Why the Wheel Is Round

Muscles, Technology, and How We Make Things Move

Author: Steven Vogel

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022638117X

Category: Science

Page: 344

View: 8104

There is no part of our bodies that fully rotates—be it a wrist or ankle or arm in a shoulder socket, we are made to twist only so far. And yet there is no more fundamental human invention than the wheel—a rotational mechanism that accomplishes what our physical form cannot. Throughout history, humans have developed technologies powered by human strength, complementing the physical abilities we have while overcoming our weaknesses. Providing a unique history of the wheel and other rotational devices—like cranks, cranes, carts, and capstans—Why the Wheel Is Round examines the contraptions and tricks we have devised in order to more efficiently move—and move through—the physical world. Steven Vogel combines his engineering expertise with his remarkable curiosity about how things work to explore how wheels and other mechanisms were, until very recently, powered by the push and pull of the muscles and skeletal systems of humans and other animals. Why the Wheel Is Round explores all manner of treadwheels, hand-spikes, gears, and more, as well as how these technologies diversified into such things as hand-held drills and hurdy-gurdies. Surprisingly, a number of these devices can be built out of everyday components and materials, and Vogel’s accessible and expansive book includes instructions and models so that inspired readers can even attempt to make their own muscle-powered technologies, like trebuchets and ballista. Appealing to anyone fascinated by the history of mechanics and technology as well as to hobbyists with home workshops, Why the Wheel Is Round offers a captivating exploration of our common technological heritage based on the simple concept of rotation. From our leg muscles powering the gears of a bicycle to our hands manipulating a mouse on a roller ball, it will be impossible to overlook the amazing feats of innovation behind our daily devices.
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Cats' Paws and Catapults

Mechanical Worlds of Nature and People

Author: Steven Vogel,Kathryn K. Davis

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 9780393319903

Category: Science

Page: 382

View: 1342

Examines the workings of nature's mechanical designs and man's technology and compares the design similarities and differences of both human and natural technologies.
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Glimpses of Creatures in Their Physical Worlds

Author: Steven Vogel

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691138060

Category: Science

Page: 302

View: 642

Glimpses of Creatures in Their Physical Worlds offers an eye-opening look into how the characteristics of the physical world drive the designs of animals and plants. These characteristics impose limits but also create remarkable and subtle opportunities for the functional biology of organisms. In particular, Steven Vogel examines the size and scale, and trade-offs among different physical processes. He pays attention to how the forms and activities of animals and plants reflect the materials available to nature, and he explores the unique constraints and possibilities provided by fluid flow, structural design, and environmental forces. Each chapter of the book investigates a facet of the physical world, including the drag on small projectiles; the importance of diffusion and convection; the size-dependence of acceleration; the storage, conduction, and dissipation of heat; the relationship among pressure, flow, and choice in biological pumps; and how elongate structures tune their relative twistiness and bendiness. Vogel considers design-determining factors all too commonly ignored, and builds a bridge between the world described by physics books and the reality experienced by all creatures. Glimpses of Creatures in Their Physical Worlds contains a wealth of accessible information related to functional biology, and requires little more than a basic background in secondary-school science and mathematics. Drawing examples from creatures of land, air, and water, the book demonstrates the many uses of biological diversity and how physical forces impact biological organisms.
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The Life of a Leaf

Author: Steven Vogel

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226859398

Category: Nature

Page: 303

View: 3195

In its essence, science is a way of looking at and thinking about the world. In The Life of a Leaf, Steven Vogel illuminates this approach, using the humble leaf as a model. Whether plant or person, every organism must contend with its immediate physical environment, a world that both limits what organisms can do and offers innumerable opportunities for evolving fascinating ways of challenging those limits. Here, Vogel explains these interactions, examining through the example of the leaf the extraordinary designs that enable life to adapt to its physical world. In Vogel’s account, the leaf serves as a biological everyman, an ordinary and ubiquitous living thing that nonetheless speaks volumes about our environment as well as its own. Thus in exploring the leaf’s world, Vogel simultaneously explores our own. A companion website with demonstrations and teaching tools can be found here: http://www.press.uchicago.edu/sites/vogel/index.html
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Vital Circuits

