Urban Outcasts

A Comparative Sociology of Advanced Marginality

Author: Loïc Wacquant

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0745657478

Category: Social Science

Page: 360

View: 3577

Breaking with the exoticizing cast of public discourse and conventional research, Urban Outcasts takes the reader inside the black ghetto of Chicago and the deindustrializing banlieue of Paris to discover that urban marginality is not everywhere the same. Drawing on a wealth of original field, survey and historical data, Loïc Wacquant shows that the involution of America's urban core after the 1960s is due not to the emergence of an 'underclass', but to the joint withdrawal of market and state fostered by public policies of racial separation and urban abandonment. In European cities, by contrast, the spread of districts of 'exclusion' does not herald the formation of ghettos. It stems from the decomposition of working-class territories under the press of mass unemployment, the casualization of work and the ethnic mixing of populations hitherto segregated, spawning urban formations akin to 'anti-ghettos'. Comparing the US 'Black Belt' with the French 'Red Belt' demonstrates that state structures and policies play a decisive role in the articulation of class, race and place on both sides of the Atlantic. It also reveals the crystallization of a new regime of marginality fuelled by the fragmentation of wage labour, the retrenchment of the social state and the concentration of dispossessed categories in stigmatized areas bereft of a collective idiom of identity and claims-making. These defamed districts are not just the residual 'sinkholes' of a bygone economic era, but also the incubators of the precarious proletariat emerging under neoliberal capitalism. Urban Outcasts sheds new light on the explosive mix of mounting misery, stupendous affluence and festering street violence resurging in the big cities of the First World. By specifying the different causal paths and experiential forms assumed by relegation in the American and the French metropolis, this book offers indispensable tools for rethinking urban marginality and for reinvigorating the public debate over social inequality and citizenship at century's dawn.
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Schlüsselwerke der Stadtforschung

Author: Frank Eckardt

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3658104384

Category: Social Science

Page: 468

View: 4981

Mit diesem Band sollen wichtige Texte der Stadtforschung einem breiten Publikum vorgestellt werden, das sich für heutige und zukünftige Fragen der Stadtentwicklung interessiert. Es werden vor allem Texte aus den Sozial- und Kulturwissenschaften vorgestellt, die in den letzten zwei Jahrzenten in den stadtbezogenen Diskursen eine große Rolle gespielt haben und die unser Denken über die Stadt maßgeblich beeinflusst haben. Die Schlüsselwerke der Stadtforschungermöglichen den Lesern einen Einblick in die verschiedenen Themen, theoretischen Ansätze und Forschungskontroversen, die in der aktuellen Diskussion um das Leben in der Stadt wichtig erscheinen. Damit soll somit sowohl der professionellen Auseinandersetzung als auch der interessierten Öffentlichkeit insgesamt ein transdisziplinärer Einblick in die Komplexität der urbanen Gesellschaft ermöglicht werden.
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Bestrafen der Armen

Zur neoliberalen Regierung der sozialen Unsicherheit

Author: Loïc Wacquant

Publisher: Verlag Barbara Budrich

ISBN: 3847403788

Category: Social Science

Page: 359

View: 985

„Dieses Buch ist nicht nur Kampfschrift, sondern auch eine fulminante wissenschaftliche Studie. [...] ‚Die Bestrafung der Armen’ ist keine Polemik, sondern längst Realität. Das gezeigt zu haben, ist Wacquants Verdienst.“ Bayerischer Rundfunk Loïc Wacquant analysiert die öffentliche Mobilmachung zum Thema „Sicherheit“ und die Verschärfung von Strafpraxen als Maßnahmen zur Marginalisierung und Normalisierung unterer Klassen sowie Ablenkungsmanöver in Bezug auf die soziale Frage.
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Dynamiken der Prekarisierung

Atypische Erwerbsverhältnisse und milieuspezifische Unsicherheitsbewältigung

Author: Alessandro Pelizzari

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 3744501744

Category: Social Science

Page: 356

View: 1943

Das vergangene Jahrzehnt ist nicht spurlos an der gesellschaftlichen Chancenstruktur vorbeigezogen: Die Kerne normaler Vollzeitbeschäftigung sind geschrumpft, und ihnen steht eine beträchtliche Zahl Ausgeschlossener gegenüber. Dazwischen öffnet sich ein Graubereich von Erwerbsverhältnissen, die von deutlichen Anzeichen der Unsicherheit geprägt sind. Die qualitative Studie beschreibt die Bewältigungsstrategien von prekär Beschäftigten als Verteilungskämpfe um Sicherheit, welche die Dynamiken der Ent- und Neubildung sozialer Klassen prägen. Sie lädt aber auch dazu ein, über neue Formen kollektiver Partizipationsmöglichkeiten der Beschäftigten in der Lohnarbeit nachzudenken.
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Die Street Corner Society

