Work and Livelihoods

History, Ethnography and Models in Times of Crisis

Author: Susana Narotzky,Victoria Goddard

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317602439

Category: Social Science

Page: 238

View: 571

This volume presents a global range of ethnographic case studies to explore the ways in which - in the context of the restructuring of industrial work, the ongoing financial crisis, and the surge in unemployment and precarious employment - local and global actors engage with complex social processes and devise ideological, political, and economic responses to them. It shows how the reorganization and re-signification of work, notably shifts in the perception and valorization of work, affect domestic and community arrangements and shape the conditions of life of workers and their families.
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Work and Livelihoods in Times of Crisis

History, Ethnography, Models

Author: Susana Narotzky,Victoria Goddard

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781138813984

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 248

View: 4738

This volume presents a global range of ethnographic case studies to explore the ways in which - in the context of the restructuring of industrial work, the ongoing financial crisis, and the surge in unemployment and precarious employment - local and global actors engage with complex social processes and devise ideological, political, and economic responses to them. It shows how the reorganization and re-signification of work, notably shifts in the perception and valorization of work, affect domestic and community arrangements and shape the conditions of life of workers and their families.
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Diversity in Europe

Dilemnas of differential treatment in theory and practice

Author: Gideon Calder,Emanuela Ceva

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136868283

Category: Political Science

Page: 208

View: 6257

From bans on religious symbols in public spaces, to the provision of abortion by doctors, recent cases across Europe have highlighted acute dilemmas about how best to respond to the claims of individuals or groups feeling that their values or beliefs are not treated fairly by the law. Diversity in Europe uses the resources of political theory alongside comparative analysis of contemporary practices in different countries (Germany, Italy, Turkey, Spain and the UK) to explore the challenges diversity poses for European democracies. Crucial throughout is whether the democratic commitment to equality entails uniformity in the law, or is compatible with saying 'yes' to some requests from citizens that they be treated differently, to accommodate their ethical, cultural and religious particularity. Such differential treatment may take several forms, e.g. group or individual rights, either to legal exemptions or to conscientious objection. Exploring these from various angles, the book gives a sense of the tools democracies need to address the challenges of diversity more generally. Making an important contribution to our understanding of the political implications of ethical, cultural and religious diversity, this book will be of interest to students and scholars of political and social philosophy, European studies, political science, social policy, applied ethics, law, and socio-legal studies.
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Migration, Temporality, and Capitalism

Entangled Mobilities across Global Spaces

Author: Pauline Gardiner Barber,Winnie Lem

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319727818

Category: Social Science

Page: 215

View: 2902

Bringing together a range of illustrative case studies coupled with fresh theoretical insights, this volume is one of the first to address the complexities and contradictions in the relationship between migration, time, and capitalism. While temporal reckoning has long fascinated anthropologists, few studies have sought to confront how capitalism fetishizes time in the production of global inequalities—historically and in the contemporary world. As it explores how the agendas of capitalism condition migration in Europe, North America, and Oceania, this collection also examines temporality as a feature of migrants’ experiences to ultimately provide a theoretically robust and ethnographically informed investigation of migration and temporality within a framework defined by the political economy of capitalism.
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Social anthropology of Work

Author: Sandra Wallman,Association of Social Anthropologists of the Commonwealth

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 397

View: 6455

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Liquidated

An Ethnography of Wall Street

Author: Rodolfo Maggio

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351350641

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 6990

Liquidated is a work of anthropology that treats an unusual, despised subculture - that of the Wall Street banker - much as anthropologists have traditionally treated remote 'savage' tribes. But using the techniques of ethnography, including interviews, analysis of daily lives, and fieldwork to investigate a modern western culture is not original; what sets Ho's work apart and gives it value is her mastery of the critical thinking skills of problem-solving and creative thinking to reconceptualize the way in which we understand the bankers' mindset. Ho's great achievement is to ask productive questions, most obviously in drawing a distinction between bankers' self-image as capitalist warriors, freeing up value for themselves and shareholders by increasing the liquidity of the assets they invest in, and the social consequences of what they do. As Ho points out, not only is Wall Street institutionally inclined to embrace risk, in order to maximise profit; it is also prone to assume that increased liquidity (most often achieved by breaking up and selling off the parts of a large corporation) is a good in itself, irrespective of the outcomes for the workers actually involved in these disposals. Considering alternative possibilities, and generating fresh solutions, Ho determines that the capitalist principles that underpin Wall Street are myths, not the expression of some natural economic law..
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Animism and the Question of Life