On Pumps, Pipes, and the Workings of Circulatory Systems

Author: Steven Vogel,Rosemary Anne Calvert

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0195082699

Category: Medical

Page: 315

View: 9443

This book is a fascinating, often witty, and highly original guide to the heart, vessels and blood, with side trips into the neighboring fields of physics, fluid mechanics, and chemistry.
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Comparative Biomechanics

Life's Physical World, Second Edition

Author: Steven Vogel

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400847826

Category: Science

Page: 640

View: 8171

Why do you switch from walking to running at a specific speed? Why do tall trees rarely blow over in high winds? And why does a spore ejected into air at seventy miles per hour travel only a fraction of an inch? Comparative Biomechanics is the first and only textbook that takes a comprehensive look at the mechanical aspects of life--covering animals and plants, structure and movement, and solids and fluids. An ideal entry point into the ways living creatures interact with their immediate physical world, this revised and updated edition examines how the forms and activities of animals and plants reflect the materials available to nature, considers rules for fluid flow and structural design, and explores how organisms contend with environmental forces. Drawing on physics and mechanical engineering, Steven Vogel looks at how animals swim and fly, modes of terrestrial locomotion, organism responses to winds and water currents, circulatory and suspension-feeding systems, and the relationship between size and mechanical design. He also investigates links between the properties of biological materials--such as spider silk, jellyfish jelly, and muscle--and their structural and functional roles. Early chapters and appendices introduce relevant physical variables for quantification, and problem sets are provided at the end of each chapter. Comparative Biomechanics is useful for physical scientists and engineers seeking a guide to state-of-the-art biomechanics. For a wider audience, the textbook establishes the basic biological context for applied areas--including ergonomics, orthopedics, mechanical prosthetics, kinesiology, sports medicine, and biomimetics--and provides materials for exhibit designers at science museums. Problem sets at the ends of chapters Appendices cover basic background information Updated and expanded documentation and materials Revised figures and text Increased coverage of friction, viscoelastic materials, surface tension, diverse modes of locomotion, and biomimetics
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Furry Logic

The Physics of Animal Life

Author: Matin Durrani,Liz Kalaugher

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1472914104

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 8255

The animal world is full of mysteries. Why do dogs slurp from their drinking bowls while cats lap up water with a delicate flick of the tongue? How does a tiny turtle hatchling from Florida circle the entire northern Atlantic before returning to the very beach where it hatched? And how can a Komodo dragon kill a water buffalo with a bite only as strong as a domestic cat's? These puzzles – and many more besides – are all explained by physics. From heat and light to electricity and magnetism, Furry Logic unveils the ways that more than 30 animals exploit physics to eat, drink, mate and dodge death in their daily battle for survival. Along the way, science journalists Matin Durrani and Liz Kalaugher introduce the great physicists whose discoveries helped us understand the animal world, as well as the animal experts of today who are scouring the planet to find and study the animals that seem to push the laws of physics to the limit. Presenting mind-bending physics principles in a simple and engaging way, Furry Logic will appeal both to animal lovers and to those curious to see how physics crops up in the natural world. It's more of a 'howdunit' than a whodunit, though you're unlikely to guess some of the answers.
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One Plus One Equals One

Symbiosis and the evolution of complex life

Author: John Archibald

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191636282

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 7974

We are in the midst of a revolution. It is a scientific revolution built upon the tools of molecular biology, with which we probe and prod the living world in ways unimaginable a few decades ago. Need to track a bacterium at the root of a hospital outbreak? No problem: the offending germ's complete genetic profile can be obtained in 24 hours. We insert human DNA into E. coli bacteria to produce our insulin. It is natural to look at biotechnology in the 21st century with a mix of wonder and fear. But biotechnology is not as 'unnatural' as one might think. All living organisms use the same molecular processes to replicate their genetic material and the same basic code to 'read' their genes. The similarities can be seen in their DNA. Here, John Archibald shows how evolution has been 'plugging-and-playing' with the subcellular components of life from the very beginning and continues to do so today. For evidence, we need look no further than the inner workings of our own cells. Molecular biology has allowed us to gaze back more than three billion years, revealing the microbial mergers and acquisitions that underpin the development of complex life. One Plus One Equals One tells the story of how we have come to this realization and its implications.
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America the Ingenious

