Vascular Transport in Plants

Author: N. Michelle Holbrook,Maciej A. Zwieniecki

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080454238

Category: Science

Page: 592

View: 6668

Vascular Transport in Plants provides an up-to-date synthesis of new research on the biology of long distance transport processes in plants. It is a valuable resource and reference for researchers and graduate level students in physiology, molecular biology, physiology, ecology, ecological physiology, development, and all applied disciplines related to agriculture, horticulture, forestry and biotechnology. The book considers long-distance transport from the perspective of molecular level processes to whole plant function, allowing readers to integrate information relating to vascular transport across multiple scales. The book is unique in presenting xylem and phloem transport processes in plants together in a comparative style that emphasizes the important interactions between these two parallel transport systems. Includes 105 exceptional figures Discusses xylem and phloem transport in a single volume, highlighting their interactions Syntheses of structure, function and biology of vascular transport by leading authorities Poses unsolved questions and stimulates future research Provides a new conceptual framework for vascular function in plants
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Plant Physiological Ecology

Author: Hans Lambers,F. Stuart Chapin III,Thijs L. Pons

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475728557

Category: Science

Page: 540

View: 8593

This textbook is remarkable for emphasising that the mechanisms underlying plant physiological ecology can be found at the levels of biochemistry, biophysics, molecular biology and whole-plant physiology. The authors begin with the primary processes of carbon metabolism and transport, plant-water relations, and energy balance. After considering individual leaves and whole plants, these physiological processes are then scaled up to the level of the canopy. Subsequent chapters discuss mineral nutrition and the ways in which plants cope with nutrient-deficient or toxic soils. The book then looks at patterns of growth and allocation, life-history traits, and interactions between plants and other organisms. Later chapters deal with traits that affect decomposition of plant material and with plant physiological ecology at the level of ecosystems and global environmental processes.
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Plant Stems

Physiology and Functional Morphology

Author: N.A

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080539089

Category: Science

Page: 440

View: 4700

Stems, of various sizes and shapes, are involved in most of the organic processes and interactions of plants, ranging from support, transport, and storage to development and protection. The stem itself is a crucially important intermediary: it links above- and below ground organs-connecting roots to leaves. An international team of leading researchers vividly illustrate that stems are more than pipes, more than simple connecting and supporting structures; rather stems are critical, anatomically distinct structures of enormous variability. It is, to an unappreciated extent, this variability that underpins both the diversity and the success of plants in myriad ecosystems. Plant Stems will be a valuable resource on form/function relationships for researchers and graduate-level students in ecology, evolutionary biology, physiology, development, genetics, agricultural sciences, and horticulture as they unravel the mechanisms and processes that allow organisms and ecosystems to function. Syntheses of structural, physiological, and ecological functions of stems Multiple viewpoints on how stem structure relates to performance Highlights of major areas of plant biology long neglected
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Phloem Transport

Author: S. Aronoff

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1468486586

Category: Science

Page: 636

View: 2737

Ten years ago, at the International Botanical Congress in Edinburgh, a group of us from various countries discussed the difficulty of pursuing academic problems in depth at such meetings. In particular, we were discouraged at the poverty of time for phloem transport. From long association, we were conscious of the extraordinary breadth of the problem, from developmental through anatomical, to biophysical and physiological. Only by a reasonable understanding of all these components could one hope to come to some kind of understanding. We decided to establish common plant material so that data would have a common source. Similarly, we resolved to exchange information by circulating pre-publication manuscripts. For awhile, after the meeting was a pleasant memory, the plan seemed to be working; but, as is so often the case, human infirmities and foibles played early and, subsequently, predominant roles. Some became administrators (a punishment for good behaviour); others concentrated on alternative rings in their academic circuses. The next Congress (in Seattle) proved similar to its predecessor in its neglect and, consequently, succor was sought elsewhere. A little known, but remarkably understanding group becoming visible was the Science Committee and the Division of Scientific Affairs of N. A. T. O. Its sponsorship of Advanced Study Institutes including phytochemistry and phytophysics, was unusual both in the generosity of its funding and in the requirements for academic quality.
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Networks on Networks