Author: Istvan Praet

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134500661

Category: Social Science

Page: 198

View: 6937

The central purpose of this book is to help change the terms of the debate on animism, a classic theme in anthropology. It combines some of the finest ethnographic material currently available (including firsthand research on the Chachi of Ecuador) with an unusually broad geographic scope (the Americas, Asia, and Africa). Edward B. Tylor originally defined animism as the first phase in the development of religion. The heyday of cultural evolutionism may be over, but his basic conception is commonly assumed to remain valid in at least one respect: there is still a broad consensus that everything is alive within animism, or at least that more things are alive than a modern scientific observer would allow for (e.g., clouds, rivers, mountains) It is considered self-evident that animism is based on a kind of exaggeration: its adherents are presumed to impute life to this, that and the other in a remarkably generous manner. Against the prevailing consensus, this book argues that if animism has one outstanding feature, it is its peculiar restrictiveness. Animistic notions of life are astonishingly uniform across the globe, insofar as they are restricted rather than exaggerated. In the modern Western cosmology, life overlaps with the animate. Within animism, however, life is always conditional, and therefore tends to be limited to one’s kin, one’s pets and perhaps the plants in one’s garden. Thus it emerges that "our" modern biological concept of life is stranger than generally thought.
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Anthropology, Development and Modernities

Exploring Discourse, Counter-Tendencies and Violence

Author: Alberto Arce,Norman Long

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134628420

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 7024

While the diffusion of modernity and the spread of development schemes may bring prosperity, optimism and opportunity for some, for others it has brought poverty, a deterioration in quality of life and has given rise to violence. This collection brings an anthropological perspective to bear on understanding the diverse modernities we face in the contemporary world. It provides a critical review of interpretations of development and modernity, supported by rigorous case studies from regions as diverse as Guatemala, Sri Lanka, West Africa and contemporary Europe. Together, the chapters in this volume demonstrate the crucial importance of looking to ethnography for guidance in shaping development policies. Ethnography can show how people's own agency transforms, recasts and complicates the modernities they experience. The contributors argue that explanations of change framed in terms of the dominantdiscourses and institutions of modernity are inadequate, and that we give closer attention to discourses, images, beliefs and practices that run counter to these yet play a part in shaping them and giving them meaning. Anthropology, Development and Modernities deals with the realities of people's everyday lives and dilemmas. It is essential reading for students and scholars in anthropology, sociology and development studies. It should also be read by all those actively involved in development work.
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Suicide and Agency

Anthropological Perspectives on Self-Destruction, Personhood, and Power

Author: Ludek Broz,Daniel Münster

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317048458

Category: Social Science

Page: 238

View: 2458

Suicide and Agency offers an original and timely challenge to existing ways of understanding suicide. Through the use of rich and detailed case studies, the authors assembled in this volume explore how interplay of self-harm, suicide, personhood and agency varies markedly across site (Greenland, Siberia, India, Palestine and Mexico) and setting (self-run leprosy colony, suicide bomb attack, cash-crop farming, middle-class mothering). Rather than starting from a set definition of suicide, they empirically engage suicide fields-the wider domains of practices and of sense making, out of which realized, imaginary, or disputed suicides emerge. By drawing on ethnographic methods and approaches, a new comparative angle to understanding suicide beyond mainstream Western bio-medical and classical sociological conceptions of the act as an individual or social pathology is opened up. The book explores a number of ontological assumptions about the role of free will, power, good and evil, personhood, and intentionality in both popular and expert explanations of suicide. Suicide and Agency offers a substantial and ground-breaking contribution to the emerging field of the anthropology of suicide. It will appeal to a range of scholars and students, including those in anthropology, sociology, social psychology, cultural studies, suicidology, and social studies of death and dying.
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Cultivating Development : An Ethnography Of Aid Policy And Practice