How a Nation of Dreamers, Immigrants, and Tinkerers Changed the World

Author: Kevin Baker

Publisher: Artisan Books

ISBN: 1579656943

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 2984

“Among the many rewards of America the Ingenious, Kevin Baker’s survey of Yankee know-how, is stumbling on its buried nuggets. . . . Baker examines a wide range of the achievements that have made, and still make, America great again—and again.” —The Wall Street Journal All made in America: The skyscraper and subway car. The telephone and telegraph. The safety elevator and safety pin. Plus the microprocessor, amusement park, MRI, supermarket, Pennsylvania rifle, and Tennessee Valley Authority. Not to mention the city of Chicago or jazz or that magnificent Golden Gate Bridge. What is it about America that makes it a nation of inventors, tinkerers, researchers, and adventurers—obsessive pursuers of the never-before-created? And, equally, what is it that makes America such a fertile place to explore, discover, and launch the next big thing? In America the Ingenious, bestselling author Kevin Baker brings his gift of storytelling and eye for historical detail to the grand, and grandly entertaining, tale of American innovation. Here are the Edisons and Bells and Carnegies, and the stories of how they followed their passions and changed our world. And also the less celebrated, like Jacob Youphes and Loeb Strauss, two Jewish immigrants from Germany who transformed the way at least half the world now dresses (hint: Levi Strauss). And Leo Fender, who couldn’t play a note of music, midwifing rock ’n’ roll through his solid-body electric guitar and amplifier. And the many women who weren’t legally recognized as inventors, but who created things to make their lives easier that we use every day—like Josephine Cochran, inventor of the dishwasher, or Marion O’Brien Donovan, who invented a waterproof diaper cover. Or a guy with the improbable name of Philo Farnsworth, who, with his invention of television, upended communication as significantly as Gutenberg did. At a time when America struggles with different visions of what it wants to be, America the Ingenious shows the extraordinary power of what works: how immigration leads to innovation, what a strong government and strong public education mean to a climate of positive practical change, and why taking the long view instead of looking for short-term gain pays off many times over, not only for investors and inventors, but for the rest of us whose lives are made better by the new. America and its nation of immigrants have excelled at taking ideas from anywhere and transforming them into the startling, often unexpectedly beautiful creations that have shaped our world. This is that story.
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Body by Darwin

How Evolution Shapes Our Health and Transforms Medicine

Author: Jeremy Taylor

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022605991X

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 6940

We think of medical science and doctors as focused on treating conditions—whether it’s a cough or an aching back. But the sicknesses and complaints that cause us to seek medical attention actually have deeper origins than the superficial germs and behaviors we regularly fault. In fact, as Jeremy Taylor shows in Body by Darwin, we can trace the roots of many medical conditions through our evolutionary history, revealing what has made us susceptible to certain illnesses and ailments over time and how we can use that knowledge to help us treat or prevent problems in the future. In Body by Darwin, Taylor examines the evolutionary origins of some of our most common and serious health issues. To begin, he looks at the hygiene hypothesis, which argues that our obsession with anti-bacterial cleanliness, particularly at a young age, may be making us more vulnerable to autoimmune and allergic diseases. He also discusses diseases of the eye, the medical consequences of bipedalism as they relate to all those aches and pains in our backs and knees, the rise of Alzheimer’s disease, and how cancers become so malignant that they kill us despite the toxic chemotherapy we throw at them. Taylor explains why it helps to think about heart disease in relation to the demands of an ever-growing, dense, muscular pump that requires increasing amounts of nutrients, and he discusses how walking upright and giving birth to ever larger babies led to a problematic compromise in the design of the female spine and pelvis. Throughout, he not only explores the impact of evolution on human form and function, but he integrates science with stories from actual patients and doctors, closely examining the implications for our health. As Taylor shows, evolutionary medicine allows us think about the human body and its adaptations in a completely new and productive way. By exploring how our body’s performance is shaped by its past, Body by Darwin draws powerful connections between our ancient human history and the future of potential medical advances that can harness this knowledge.
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The Rise of Yeast

