Work, Employment and Transition

Author: Al Rainnie,Adrian Smith,Adam Swain

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134534973

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 288

View: 8499

Since the late 1980s the experiences of work and employment in the former communist world have been profoundly transformed. Work, Employment and Transition brings together a series of essays by leading international scholars which highlights the varied and complex forms that work and employment restructuring are taking in the post-soviet world, and makes important theoretical contributions to our understanding of these transformations.

Informal Employment in Emerging and Transition Economies

Author: Solomon W. Polachek,Konstantinos Tatsiramos

Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing

ISBN: 1780527861

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 300

View: 3931

Informality and informal employment are wide-spread and growing phenomena in all regions of the world, particularly in low and middle income economies. This volume sheds light on the incidence and persistence of informality and the role of institutions and government regulations, and offers insights into issues such as how labor and tax regulations

Informal Work in Developed Nations

Author: Enrico Marcelli,Colin C. Williams,Pascale Joassart

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135219958

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 256

View: 9488

Almost everyone residing in a developed nation knows someone who has engaged in paid work that is licit but not reported to the government (e.g., babysitting, gardening, construction, financial consulting). But while most acknowledge that such work is helpful to the individuals involved, and that informal work may enhance a sense of community, most scholars view it as a pre-modern form of exchange and something that disappears as capitalist markets expand globally. Both mainstream and heterodox economics typically assume that there is an inevitable shift towards the formalization of goods and services provisioning as societies become more "advanced" or "developed" (the "formalization thesis"). In these views, the existence of informal activities is a manifestation of backwardness and it is assumed that they will disappear as an economy becomes more "modern." This book challenges these conventional theses about the linear trajectory of informal work and economic development by arguing that informal work is not trivial for understanding modern capitalist economies, and that both mainstream and heterodox theories about the economy must be altered to address the role of informal work in relatively developed economies. This edited collection focuses on informal work in various developed nations, including Canada, the United States, and several in Europe. It will therefore be of interest to policymakers, as well as students and researchers in development studies, social policy, sociology, anthropology, public health, geography, economics and planning. Enrico Marcelli is Assistant Professor of Sociology at San Diego State University, USA. Colin C. Williams is Professor of Public Policy at the University of Sheffield, UK. Pascale Joassart is Assistant Professor of Geography at San Diego State University, USA.

Understanding Work and Employment

Industrial Relations in Transition

Author: Peter Ackers,Adrian Wilkinson

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780199240661

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 366

View: 7179

This book aims to analyze, advertise and criticize the contribution of industrial relations to social science understanding. It brings together leading scholars to reconsider the theoretical foundations of industrial relations and its potential contribution to the wider understanding of work and economic life, to learn what it can gain from a stronger engagement with these surrounding disciplines and national traditions.The introduction provides a critical, though broadly sympathetic outline of the development of the main stream industrial relations tradition. Part One recognizes the interdisciplinary character of industrial relations by concentrating on 'border encounters' with the cognate academic disciplines of sociology, economics, management, history, psychology, law, politics and geography. Of particular interest is how far industrial relations has contributed to social science understanding beyond its own narrow borders. Part Two combines a major critical analysis of the American school, with three shorter discussions of Australia, Europe and Japan. Part Three looks forward to the potential contribution of industrial relations to our understanding of work, employment and society by identifying a variety of key dilemmas and debates which call for new interdisciplinary thinking. Finally, the book ends with a critical reassessment of the industrial relations tradition.

Contingent Work

American Employment Relations in Transition

Author: Kathleen Barker,Kathleen Christensen

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801484056

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 350

View: 3727

The successful 1997 strike by the Teamsters against UPS, and the overwhelming support the American public gave the strikers highlighted the impact of contingent work—an umbrella term for a variety of tenuous and insecure employment arrangements such as temping, independent contracting, employee leasing, and some self-employment and part-time or part-year work. This new book contends that contingent work represents a profound deviation from the employment relations model that dominated most of this century's labor relations. It delineates essential features of contingent work from both the worker's and the organization's point of view. Articulating a variety of perspectives from various disciplines, the contributors examine the business forces driving contingent work and assess the consequences of working contingently for the individual, family, and community, taking into account issues of race, class, and gender. They ask how current labor and employment laws need to be rewritten to provide contingent workers with the same comprehensive protections offered to permanent employees. In the final chapter, the editors comment on the status of research on contingent work and chart future research directions.

