologies

Author: Seiichi Aritome

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119132606

Category: Computers

Page: 432

View: 8074

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Offers a comprehensive overview of NAND flash memories, with insights into NAND history, technology, challenges, evolutions, and perspectives Describes new program disturb issues, data retention, power consumption, and possible solutions for the challenges of 3D NAND flash memory Written by an authority in NAND flash memory technology, with over 25 years’ experience
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Inside Solid State Drives (SSDs)

Author: Rino Micheloni,Alessia Marelli,Kam Eshghi

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9811305994

Category: Science

Page: 485

View: 1088

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The revised second edition of this respected text provides a state-of-the-art overview of the main topics relating to solid state drives (SSDs), covering NAND flash memories, memory controllers (including booth hardware and software), I/O interfaces (PCIe/SAS/SATA), reliability, error correction codes (BCH and LDPC), encryption, flash signal processing and hybrid storage. Updated throughout to include all recent work in the field, significant changes for the new edition include: A new chapter on flash memory errors and data recovery procedures in SSDs for reliability and lifetime improvement Updated coverage of SSD Architecture and PCI Express Interfaces moving from PCIe Gen3 to PCIe Gen4 and including a section on NVMe over fabric (NVMf) An additional section on 3D flash memories An update on standard reliability procedures for SSDs Expanded coverage of BCH for SSDs, with a specific section on detection A new section on non-binary Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codes, the most recent advancement in the field A description of randomization in the protection of SSD data against attacks, particularly relevant to 3D architectures The SSD market is booming, with many industries placing a huge effort in this space, spending billions of dollars in R&D and product development. Moreover, flash manufacturers are now moving to 3D architectures, thus enabling an even higher level of storage capacity. This book takes the reader through the fundamentals and brings them up to speed with the most recent developments in the field, and is suitable for advanced students, researchers and engineers alike.
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Flash Memories

Economic Principles of Performance, Cost and Reliability Optimization

Author: Detlev Richter

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400760825

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 268

View: 5158

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The subject of this book is to introduce a model-based quantitative performance indicator methodology applicable for performance, cost and reliability optimization of non-volatile memories. The complex example of flash memories is used to introduce and apply the methodology. It has been developed by the author based on an industrial 2-bit to 4-bit per cell flash development project. For the first time, design and cost aspects of 3D integration of flash memory are treated in this book. Cell, array, performance and reliability effects of flash memories are introduced and analyzed. Key performance parameters are derived to handle the flash complexity. A performance and array memory model is developed and a set of performance indicators characterizing architecture, cost and durability is defined. Flash memories are selected to apply the Performance Indicator Methodology to quantify design and technology innovation. A graphical representation based on trend lines is introduced to support a requirement based product development process. The Performance Indicator methodology is applied to demonstrate the importance of hidden memory parameters for a successful product and system development roadmap. Flash Memories offers an opportunity to enhance your understanding of product development key topics such as: · Reliability optimization of flash memories is all about threshold voltage margin understanding and definition; · Product performance parameter are analyzed in-depth in all aspects in relation to the threshold voltage operation window; · Technical characteristics are translated into quantitative performance indicators; · Performance indicators are applied to identify and quantify product and technology innovation within adjacent areas to fulfill the application requirements with an overall cost optimized solution; · Cost, density, performance and durability values are combined into a common factor – performance indicator - which fulfills the application requirements
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Digital Storage in Consumer Electronics

The Essential Guide

Author: Thomas M. Coughlin

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319699075

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 245

View: 2376

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This book provides an introduction to digital storage for consumer electronics. It discusses the various types of digital storage, including emerging non-volatile solid-state storage technologies and their advantages and disadvantages. It discusses the best practices for selecting, integrating, and using storage devices for various applications. It explores the networking of devices into an overall organization that results in always-available home storage combined with digital storage in the cloud to create an infrastructure to support emerging consumer applications and the Internet of Things. It also looks at the role of digital storage devices in creating security and privacy in consumer products.
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Solid-State-Drives (SSDs) Modeling

Simulation Tools & Strategies

Author: Rino Micheloni

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331951735X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 170

View: 6406

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This book introduces simulation tools and strategies for complex systems of solid-state-drives (SSDs) which consist of a flash multi-core microcontroller plus NAND flash memories. It provides a broad overview of the most popular simulation tools, with special focus on open source solutions. VSSIM, NANDFlashSim and DiskSim are benchmarked against performances of real SSDs under different traffic workloads. PROs and CONs of each simulator are analyzed, and it is clearly indicated which kind of answers each of them can give and at a what price. It is explained, that speed and precision do not go hand in hand, and it is important to understand when to simulate what, and with which tool. Being able to simulate SSD’s performances is mandatory to meet time-to-market, together with product cost and quality. Over the last few years the authors developed an advanced simulator named “SSDExplorer” which has been used to evaluate multiple phenomena with great accuracy, from QoS (Quality Of Service) to Read Retry, from LDPC Soft Information to power, from Flash aging to FTL. SSD simulators are also addressed in a broader context in this book, i.e. the analysis of what happens when SSDs are connected to the OS (Operating System) and to the end-user application (for example, a database search). The authors walk the reader through the full simulation flow of a real system-level by combining SSD Explorer with the QEMU virtual platform. The reader will be impressed by the level of know-how and the combination of models that such simulations are asking for.
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Inside NAND Flash Memories