How the Sugar Fungus Shaped Civilization

Author: Nicholas P. Money

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190270713

Category: Science

Page: 224

View: 7435

The great Victorian biologist Thomas Huxley once wrote, "I know of no familiar substance forming part of our every-day knowledge and experience, the examination of which, with a little care, tends to open up such very considerable issues as does yeast." Huxley was right. Beneath the very foundations of human civilization lies yeast--also known as the sugar fungus. Yeast is responsible for fermenting our alcohol and providing us with bread--the very staples of life. Moreover, it has proven instrumental in helping cell biologists and geneticists understand how living things work, manufacturing life-saving drugs, and producing biofuels that could help save the planet from global warming. In The Rise of Yeast, Nicholas P. Money--author of Mushroom and The Amoeba in the Room--argues that we cannot ascribe too much importance to yeast, and that its discovery and controlled use profoundly altered human history. Humans knew what yeast did long before they knew what it was. It was not until Louis Pasteur's experiments in the 1860s that scientists even acknowledged its classification as a fungus. A compelling blend of science, history, and sociology The Rise of Yeast explores the rich, strange, and utterly symbiotic relationship between people and yeast, a stunning and immensely readable account that takes us back to the roots of human history.
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Thinking Like a Mall

Environmental Philosophy After the End of Nature

Author: Steven Vogel

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262029103

Category: Nature

Page: 296

View: 4696

A provocative argument that environmental thinking would be better off if it dropped the concept of "nature" altogether and spoke instead of the built environment.
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The Telling Image

Shapes of Changing Times

Author: Lois Farfel Stark

Publisher: Greenleaf Book Group

ISBN: 1626344728

Category: Art

Page: 200

View: 576

Seeing the World Through Shape How do humans make sense of the world? In answer to this timeless question, award winning documentary filmmaker, Lois Farfel Stark, takes the reader on a remarkable journey from tribal ceremonies in Liberia and the pyramids in Egypt, to the gravity-defying architecture of modern China. Drawing on her experience as a global explorer, Stark unveils a crucial, hidden key to understanding the universe: Shape itself. The Telling Image is a stunning synthesis of civilization’s changing mindsets, a brilliantly original perspective urging you to re-envision history not as a story of kings and wars but through the lens of shape. In this sweeping tour through time, Stark takes us from migratory humans, who imitated a web in round-thatched huts and stone circles, to the urban ladder of pyramids and skyscrapers, organized by hierarchy and measurements, to today’s world of interconnected networks. ​In The Telling Image Stark reveals how buildings, behaviors, and beliefs reflect humans’ search for pattern and meaning. We can read the past and glimpse the future by watching when shapes shift. Stark’s beautifully illustrated book asks of all its readers: See what you think.
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Life in Moving Fluids

The Physical Biology of Flow

Author: Steven Vogel

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691026169

Category: Science

Page: 467

View: 4270

Both a landmark text and reference book, Steven Vogel's Life in Moving Fluids has also played a catalytic role in research involving the applications of fluid mechanics to biology. In this revised edition, Vogel continues to combine humor and clear explanations as he addresses biologists and general readers interested in biological fluid mechanics, offering updates on the field over the last dozen years and expanding the coverage of the biological literature. His discussion of the relationship between fluid flow and biological design now includes sections on jet propulsion, biological pumps, swimming, blood flow, and surface waves, and on acceleration reaction and Murray's law. This edition contains an extensive bibliography for readers interested in designing their own experiments.
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Piping and Pipeline Calculations Manual