Youth Labor in Transition

Inequalities, Mobility, and Policies in Europe

Author: Jacqueline O'Reilly,Janine Leschke,Renate Ortlieb,Martin Seeleib-Kaiser,Paola Villa

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190864796

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 560

View: 6354

Exacerbated by the Great Recession, youth transitions to employment and adulthood have become increasingly protracted, precarious, and differentiated by gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Youth Labor in Transition examines young people's integration into employment, alongside the decisions and consequences of migrating to find work and later returning home. The authors identify key policy challenges for the future related to NEETS, overeducation, self-employment, and ethnic differences in outcomes. This illustrates the need to encompass a wider understanding of youth employment and job insecurity by including an analysis of economic production and how it relates to social reproduction of labor if policy intervention is to be effective. The mapping and extensive analysis in this book are the result of a 3«-year, European Union-funded research project (Strategic Transitions for Youth Labour in Europe, or STYLE; coordinated by Jacqueline O'Reilly. With an overall budget of just under 5 million euros and involving 25 research partners; an international advisory network and local advisory boards of employers, unions, and policymakers; and non-governmental organizations from more than 20 European countries, STYLE is one of the largest European Commission-funded research projects to exist on this topic. Consequently, this book will appeal to an array of audiences, including academic and policy researchers in sociology, political science, economics, management studies, and more particular labor market and social policy; policy communities; and bachelor's- and master's-level students in courses on European studies or any of the aforementioned subject areas.

Work, Family Policies and Transitions to Adulthood in Europe

Author: T. Knijn

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137284196

Category: Social Science

Page: 240

View: 3302

This book analyzes how the current generation of young adults enters the labour market and tries to create their own autonomous household, with or without children, exploring questions such as what does it mean to be a young adult in Europe today and what social policies help them to combine work and family life?

The European Social Model and Transitional Labour Markets

Law and Policy

Author: Professor Ralf Rogowski

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1409496457

Category: Law

Page: 374

View: 1872

Bringing together theoretical, empirical and comparative perspectives on the European Social Model (ESM) and transitional labour market policy, this volume contains theoretical accounts of the ESM and a discussion of policy implications for European social and employment policies that derive from research on transitional labour markets. It provides an economic as well as legal assessment of the European Employment Strategy and contains evaluations of new forms of governance both in European and member state policies, including discussions of the potential and limits of soft law instruments. Country studies of labour market reforms in Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium and France assess their contribution to an emerging ESM, while comparative accounts of the ESM examine mobility and security patterns in Europe and beyond and evaluate recent 'flexicurity' policies from a global perspective.

The Former Yugoslavia at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century

A Guide to the Economies in Transition

Author: Ian Jeffries

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113446049X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 648

View: 4496

This book focuses on the recent political and economic events in the former Yugoslavia. The author presents a clear, detailed and accessible breakdown of the developments in: Bosnia-Hercegovina, Croatia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Slovenia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). The role of the West in the more unstable countries of the Former Yugoslavia has been reassessed in the light of the terrorist attacks on the United States and the fall of Afghanistan. The involvement of the US, in particular, in countries affected by ethnic strife has been brought under scrutiny, as has the role of international military and civilian involvement in maintaining peace and rebuilding economies and political structures. This book contributes to these debates by providing a unique level of coverage of economic and political developments in former Yugoslav countries. It will provide an invaluable source of reference for all those interested in transitional and developing countries.

Higher Education and Graduate Employment in Europe

Results from Graduates Surveys from Twelve Countries

Author: Harald Schomburg,Ulrich Teichler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402051549

Category: Education

Page: 172

View: 9971

This book explores a noteworthy variety among economically advanced countries in the competences fostered by higher education, and the emphasis placed either on laying a broad basis of knowledge or direct preparation for professional tasks. In some countries, universities are closely involved in ensuring a rapid transition from student to employee; in others, students typically face a long period after graduation for the search of a suitable career.

Labour Markets in Transition

Balancing Flexibility & Security in Central and Eastern Europe

Author: Sandrine Cazes,Alena Nešporová

Publisher: International Labour Organization

ISBN: 9789221137238

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 161

View: 8728

"This book aims to contribute to [the] debate on the degree of flexibility and security needed for the transition countries, and its implications for the new direction of labour market and social policies."--Foreword.

Are the French Happy with the 35-Hour Workweek?

Author: Marcello M. Estevão,Filipa Sa

Publisher: International Monetary Fund


Category: Hours of labor

Page: 24

View: 9160

Legally mandated reductions in the workweek can be either a constraint on individuals' choice or a tool to coordinate individuals' preferences for lower work hours. We confront these two hypotheses by studying the consequences of the workweek reduction in France from 39 to 35 hours, which was first applied to large firms in 2000. Using the timing difference by firm size to set up a quasi-experiment and data from the French labor force survey, we show that the law constrained the choice of a significant number of individuals: dual-job holdings increased, some workers in large firms went to small firms where hours were not constrained, and others were replaced by cheaper, unemployed individuals as relative hourly wages increased in large firms. Employment of persons directly affected by the law declined, although the net effect on aggregate employment was not significant.