Author: David Mosse

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9788178296012

Category: Economic assistance

Page: 336

View: 5128

Based on a detailed account of an actual development project, this book addresses an important question: Is development practice actually driven by policy? Development agencies and researchers are preoccupied with policy; with exerting influence over policy; linking research to policy, and with implementing policy around the world. In this book, David Mosse argues that rather than being driven by policy, development practice is actually shaped by the exigencies of organisations and the need to maintain relationships. At the same time, however, development actors work hard at maintaining the fiction of representing authorised policy in their actions. This book (which can be characterised as being a social investigation) asks pertinent questions about international aid, in particular of British aid for rural development. It does so by examining in depth the experience of a development project in western India over a period of more than ten years and as it falls under different policy regimes. Mosse analyses development processes in the light of the broad experience of the project workers (which included himself), even if it means destabilising policy representations. The book is a compelling re-examination of the politics and ethics of engaging with development and a rare self-critical reflection practice.
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The Myth of Mondragon

Cooperatives, Politics, and Working Class Life in a Basque Town

Author: Sharryn Kasmir

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 9780791430033

Category: Political Science

Page: 243

View: 862

Shows how the creation of an idealized image of the Mondragon cooperatives is part of a new global ideology that promotes cooperative labor-management relations in order to discredit labor unions and working-class organizations.
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Flexible Capitalism

Exchange and Ambiguity at Work

Author: Jens Kjaerulff

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 1782386165

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 296

View: 2442

Approaching “work” as at heart a practice of exchange, this volume explores sociality in work environments marked by the kind of structural changes that have come to define contemporary “flexible” capitalism. It introduces anthropological exchange theory to a wider readership, and shows how the perspective offers new ways to enquire about the flexible capitalism’s social dimensions. The essays contribute to a trans-disciplinary scholarship on contemporary economic practice and change by documenting how, across diverse settings, “gift-like” socialities proliferate, and even sustain the intensified flexible commoditization that more commonly is touted as tearing social relations apart. By interrogating a keenly debated contemporary work regime through an approach to sociality rooted in a rich and distinct anthropological legacy, the volume also makes a novel contribution to the anthropological literature on work and on exchange.
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Industry and Work in Contemporary Capitalism

Global Models, Local Lives?

Author: Victoria Goddard,Susana Narotzky

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317745213

Category: Social Science

Page: 210

View: 2839

Throughout history and in every geographical location, the rise and fall of industry, which impact the fate of large populations, are tied to the development and cultural entanglement of particular models that are articulated with political power. Models are understood as knowledge devices – expert, theoretical, practical and commonsense – that are embedded in cultural and social environments and designed through struggles at various scales. This book results from the collaboration of an interdisciplinary team bringing together specialists in anthropology, geography, sociology, economics, political science, mathematics and engineering around the theme of ‘Models and their Effects on Development Paths’. Based on empirical research conducted on the heavy industries, Industry and Work in Contemporary Capitalism addresses how models that inform the organization of work and production and are created by powerful actors may diverge from, overlap with, or contradict the models articulated by less powerful actors on the ground, and how they are connected across material and cultural spaces. Careful observation of industrial work and production as they unfold in and across specific localities and affects people’s livelihoods is complemented by analysis of how models circulate, through which channels of power, which institutional entities, which political connections. This volume explores an extensive theoretical terrain and a number of empirical cases that show, from different perspectives, how ideas about the economy, about work and industry, materialize in specific practices and interventions that affect people’s livelihoods.
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Design Anthropology