Construction, Design Fabrication and Examination

Author: Philip Ellenberger

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0124169686

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 412

View: 5766

Piping and Pipeline Calculations Manual, Second Edition provides engineers and designers with a quick reference guide to calculations, codes, and standards applicable to piping systems. The book considers in one handy reference the multitude of pipes, flanges, supports, gaskets, bolts, valves, strainers, flexibles, and expansion joints that make up these often complex systems. It uses hundreds of calculations and examples based on the author's 40 years of experiences as both an engineer and instructor. Each example demonstrates how the code and standard has been correctly and incorrectly applied. Aside from advising on the intent of codes and standards, the book provides advice on compliance. Readers will come away with a clear understanding of how piping systems fail and what the code requires the designer, manufacturer, fabricator, supplier, erector, examiner, inspector, and owner to do to prevent such failures. The book enhances participants' understanding and application of the spirit of the code or standard and form a plan for compliance. The book covers American Water Works Association standards where they are applicable. Updates to major codes and standards such as ASME B31.1 and B31.12 New methods for calculating stress intensification factor (SIF) and seismic activities Risk-based analysis based on API 579, and B31-G Covers the Pipeline Safety Act and the creation of PhMSA
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The Brain Power Classroom

10 Essentials for Focus, Mindfulness, and Emotional Wellness

Author: Dave Beal

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781935127932

Category: Education

Page: 208

View: 5532

Create a Focused, Positive, and Engaged Classroom! Through expert guidance and inspiring stories from the field, Dave Beal helps you create a Brain Power Classroom full of engaged, focused and collaborative students. Part 1 provides scientific background, principles and insightful advice for creating an optimal classroom atmosphere. Part 2 features 30 classroom activities you can easily integrate into your current curriculum. They are divided into the Brain Power 10 Essentials and incorporate various modalities, such as movement, mindfulness, and focusing strategies to engage students multiple intelligences. Using the tools in this book, you will be able to motivate your students to use their full brain potential as they develop into harmonious leaders with strong character and high levels of academic achievement."
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The Machine Stops (機器休止)

Author: E. M. Forster

Publisher: Hyweb Technology Co. Ltd.

ISBN: N.A

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 5

View: 2282

'"You talk as if a god had made the Machine," cried the other. "I believe that you pray to it when you are unhappy. Men made it, do not forget that."' E.M. Forster is best known for his exquisite novels, but these two affecting short stories brilliantly combine the fantastical with the allegorical. In 'The Machine Stops', humanity has isolated itself beneath the ground, enmeshed in automated comforts, and in 'The Celestial Omnibus' a young boy takes a trip his parents believe impossible. This book contains The Machine Stops and A Celestial Omnibus.
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Prime Mover

A Natural History of Muscle

Author: Steven Vogel

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 9780393324631

Category: Science

Page: 370

View: 2282

A fascinating introduction to the world of muscle explores the role this important tissue plays in a host of important tasks, from maintaining a heartbeat to hunting prey. Reprint.
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Making Simple Robots

Exploring Cutting-Edge Robotics with Everyday Stuff

Author: Kathy Ceceri

Publisher: Maker Media, Inc.

ISBN: 1457183595

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 243

View: 4743

Making Simple Robots is based on one idea: Anybody can build a robot! That includes kids, school teachers, parents, and non-engineers. If you can knit, sew, or fold a flat piece of paper into a box, you can build a no-tech robotic part. If you can use a hot glue gun, you can learn to solder basic electronics into a low-tech robot that reacts to its environment. And if you can figure out how to use the apps on your smart phone, you can learn enough programming to communicate with a simple robot. Written in language that non-engineers can understand, Making Simple Robots helps beginners move beyond basic craft skills and materials to the latest products and tools being used by artists and inventors. Find out how to animate folded paper origami, design a versatile robot wheel-leg for 3D printing, or program a rag doll to blink its cyborg eye. Each project includes step-by-step directions as well as clear diagrams and photographs. And every chapter offers suggestions for modifying and expanding the projects, so that you can return to the projects again and again as your skill set grows.
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