Author: Rino Micheloni,Luca Crippa,Alessia Marelli

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048194315

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 582

View: 2121

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Digital photography, MP3, digital video, etc. make extensive use of NAND-based Flash cards as storage media. To realize how much NAND Flash memories pervade every aspect of our life, just imagine how our recent habits would change if the NAND memories suddenly disappeared. To take a picture it would be necessary to find a film (as well as a traditional camera...), disks or even magnetic tapes would be used to record a video or to listen a song, and a cellular phone would return to be a simple mean of communication rather than a multimedia console. The development of NAND Flash memories will not be set down on the mere evolution of personal entertainment systems since a new killer application can trigger a further success: the replacement of Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) with Solid State Drives (SSDs). SSD is made up by a microcontroller and several NANDs. As NAND is the technology driver for IC circuits, Flash designers and technologists have to deal with a lot of challenges. Therefore, SSD (system) developers must understand Flash technology in order to exploit its benefits and countermeasure its weaknesses. Inside NAND Flash Memories is a comprehensive guide of the NAND world: from circuits design (analog and digital) to Flash reliability (including radiation effects), from testing issues to high-performance (DDR) interface, from error correction codes to NAND applications like Flash cards and SSDs.
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Scaled Planar Floating-gate NAND Flash Memory Technology

Challenges and Novel Solutions

Author: N.A

Publisher: Stanford University

ISBN: N.A

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 3579

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NAND flash memories are ubiquitous in their use as portable storage media in cellphones, cameras, music players, and other portable electronic devices. The NAND flash memory device, consisting of a floating-gate transistor cell, is the most aggressively scaled electronic device, as evidenced by ever-increasing memory capacities. In this work, we will examine possible problems arising from continued scaling of these structures, and discuss novel solutions to overcome them. Firstly, we investigate scaling of the conventional poly-silicon floating-gate, aimed at reducing cell-to-cell interference. We experimentally delineate a new reliability concern for the first time, with programming current through ultra-thin poly-silicon floating-gates becoming increasingly ballistic. We also experimentally demonstrate doping-related issues in the poly-silicon floating-gate. We then apply a novel metal-based floating-gate cell for the first time, designed to overcome the problems discussed above. We explore factors that influence the choice of metal, and demonstrate excellent functionality in ultra-thin metal floating-gate cells scaled down to 3 nm TiN floating-gate thickness, thus greatly reducing cell-to-cell interference. Finally, in order to facilitate continued scaling of the control dielectric, we explore replacement of the conventional silicon oxide-nitride dielectric with high-k dielectric materials. We integrate poly-silicon and metal floating-gate cells with Al2O3 high-k control dielectric. Further, we establish that a deeper work-function control gate is helpful in reducing gate-injection. Combining ultra-thin metal floating-gate, high-k control dielectric and deep work-function control gate, we enable the planar floating-gate cell as a scalable candidate.
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Advances in Non-volatile Memory and Storage Technology

Author: Yoshio Nishi

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0857098098

Category: Computers

Page: 532

View: 3616

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New solutions are needed for future scaling down of nonvolatile memory. Advances in Non-volatile Memory and Storage Technology provides an overview of developing technologies and explores their strengths and weaknesses. After an overview of the current market, part one introduces improvements in flash technologies, including developments in 3D NAND flash technologies and flash memory for ultra-high density storage devices. Part two looks at the advantages of designing phase change memory and resistive random access memory technologies. It looks in particular at the fabrication, properties, and performance of nanowire phase change memory technologies. Later chapters also consider modeling of both metal oxide and resistive random access memory switching mechanisms, as well as conductive bridge random access memory technologies. Finally, part three looks to the future of alternative technologies. The areas covered include molecular, polymer, and hybrid organic memory devices, and a variety of random access memory devices such as nano-electromechanical, ferroelectric, and spin-transfer-torque magnetoresistive devices. Advances in Non-volatile Memory and Storage Technology is a key resource for postgraduate students and academic researchers in physics, materials science, and electrical engineering. It is a valuable tool for research and development managers concerned with electronics, semiconductors, nanotechnology, solid-state memories, magnetic materials, organic materials, and portable electronic devices. Provides an overview of developing nonvolatile memory and storage technologies and explores their strengths and weaknesses Examines improvements to flash technology, charge trapping, and resistive random access memory Discusses emerging devices such as those based on polymer and molecular electronics, and nanoelectromechanical random access memory (RAM)
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