Theory and Practice

Author: Wendy Gunn,Ton Otto,Rachel Charlotte Smith

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 0857853716

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 3349

Design is a key site of cultural production and change in contemporary society. Anthropologists have been involved in design projects for several decades but only recently a new field of inquiry has emerged which aims to integrate the strengths of design thinking and anthropological research. This book is written by anthropologists who actively participate in the development of design anthropology. Comprising both cutting-edge explorations and theoretical reflections, it provides a much-needed introduction to the concepts, methods, practices and challenges of the new field. Design Anthropology moves from observation and interpretation to collaboration, intervention and co-creation. Its practitioners participate in multidisciplinary design teams working towards concrete solutions for problems that are sometimes ill-defined. The authors address the critical potential of design anthropology in a wide range of design activities across the globe and query the impact of design on the discipline of anthropology. This volume will appeal to new and experienced practitioners in the field as well as to students of anthropology, innovation, science and technology studies, and a wide range of design studies focusing on user participation, innovation, and collaborative research.
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Nature and Society

Anthropological Perspectives

Author: Philippe Descola,Gisli Palsson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134827156

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 9664

The contributors to this book focus on the relationship between nature and society from a variety of theoretical and ethnographic perspectives. Their work draws upon recent developments in social theory, biology, ethnobiology, epistemology, sociology of science, and a wide array of ethnographic case studies -- from Amazonia, the Solomon Islands, Malaysia, the Mollucan Islands, rural comunities from Japan and north-west Europe, urban Greece, and laboratories of molecular biology and high-energy physics. The discussion is divided into three parts, emphasising the problems posed by the nature-culture dualism, some misguided attempts to respond to these problems, and potential avenues out of the current dilemmas of ecological discourse.
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A Handbook of Economic Anthropology, Second Edition

Author: James G. Carrier

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1849809291

Category: Social Science

Page: 662

View: 5675

Acclaim for the first edition: 'The volume is a remarkable contribution to economic anthropology and will no doubt be a fundamental tool for students, scholars, and experts in the sub-discipline.' – Mao Mollona, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 'This excellent overview would serve as an excellent text for advanced undergraduate and graduate-level classroom use. . . Because of the clarity, conciseness, and accessibility of the writing, the chapters in this volume likely will be often cited and recommended to those who want the alternative and frequently culturally comparative perspective on economic topics that anthropology provides. Highly recommended. All academic levels/libraries.' – K.F. Rambo, Choice The first edition of this unique Handbook was praised for its substantial and invaluable summary discussions of work by anthropologists on economic processes and issues, on the relationship between economic and non-economic areas of life and on the conceptual orientations that are important among economic anthropologists. This thoroughly revised edition brings those discussions up to date, and includes an important new section exploring ways that leading anthropologists have approached the current economic crisis. Its scope and accessibility make it useful both to those who are interested in a particular topic and to those who want to see the breadth and fruitfulness of an anthropological study of economy. This comprehensive Handbook will strongly appeal to undergraduate and post-graduate students in anthropology, economists interested in social and cultural dimensions of economic life, and alternative approaches to economic life, political economists, political scientists and historians.
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Conformity and Conflict

Readings in Cultural Anthropology

Author: James P. Spradley,David W. McCurdy

Publisher: Jill Potash

ISBN: 0205234100

Category: Social Science

Page: 411

View: 8247

Demonstrate the nature of culture and its influence on people's lives. For over 40 years, the best-selling Conformity and Conflict has brought together original readings and cutting edge research alongside classic works as a powerful way to study human behavior and events. Its readings cover a broad range of theoretical perspectives and demonstrate basic anthropological concepts. The Fourteenth Edition incorporates successful articles from past editions and fresh ideas from the field to show fascinating perspectives on the human experience. Teaching and Learning Experience Personalize Learning - MyAnthroLab delivers proven results in helping students succeed, provides engaging experiences that personalize learning, and comes from a trusted partner with educational expertise and a deep commitment to helping students and instructors achieve their goals. Improve Critical Thinking - Articles, article introductions and review questions encourage students to examine their assumptions, discern hidden values, evaluate evidence, assess their conclusions, and more! Engage Students - Section parts, key terms, maps, a glossary and subject index all spark student interest and illustrate the reader's main points with examples and visuals from daily life. Support Instructors - Teaching your course just got easier! You can create a Customized Text or use our Instructor's Manual, Electronic “MyTest” Test Bank or PowerPoint Presentation Slides. Additionally, Conformity and Conflict's part introductions parallel the basic concepts taught in introductory courses – which allow the book to be used alone as a reader or in conjunction with a main text. Note: MyAnthroLab does not come automatically packaged with this text. To purchase MyAnthroLab, please visit www.MyAnthroLab.com or you can purchase a valuepack of the text + MyAnthroLab (at no additional cost): VP ISBN-10: 0205176011/ISBN-13: 9780205176014
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Para-States and Medical Science