The Physics of Geobiology and Geochemistry

Author: Allen G. Hunt,Stefano Manzoni

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1681741598

Category: Science

Page: 177

View: 9669

Order from chaos is simultaneously a mantra of physics and a reality in biology. Physicist Norman Packard suggested that life developed and thrives at the edge of chaos. Questions remain, however, as to how much practical knowledge of biology can be traced to existing physical principles, and how much physics has to change in order to address the complexity of biology. Phil Anderson, a physics Nobel laureate, contributed to popularizing a new notion of the end of “reductionism.” In this view, it is necessary to abandon the quest of reducing complex behavior to known physical results, and to identify emergent behaviors and principles. In the present book, however, we have sought physical rules that can underlie the behavior of biota as well as the geochemistry of soil development. We looked for fundamental principles, such as the dominance of water flow paths with the least cumulative resistance, that could maintain their relevance across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, together with the appropriate description of solute transport associated with such flow paths. Thus, ultimately, we address both nutrient and water transport limitations of processes from chemical weathering to vascular plant growth. The physical principles guiding our effort are established in different, but related concepts and fields of research, so that in fact our book applies reductionist techniques guided by analogy. The fact that fundamental traits extend across biotic and abiotic processes, i.e., the same fluid flow rate is relevant to both, but that distinctions in topology of the connected paths lead to dramatic differences in growth rates, helps unite the study of these nominally different disciplines of geochemistry and geobiology within the same framework. It has been our goal in writing this book to share the excitement of learning, and one of the most exciting portions to us has been the ability to bring some order to the question of the extent to which soils can facilitate plant growth, and what limitations on plant sizes, metabolism, occurrence, and correlations can be formulated thereby. While we bring order to the soil constraints on growth , we also generate some uncertainties in the scaling relationships of plant growth and metabolism. Although we have made an first attempt to incorporate edaphic constraints into allometric scaling, this is but an initial foray into the forest.
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Functional and Ecological Xylem Anatomy

Author: Uwe Hacke

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319157833

Category: Science

Page: 281

View: 3409

The book will describe the xylem structure of different plant groups, and will put the findings in a physiological and ecological context. For instance, when differences in vessel diameter are featured, then there will be an explanation why this matters for water transport efficiency and safety from cavitation. The focus is on the hydraulic function of xylem, although mechanical support and storage will also be covered. Featured plant groups include ferns (which only have primary xylem), conifers (tracheid-based xylem), lianas (extremely wide and long vessels), drought-adapted shrubs as well as the model systems poplar and grapevine. The book chapters will draw on the expertise and cutting edge research of a diversified group of internationally known researchers working in different anatomical and physiological sub-disciplines. Over the last two decades, much progress has been made in understanding how xylem structure relates to plant function. Implications for other timely topics such as drought-induced forest dieback or the regulation of plant biomass production will be discussed.
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The Evolution of Plant Physiology

Author: Alan R. Hemsley,Imogen Poole

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080472720

Category: Science

Page: 512

View: 3478

Coupled with biomechanical data, organic geochemistry and cladistic analyses utilizing abundant genetic data, scientific studies are revealing new facets of how plants have evolved over time. This collection of papers examines these early stages of plant physiology evolution by describing the initial physiological adaptations necessary for survival as upright structures in a dry, terrestrial environment. The Evolution of Plant Physiology also encompasses physiology in its broadest sense to include biochemistry, histology, mechanics, development, growth, reproduction and with an emphasis on the interplay between physiology, development and plant evolution. Contributions from leading neo- and palaeo-botanists from the Linnean Society Focus on how evolution shaped photosynthesis, respiration, reproduction and metabolism. Coverage of the effects of specific evolutionary forces -- variations in water and nutrient availability, grazing pressure, and other environmental variables
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Plant Physiological Ecology

Author: Hans Lambers,F. Stuart Chapin III,Thijs L. Pons

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475728557

Category: Science

Page: 540

View: 418

This textbook is remarkable for emphasising that the mechanisms underlying plant physiological ecology can be found at the levels of biochemistry, biophysics, molecular biology and whole-plant physiology. The authors begin with the primary processes of carbon metabolism and transport, plant-water relations, and energy balance. After considering individual leaves and whole plants, these physiological processes are then scaled up to the level of the canopy. Subsequent chapters discuss mineral nutrition and the ways in which plants cope with nutrient-deficient or toxic soils. The book then looks at patterns of growth and allocation, life-history traits, and interactions between plants and other organisms. Later chapters deal with traits that affect decomposition of plant material and with plant physiological ecology at the level of ecosystems and global environmental processes.
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Wetland Plants

