Weapons of Mass Migration

Forced Displacement, Coercion, and Foreign Policy

Author: Kelly M. Greenhill

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801457424

Category: Political Science

Page: 360

View: 8483

At first glance, the U.S. decision to escalate the war in Vietnam in the mid-1960s, China's position on North Korea's nuclear program in the late 1990s and early 2000s, and the EU resolution to lift what remained of the arms embargo against Libya in the mid-2000s would appear to share little in common. Yet each of these seemingly unconnected and far-reaching foreign policy decisions resulted at least in part from the exercise of a unique kind of coercion, one predicated on the intentional creation, manipulation, and exploitation of real or threatened mass population movements. In Weapons of Mass Migration, Kelly M. Greenhill offers the first systematic examination of this widely deployed but largely unrecognized instrument of state influence. She shows both how often this unorthodox brand of coercion has been attempted (more than fifty times in the last half century) and how successful it has been (well over half the time). She also tackles the questions of who employs this policy tool, to what ends, and how and why it ever works. Coercers aim to affect target states' behavior by exploiting the existence of competing political interests and groups, Greenhill argues, and by manipulating the costs or risks imposed on target state populations. This "coercion by punishment" strategy can be effected in two ways: the first relies on straightforward threats to overwhelm a target's capacity to accommodate a refugee or migrant influx; the second, on a kind of norms-enhanced political blackmail that exploits the existence of legal and normative commitments to those fleeing violence, persecution, or privation. The theory is further illustrated and tested in a variety of case studies from Europe, East Asia, and North America. To help potential targets better respond to-and protect themselves against-this kind of unconventional predation, Weapons of Mass Migration also offers practicable policy recommendations for scholars, government officials, and anyone concerned about the true victims of this kind of coercion-the displaced themselves.
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Weapons of Mass Migration

Forced Displacement, Coercion, and Foreign Policy

Author: Kelly M. Greenhill

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801448719

Category: Political Science

Page: 342

View: 6720

policy tool, to what ends, and how and why it ever works." --Book Jacket.
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Weapons of Mass Migration

Forced Displacement, Coercion, and Foreign Policy

Author: Kelly M. Greenhill

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801458668

Category: Political Science

Page: 360

View: 2952

Greenhill offers the first systematic examination of forced migration as an important but largely unrecognized instrument of state influence. She shows both how often this unorthodox brand of coercion has been attempted and how successful it has been.
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Calculating Credibility

How Leaders Assess Military Threats

Author: Daryl G. Press

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801474156

Category: History

Page: 218

View: 2738

Calculating Credibility examines—and ultimately rejects—a fundamental belief held by laypeople and the makers of American foreign policy: the notion that backing down during a crisis reduces a country's future credibility. Fear of diminished credibility motivated America's costly participation in the Korean and Vietnam wars, and, since the end of the Cold War, this concern has continued to guide American policy decisions. Daryl G. Press uses historical evidence, including declassified documents, to answer two crucial questions: When a country backs down in a crisis, does its credibility suffer? How do leaders assess their adversaries' credibility? Press illuminates the decision-making processes behind events such as the crises in Europe that preceded World War II, the superpower showdowns over Berlin in the 1950s and 60s, and the Cuban Missile Crisis. When leaders face the prospect of high-stakes military conflicts, Press shows, they do not assess their adversaries' credibility by peering into their opponents' past and evaluating their history of keeping or breaking commitments. Power and interests in the current crisis—not past actions—determine the credibility of a threat. Press demonstrates that threats are credible only if backed by sufficient power and only if pursuing important interests. Press believes that Washington's obsession with the dangers of backing down has made U.S. foreign policy unnecessarily rigid. In every competitive environment—sports, gambling, warfare—competitors use feints and bluffs to tremendous advantage. Understanding the real sources of credibility, Press asserts, would permit a more flexible, and more effective, foreign policy.
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Sex, Drugs, and Body Counts