Making African Global Health

Author: Paul Wenzel Geissler

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 082237627X

Category: Medical

Page: 376

View: 9852

In Para-States and Medical Science, P. Wenzel Geissler and the contributors examine how medicine and public health in Africa have been transformed as a result of economic and political liberalization and globalization, intertwined with epidemiological and technological changes. The resulting fragmented medical science landscape is shaped and sustained by transnational flows of expertise and resources. NGOs, universities, pharmaceutical companies and other nonstate actors now play a significant role in medical research and treatment. But as the contributors to this volume argue, these groups have not supplanted the primacy of the nation-state in Africa. Although not necessarily stable or responsive, national governments remain crucial in medical care, both as employers of health care professionals and as sources of regulation, access, and – albeit sometimes counterintuitively - trust for their people. “The state” has morphed into the “para-state” — not a monolithic and predictable source of sovereignty and governance, but a shifting, and at times ephemeral, figure. Tracing the emergence of the “global health” paradigm in Africa in the treatment of HIV, malaria, and leprosy, this book challenges familiar notions of African statehood as weak or illegitimate by elaborating complex new frameworks of governmentality that can be simultaneously functioning and dysfunctional. Contributors. Uli Beisel, Didier Fassin, P. Wenzel Geissler, Rene Gerrets, Ann Kelly, Guillaume Lachenal, John Manton, Lotte Meinert, Vinh-Kim Nguyen, Branwyn Poleykett, Susan Reynolds Whyte
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Mosquito Trails

Ecology, Health, and the Politics of Entanglement

Author: Alex M. Nading

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520282620

Category: Medical

Page: 288

View: 5641

Dengue fever is the world’s most prevalent mosquito-borne illness, but Alex Nading argues that people in dengue-endemic communities do not always view humans and mosquitoes as mortal enemies. Drawing on two years of ethnographic research in urban Nicaragua and challenging current global health approaches to animal-borne illness, Mosquito Trails tells the story of a group of community health workers who struggle to come to terms with dengue epidemics amid poverty, political change, and economic upheaval. Blending theory from medical anthropology, political ecology, and science and technology studies, Nading develops the concept of “the politics of entanglement” to describe how Nicaraguans strive to remain alive to the world around them despite global health strategies that seek to insulate them from their environments. This innovative ethnography illustrates the continued significance of local environmental histories, politics, and household dynamics to the making and unmaking of a global pandemic.
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Globalisation

Studies in Anthropology

Author: Thomas Hylland Eriksen

Publisher: Pluto Press

ISBN: 9780745320601

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 248

View: 3635

Globalisation has had a massive impact on the teaching and practice of anthropology. This important new book, edited by leading anthropologist Thomas Hylland Eriksen, addresses the methodological problems that these changes have wrought, and in doing so fills a major gap in the contemporary study and teaching of anthropology.The essays in this book show how the focus has shifted from traditional studies of specific sites, towards the movements and shifts assoicated with increasing migration and population flows -- the result of living in an increasingly globalised world. Written by a range of distinguished anthropologists, it offers innovative new approaches to the discipline in the light of these changes, making it indispensable as a teaching text, at higher levels, and as mandatory reading for practitioners and researchers in a wide range of merging disciplines. Topics explored include the methodology of studying on the internet; global and spatial identities in the Caribbean; shifting boundaries in coastal communities; the anthropology of political life; issues of law and the flow of human substances; and the diffusion of moral values created by globalisation.
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