Biology and Ecology

Author: Julie K. Cronk,M. Siobhan Fennessy

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420032925

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 482

View: 1443

A detailed account of the biology and ecology of vascular wetland plants and their applications in wetland plant science, Wetland Plants: Biology and Ecology presents a synthesis of wetland plant studies and reviews from biology, physiology, evolution, genetics, community and population ecology, environmental science, and engineering. It provides a thorough discussion of the range of wetland plants adaptations to conditions such as life in water or saturated soils, high salt or high sulfur, as well as low light and low carbon dioxide levels. The authors include the latest research on the development of plant communities in newly restored or created wetlands and on the use of wetland plants as indicators of ecological integrity and of wetland boundaries. Over 140 figures, including over 70 original photographs, allow you to visualize the concepts, 40 tables give you easy access to definitions and data, and international examples provide you with a broad base of information. The growing consensus in wetlands literature and research suggests that methods are needed to assess the ecological health or integrity of wetlands, to set goals for wetland restoration, and to track the status and trends of wetlands. Wetland plants are emerging as important indicators, and becoming an important part of this research. Wetland Plants: Biology and Ecology contains up-to-date information on this increasingly important area in wetlands technology.
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Integrative Plant Anatomy

Author: William C. Dickison

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0122151704

Category: Nature

Page: 533

View: 2458

Presents the basic concepts and terminology of plant anatomy with a special emphasis on its significance and applications to other disciplines. This book also highlights the important contribution made by studying anatomy to the solutions of a number of problems. It is illustrated with line drawings and photographs.
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Plant Energetics

Author: Octavian S. Ksenzhek,Alexander G. Volkov

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080514017

Category: Science

Page: 389

View: 3761

Emphasizing the physical and technological aspects of plant energetics, this comprehensive book covers a significant interdisciplinary research area for a broad range of investigators. Plant Energetics presentsthe thermodynamics of energy processes in plants, their interconnection and arrangement, and the estimation of intrinsic energy needs of the plant connected with performing various physiological functions. The book also demonstrates the role of electrical and electrochemical processes in the plants life cycle. Plant Energetics incorporates such diverse themes as thermodynamics, biophysics, and bioelectrochemistry with applications in horticulture and ecology. It also discusses the roles and mechanisms of both quantum and thermophysical processes of theconversion of solar energy by plants, including photosynthesis and long distance transport. Comprehensive details of value to basic and applied researchers dealing with photosynthesis, agriculture, horticulture, bioenergetics, biophysics, photobiology, and plant physiology make Plant Energetics an informative, one-stop resource that willsave time and energy in your search for the latest information. Plant Energetics incorporates such diverse themes as thermodynamics, biophysics, and bioelectrochemistry with applications in horticulture and ecology. It also discusses the roles and mechanisms of both quantum and thermophysical processes of the conversion of solar energy by plants, including photosynthesis and long-distance transport Extensive details of value to basic and applied researchers dealing with photosynthesis, agriculture, horticulture, bioenergetics, biophysics, photobiology, and plant physiology make Plant Energetics an informative, one-stop resource that will save you time and energy in your search for the latest information
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The Physiological Ecology of Woody Plants

Author: Theodore T. Kozlowski,Paul J. Kramer,Stephen G. Pallardy

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0323138004

Category: Science

Page: 657

View: 7006

The efficient management of trees and other woody plants can be improved given an understanding of the physiological processes that control growth, the complex environmental factors that influence those processes, and our ability to regulate and maintain environmental conditions that facilitate growth. Emphasizes genetic and environmental interactions that influence woody plant growth Outlines responses of individual trees and tree communities to environmental stress Explores cultural practices useful for efficient management of shade, forest, and fruit trees, woody vines, and shrubs
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Plant Physiological Ecology

Author: CTI Reviews

Publisher: Cram101 Textbook Reviews

ISBN: 1467251690

Category: Education

Page: 118

View: 9154

Facts101 is your complete guide to Plant Physiological Ecology. In this book, you will learn topics such as as those in your book plus much more. With key features such as key terms, people and places, Facts101 gives you all the information you need to prepare for your next exam. Our practice tests are specific to the textbook and we have designed tools to make the most of your limited study time.
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Symplasmic Transport in Vascular Plants

Author: Katarzyna Sokołowska,Paweł Sowiński

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461477654

Category: Science

Page: 257

View: 3103

Concentrates on symplasmic transport of small molecules, although the cell-to-cell transport of macromolecules will also be discussed. This book characterize the efficiency of symplasmic transport, mechanisms of molecule passage via plasmodesmata, and the external and internal factors that regulate plasmodesmatal conductivity. In this context, the book focused on the role of symplasmic domains in plant development, as well as the influence of environmental stresses on the plasmodesmata. Besides cell-to-cell symplasmic transport, the significance of long-distance symplasmic transport of solutes in phloem elements is also reviewed. Symplasmic Transport in Vascular Plants presents the mechanism of phloem transport, the processes of symplasmic loading and unloading, as well as the role of pre- and post-phloem transport, with special attention paid to symplasmic transport in wood. Finally, the relevance of the spread of both macromolecules and viruses, via plasmodesmata, is presented.​
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Plant Macronutrient Use Efficiency