The Politics of Numbers in Global Crime and Conflict

Author: Peter Andreas,Kelly M. Greenhill

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801476186

Category: Political Science

Page: 287

View: 2701

Big, attention-grabbing numbers are frequently used in policy debates and media reporting: "At least 200,000-250,000 people died in the war in Bosnia." "There are three million child soldiers in Africa." "More than 650,000 civilians have been killed as a result of the U.S. occupation of Iraq." "Between 600,000 and 800,000 women are trafficked across borders every year." "Money laundering represents as much as 10 percent of global GDP." "Internet child porn is a $20 billion-a-year industry." Peter Andreas and Kelly M. Greenhill see only one problem: these numbers are probably false. Their continued use and abuse reflect a much larger and troubling pattern: policymakers and the media naively or deliberately accept highly politicized and questionable statistical claims about activities that are extremely difficult to measure. As a result, we too often become trapped by these mythical numbers, with perverse and counterproductive consequences. This problem exists in myriad policy realms. But it is particularly pronounced in statistics related to the politically charged realms of global crime and conflict-numbers of people killed in massacres and during genocides, the size of refugee flows, the magnitude of the illicit global trade in drugs and human beings, and so on. In Sex, Drugs, and Body Counts, political scientists, anthropologists, sociologists, and policy analysts critically examine the murky origins of some of these statistics and trace their remarkable proliferation. They also assess the standard metrics used to evaluate policy effectiveness in combating problems such as terrorist financing, sex trafficking, and the drug trade. Contributors: Peter Andreas, Brown University; Thomas J. Biersteker, Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies-Geneva; Sue E. Eckert, Brown University; David A. Feingold, Ophidian Research Institute and UNESCO; H. Richard Friman, Marquette University; Kelly M. Greenhill, Tufts University and Harvard University; John Hagan, Northwestern University; Lara J. Nettelfield, Institut Barcelona D'Estudis Internacionals and Simon Fraser University; Wenona Rymond-Richmond, University of Massachusetts Amherst; Winifred Tate, Colby College; Kay B. Warren, Brown University
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Coercion

The Power to Hurt in International Politics

Author: Kelly M. Greenhill,Peter Krause

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019084633X

Category: Political Science

Page: 384

View: 9035

"A state's power to compel or deter other states to either act or refrain from acting has been a foundational source of world politics since the time of Thucydides. Yet the specific features of deterrence and compellence constantly change in accordance with historical development. In our own lifetimes, for instance, the rising significance of non-state actors and the increasing influence of regional powers have dramatically transformed international politics since the height of the Cold War. Yet much of the existing literature on deterrence and compellence continues to draw, whether implicitly or explicitly, upon assumptions and precepts formulated in a state-centric, bipolar world. Although contemporary coercion frequently features multiple coercers targeting state and non-state adversaries with non-military instruments of persuasion, most literature on coercion still focuses primarily on cases where a single state is trying to coerce another single state via traditional military means. In The Power to Hurt, the leading international relations scholars Kelly M. Greenhill and Peter Krause have gathered together an eminent cast of contributors (e.g., Bob Art, Dan Drezner, Alex Downes, Erik Gartzke, and others) to produce what promises to be a field-shaping work on one of IR's most essential subjects: coercion, whether in the form of compellence, deterrence, or a mix of the two. The volume moves beyond these traditional premises and examines the critical issue of coercion in the 21st century, capturing fresh theoretical and policy relevant developments and drawing upon data and cases from across time and around the globe" --
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The Politics of Insecurity

Fear, Migration and Asylum in the EU

Author: Jef Huysmans

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134234473

Category: Political Science

Page: 208

View: 5812

The act of violence of 9/11 changed the global security agenda, catapulting terrorism to the top of the agenda. Weapons of mass destruction grabbed public interest and controlling the free movement of people became a national security priority. In this volume, Jef Huysmans critically engages with theoretical developments in international relations and security studies to develop a conceptual framework for studying security. He argues that security policies and responses do not appear out of the blue, but are part of a continuous and gradual process, pre-structured by previous developments. He examines this process of securitization and explores how an issue, on the basis of the distribution and administration of fear, becomes a security policy. Huysmans then applies this theory to provide a detailed analysis of migration, asylum and refuge in the European Union. This theoretically sophisticated, yet accessible volume, makes an important contribution to the study of security, migration and European politics.
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Traders, Guns and Money