Work in Non-Market and Transitional Societies

Author: Herbert A. Applebaum

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 9780873957748

Category: Social Science

Page: 398

View: 3913

In industrialized cultures, what we do to earn a living is usually divorced from what we do the rest of the time. This contrasts with non-market cultures, where work is an intimate part of life. People of such cultures perceive a unity between hunting and raising a family, between making pots and training children, between the building of houses and the practice of religion. Often there is no separate word for work because work is such an all-encompassing activity. Work in Non-Market and Transitional Societies is an overview of the organization of work in diverse societies, the division of labor, the notions of time that affect work and working, and the kinds of adaptations people make when transplanted from one society to another. The groundbreaking study encompasses pre-industrial and non-market societies as well as cultures in the process of change and modernization. This double focus provides an unusual and stimulating perspective for both anthropology and the social sciences. This book features a broad theoretical introduction, delineating the major issues and aspects of investigation in this field. It then presents twenty essays that show how work is carried on by women and men in varied societies and cultures. The authors provide guidelines for understanding the different value systems and discuss why each approach to work is appropriate in its specific societal structure.

Heavy Work Investment

Its Nature, Sources, Outcomes, and Future Directions

Author: Itzhak Harpaz,Raphael Snir

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135048185

Category: Psychology

Page: 388

View: 3456

The book deals with the concept of Heavy Work Investment (HWI) recently initiated by Snir and Harpaz. Since its introduction the interest in the general HWI model has increased considerably. The book illustrates the development of HWI conceptualization, theory, and research. It deals with the foremost HWI subtype of workaholism. However, it also compares workaholism as a "negative" HWI subtype with work devotion/passion/engagement, as a "positive" HWI subtype. Most importantly, it addresses HWI in general, including its possible situational subtypes. In view of Snir and Harpaz's claim that the study of situational heavy work investors is relatively scarce, this certainly constitutes a promising step in the right direction. Finally, it deals with timely and important topics examined by prominent international researchers on Heavy Work Investment and such issues as: personality factors of workaholism, work-life balance, cross-cultural similarities and differences in HWI, work addiction and technology, HWI and retirement, and intergenerational similarity in work investment.

Living Gender after Communism

Author: Janet Elise Johnson,Jean C. Robinson

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 025311229X

Category: Social Science

Page: 280

View: 9392

How has the collapse of communism across Europe and Eurasia changed gender? In addition to acknowledging the huge costs that fell heavily on women, Living Gender after Communism suggests that moving away from communism in Europe and Eurasia has provided an opportunity for gender to multiply, from varieties of neo-traditionalism to feminisms, from overt negotiation of femininity to denials of gender. This development, in turn, has enabled some women in the region to construct their own gendered identities for their own political, economic, or social purposes. Beginning with an understanding of gender as both a society-wide institution that regulates people's lives and a cultural "toolkit" which individuals and groups may use to subvert or "transvalue" the sex/gender system, the contributors to this volume provide detailed case studies from Belarus, Bosnia, the Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Russia, and Ukraine. This collaboration between young scholars -- most from postcommunist states -- and experts in the fields of gender studies and postcommunism combines intimate knowledge of the area with sophisticated gender analysis to examine just how much gender realities have shifted in the region. Contributors are Anna Brzozowska, Karen Dawisha, Nanette Funk, Ewa Grigar, Azra Hromadzic, Janet Elise Johnson, Anne-Marie Kramer, Tania Rands Lyon, Jean C. Robinson, Iulia Shevchenko, Svitlana Taraban, and Shannon Woodcock.

Restructuring land allocation, water use and agricultural value chains

Technologies, policies and practices for the lower Amudarya region

Author: John P. A. Lamers,Asia Khamzina,Inna Rudenko,Paul Vlek

Publisher: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht

ISBN: 384700297X

Category: Fiction

Page: 388

View: 5313

Central Asia underwent an agricultural transformation in the 20th century that was neither efficient nor sustainable. There is a need for innovations that will remedy these deficits by reversing environmental degradation and ensuring poverty alleviation. This book provides science-based findings and recommendations for restructuring land and water use and agricultural value chains to enable ecologically and economically sound practices that increase resource use efficiency, rehabilitate ecosystem functions, and enhance rural incomes. Innovations were designed in concert with stakeholders. The prospective benefits are shown for the Khorezm region, part of the lower Amudarya region, Uzbekistan, but the findings can be extrapolated to regions facing similar agro-ecological challenges.

Balancing Protection and Opportunity

A Strategy for Social Protection in Transition Economies

Author: N.A

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821348161

Category: Political Science

Page: 91

View: 6488

The conversion from planned to market economies spawned new opportunities and challenges in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Since the social safety nets of guaranteed employment and retirement security disintegrated, the transition governments are trying to develop new social protection systems or adapt the old ones to emerging welfare needs and fiscal realities. Political upheavals, macroeconomic instability, and the difficulty of implementing reforms have hampered progress. Thus the World Bank needs to address social protection issues to inform future Bank activities. To that end, this report presents a social protection strategy for transition economies rooted in three pillars of analysis: a conceptual framework based on risk management, an understanding of the context, challenges, and choices in each country, and Bank experience in social protection in the region.