Molecular and Genomic Perspectives in Crop Plants

Author: Mohammad Anwar Hossain,Takehiro Kamiya,David J. Burritt,Lam-Son Phan Tran,Toru Fujiwara

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128112948

Category: Science

Page: 418

View: 3014

Plant Macronutrient Use Efficiency presents an up-to-date overview of the latest research on the molecular and genetic basis of macro-nutrient use efficiency (NUE) in plants, and strategies that can be used to improve NUE and nutrient-associated stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant NUE is a measure of how efficiently plants use available nutrients and an understanding of plant NUE has the potential to help improve the use of limited natural resources and to help achieve global food security. This book presents information important for the development of crop plants with improved macro-NUE, a prerequisite to reducing production costs, expanding crop production into noncompetitive marginal lands with low nutrient resources, and for helping to prevent environmental contamination. Plant Macronutrient Use Efficiency provides a comprehensive overview of the complex mechanisms regulating macro-NUE in crop plants, which is required if plant breeders are to develop modern crop varieties that are more resilient to nutrient-associated stress. Identification of genes responsible for macro-NUE and nutrient-related stress tolerance in crop plants will help us to understand the molecular mechanisms associated with the responses of crop plants to nutrient stress. This volume contains both fundamental and advanced information, and critical commentaries useful for those in all fields of plant science research. Provides details of molecular and genetic aspects of NUE in crop plants and model plant systems Presents information on major macronutrients, nutrient sensing and signaling, and the molecular and genomic issues associated with primary and secondary macronutrients Delivers information on how molecular genetic information associated with NUE can be used to develop plant breeding programs Includes contributions from world-leading plant nutrition research groups
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Xylem Structure and the Ascent of Sap

Author: Melvin T. Tyree,Martin H. Zimmermann

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662049317

Category: Science

Page: 284

View: 3933

The first edition of this book was the first to provide an integrated description of sap ascension from an anatomical and functional point of view. The second edition opens with the three-dimensional aspects of wood anatomy. The cohesion-tension theory and new evidence are introduced in response to recent controversies over the mechanism of sap ascent in plants. The physiology, anatomy and biophysics of xylem dysfunction are discussed and new insights into hydraulic architecture are reviewed with special emphasis on physiological limits on maximum transpiration and how hydraulic architecture limits gas exchange, carbon gain and growth of plants. The text concludes with a description of xylem failure and pathology. The book highlights fascinating areas of current research with the aim to stimulate more work in the future.
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Cadmium Toxicity and Tolerance in Plants

From Physiology to Remediation

Author: Mirza Hasanuzzaman,M.N.V. Prasad,Masayuki Fujita

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780128148648

Category: Science

Page: 632

View: 3904

Cadmium Toxicity and Tolerance in Plants: From Physiology to Remediation presents a single research resource on the latest in cadmium toxicity and tolerance in plants. The book covers many important areas, including means of Cd reduction, from plant adaptation, including antioxidant defense, active excretion and chelation, to phytoextraction, rhizo filtration, phytodegradation, and much more. In addition, it explores important insights into the physiological and molecular mechanisms of Cd uptake and transport and presents options for improving resistance to Cd stresses. It will be ideal for both researchers and students working on cadmium pollution, plant responses and related fields of environmental contamination and toxicology. Includes all aspects of cadmium toxicity and tolerance in plants Provides a comprehensive overview of advances in cadmium toxicity, tolerance and adaptation in plants Elaborates on the advancement of eco-friendly techniques for cadmium remediation from soil and water Provides real-world, application focused techniques
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Handbook of Functional Plant Ecology

Author: Francisco Pugnaire,Fernando Valladares

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780849390418

Category: Science

Page: 920

View: 8299

"Offers the latest findings and research breakthroughs in plant ecology, as well as consideration of classic topics in environmental science and ecology. This wide-ranging compendium serves as an extremely accessible and useful resource for relative newcomers to the field as well as seasoned experts. Investigates plant structure and behavior across the ecological spectrum, from the leaf to the ecosystem levels."
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Physiological Ecology of Tropical Plants

Author: Ulrich Lüttge

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540717935

Category: Science

Page: 458

View: 8465

Since the publication of the first edition of this book ten years ago, international research into the physiological ecology of plants in the tropics has increased enormously in quantity and quality. This brand new edition brings the story right up to date. New approaches have been developed in remote sensing while at the other end of the scale molecular biology has come on in leaps and bounds, particularly regarding ecological performance of tropical plants, e.g. in understanding the adaptation of resurrection plants to the extreme habitat of inselbergs. In this fully revised and updated second edition the wealth of new information has made it necessary to break large chapters down into smaller ones.
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