Knowns and Unknowns in the Dazzling World of Derivatives

Author: Satyajit Das

Publisher: Pearson UK

ISBN: 0273745085

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 384

View: 9661

Traders Guns and Money is a wickedly comic exposé of the culture, games and pure deceptions played out every day in trading rooms around the world. And played out with other people’s money. A sensational insider’s view of the business of trading and marketing derivatives, this revised edition explains the frighteningly central role that derivatives and financial products played in the global financial crisis. This worldwide bestseller reveals the truth about derivatives: those financial tools memorably described by Warren Buffett as ‘financial weapons of mass destruction’. Traders, Guns and Money will introduce you to the players and the practices and reveals how the real money is made and lost. The global financial crisis took almost everyone by surprise and even now new problems keep appearing and solutions continue to be elusive. In the original version of Traders, Guns and Money, Satyajit Das provided a highly prescient insight into the structure and risk of the world financial system exposing the problems that are becoming readily apparent. In a 2006 speech – The Coming Credit Crash – Das argued that: "an informed analysis … shows that risk is not better spread but more leveraged and (arguably) more concentrated…. This does not improve the overall stability and security of the financial system but exposes it to increased risk of a "crash".
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How Early America Sounded

Author: Richard Cullen Rath

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801472725

Category: History

Page: 227

View: 8717

Offers literary and anthropological evidence that the past placed greater importance on the aural than the visual, focusing on the significance of non-verbal noises in colonial North America from 1607 to 1770. Reprint.
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Peoplequake

Mass Migration, Ageing Nations and the Coming Population Crash

Author: Fred Pearce

Publisher: Random House

ISBN: 190581139X

Category: Demography

Page: 341

View: 8906

Wherever we look, population is the driver of the most toxic issues on the political agenda. But the population bomb is being defused. Half the world's women are having two children or fewer. Within a generation, the world's population will be falling. And we will all be getting very old. So should we welcome the return to centre stage of the tribal elders? Or is humanity facing a fate worse than environmental apocalypse? Brilliant, heretical and accessible to all, Fred Pearce takes on the matter that is fundamental to who we are and how we live, confronting our demographic demons.
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The Law

Author: Frederic Bastiat

Publisher: Cosimo, Inc.

ISBN: 1596059648

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 68

View: 9523

French political libertarian and economist CLAUDE FRDRIC BASTIAT (1801-1850) was one of the most eloquent champions of the concept that property rights and individual freedoms flowed from natural law. Here, in this 1850 classic, a powerful refutation of Karl Marx's Communist Manifesto, published two years earlier, Bastiat discusses: . what is law? . why socialism constitutes legal plunder . the proper function of the law . the law and morality . "the vicious circle of socialism" . the basis for stable government . and more.
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Sexual Violence as a Weapon of War?

Perceptions, Prescriptions, Problems in the Congo and Beyond

Author: Maria Eriksson Baaz,Professor Maria Stern

Publisher: Zed Books Ltd.

ISBN: 178032166X

Category: Social Science

Page: 168

View: 3316

All too often in conflict situations, rape is referred to as a 'weapon of war', a term presented as self-explanatory through its implied storyline of gender and warring. In this provocative but much-needed book, Eriksson Baaz and Stern challenge the dominant understandings of sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict settings. Reading with and against feminist analyses of the interconnections between gender, warring, violence and militarization, the authors address many of the thorny issues inherent in the arrival of sexual violence on the global security agenda. Based on original fieldwork in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as well as research material from other conflict zones, Sexual Violence as a Weapon of War? challenges the recent prominence given to sexual violence, bravely highlighting various problems with isolating sexual violence from other violence in war. A much-anticipated book by two acknowledged experts in the field, on an issue that has become an increasingly important security, legal and gender topic.
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The Mis-education of the Negro

Author: Carter Godwin Woodson

Publisher: ReadaClassic.com

ISBN: N.A

Category: African Americans

Page: 207

View: 7509

Woodson's classic work of criticism explores how the education received by blacks has failed to give them an appreciation of themselves as a race and their contributions to history. Woodson puts forward a program that calls for the educated to learn about their past and serve the black community. (Education/Teaching)
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Spiral

Trapped in the Forever War

Author: Mark Danner

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1476747768

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 9745

Danner posits that the United States has been trapped in a "forever war" by 9/11, and describes a nation that has been altered in fundamental ways by President Bush's having declared a war of choice and without an exit plan, and President Obama proving unable to take the country off what he has called its "permanent war footing."
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The Camp of the Saints

Author: Jean Raspail

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781881780076

Category: Fiction

Page: 316

View: 4917

"Published for the first time in 1973, Camp of the Saints is a novel that anticipates a situation that seems plausible today and foresees a threat that no longer seems unbelevable to anyone: it describes the peaceful invasion of France, and then of the West, by a third world burgeoned into multitudes. At all levels - global consciousness, governments, societies, and especially every person within himself - the question is asked belatedly: what's to be done?"--Author's introduction to the 1985 French edition.
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Exit West

A Novel

Author: Mohsin Hamid

Publisher: Random House India

ISBN: 9386495015

Category: Fiction

Page: 240

View: 873

An extraordinary story of love and hope from the bestselling, Man Booker-shortlisted author of The Reluctant Fundamentalist. This is Nadia. She is fiercely independent with an excellent sense of humour and a love of smoking alone on her balcony late at night. This is Saeed. He is sweet and shy and kind to strangers. He also has a balcony but he uses his for stargazing. This is their story: a love story, but also a story about how we live now and how we might live tomorrow. Saeed and Nadia are falling in love, and their city is falling apart. Here is a world in crisis and two human beings travelling through it. Exit West is a heartfelt and radical act of hope-a novel to restore your faith in humanity and in the power of imagination.
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Goodbye, Europe? Hello, Chaos?

Merkel's Migrant Bomb

Author: J. Michael Springmann

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780990926221

Category: Espionage

Page: 225

View: 1013

They come from across the Middle East, South Asia, North Africa-floods of refugees seeking sanctuary in Europe. Most are men. Some are terrorists. And all represent an ethnopolitical nightmare for the European Union. What drives these migrants? Why, instead of seeking out nations with common ethnic and religious ties, do they instead head north and west, where few speak their language or share a common culture? In Goodbye, Europe! Hello, Chaos! Merkel's Migrants, former diplomat J. Michael Springmann provides an in-depth analysis of the migrant flood, its causes, and what it means for Europe. Building on arguments put forward in his previous work, Visas for Al Qaeda: CIA Handouts That Rocked the World, the ex-State Department official and attorney reveals how US foreign policy created the crisis. Destabilizing nations through invasion and espionage furthers US goals in the Middle East, he argues, creating migrant waves guided northward and westward to destabilize the European Union in general and Germany in particular. Germany's own refugee program, designed to exploit migrants as cheap labor, made US intelligence efforts all the easier. Springmann's insider knowledge of US policy permeates this insightful, sometimes terrifying look at a world where migrants become weapons, nationalism is condemned, and civil liberties hang in the balance.
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Nobodies

Modern American Slave Labor and the Dark Side of the New Global Economy

Author: John Bowe

Publisher: Random House Incorporated

ISBN: 0812971841

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 304

View: 1817

Offers a look at the working conditions of forced labor that the government and corporations ignore, decry, but ultimately need, analyzing the moral implications of the inexpensive goods to which the American consumer has become accustomed.
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The War of the Worlds

Author: Herbert George Wells

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science fiction

Page: 288

View: 6846

H.G. Wells's hugely influential book tracks the exploits of a writer who struggles to survive an alien invasion of Victorian England. After seeing the monstrous Martians firsthand, the narrator attempts to evade their destructive mechanized vehicles and must stay on the run to avoid detection. As he meets other desperate humans, he becomes increasingly pessimistic about any chance of survival. The novel stands as a major milestone in science-fiction literature, inspiring legions of subsequent writers and an endless array of hostile-alien scenarios.
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