Die Sozialstruktur eines Italienerviertels

Author: William Foote Whyte

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783110152272

Category:

Page: 386

View: 1895

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Migration, Stadt und Urbanität

Perspektiven auf die Heterogenität migrantischer Lebenswelten

Author: Thomas Geisen,Christine Riegel,Erol Yildiz

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3658137797

Category: Social Science

Page: 499

View: 4492

Der Band analysiert die Vielfalt des urbanen Zusammenlebens differenziert und mehrdimensional. Ausgangspunkt bildet die soziale Tatsache, dass migrationsbedingte Mobilität seit jeher für die Entwicklung von Städten konstitutiv ist. Verdichtung, Vielfalt und Wandel sind zentrale Merkmale urbaner (Sozial-)Räume. Es sind Orte, an denen sich die kulturelle, soziale, ökonomische und politische Dynamik lokaler und globaler Prozesse immer wieder neu vermischen. Dies wird einerseits als positiv empfunden und gewertet, vielfach aber auch als Problem wahrgenommen. Vor diesem Hintergrund setzen sich die Autorinnen und Autoren empirisch und theoretisch mit Fragestellungen zur Bedeutung von Migration und Wirkweisen migrationsgesellschaftlicher Verhältnisse in Städten auseinander.
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City of Extremes

The Spatial Politics of Johannesburg

Author: Martin J. Murray

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822347687

Category: History

Page: 470

View: 1269

No other city in South Africa bears the scars of white minority rule as obviously and as self-consciously as Johannesburg, the place where the architects of racial segregation were the most deeply invested in implanting their vision of 'separate development' into the material fabric of society. Not surprisingly the city is also the place where this vision of racial exclusivity was the most bitterly contested in the popular struggles that eventually brought white rule to an end. Today, although a new generation of city builders has struggled to reinvent the city so as to reflect an alternative, more equitable politics that answers the basic needs of the urban poor, nevertheless the city remains deeply fractured, divided between two highly unequal and spatially disconnected worlds: one catering to the rich and another for those without regular work, without shelter, and forced to eke out a marginal existence. City of Extremes analyzes the relationship between the evolving urban form of Johannesburg after apartheid and present-day, boosterist, city-building efforts to create a "world-class" African city. The book shows how property-holding elites and their affluent middle-class allies have been able to maintain privileged life styles despite persistent demands from below for redress of long-standing grievances. The metamorphosis of Johannesburg from the exemplary "apartheid city" at the height of white minority rule has, Murray demonstrates, gone hand in hand with the emergence of new patterns of spatial inequality and new kinds of social exclusion, the result of city-building efforts that have partitioned the urban landscape into fortified "renaissance sites" of privatized luxury where affluent urban residents work and play - on one side - and impoverished spaces of confinement where the poor, the socially excluded, and the homeless are forced to survive on the other. Murray's analysis of this phenomenon is divided into three parts. Part 1 provides a historical context that reveals how real estate developers, corporate builders, and city planners have fostered an image of an aspiring global city, yet at the same time have produced spatial frictions that have disrupted the city's coherence, hollowed out its core, relied primarily on private transport rather than public transit, and left decaying inner-city slums. Part 2 examines the twin processes of fragmentation and polarization that have left the city with pockets of ostentatious wealth and other pockets of utter destitution. Murray shows how this process depends on the peculiar qualities of land values as marketable commodities, producing boom and bust cycles as builders compete to produce landmark structures but then feel required to insulate them from the nearby "mean streets" by creating citadel-like office buildings and shopping enclaves. Part 3 then looks in detail at the creation of these new divisive spaces, what Murray calls "redoubts of commerce" that resemble nomadic fortresses connected by bridges and underground tunnels arising not as the result of impersonal market forces, but through the deliberate actions of key propertied stakeholders. The result, he shows, is a patchwork city of dispersed territorial enclaves that have not only reinforced existing inequalities and racial hierarchies, but have introduced new patterns of social exclusion that have further marginalized the black underclass and urban poor.
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Migration und Familie

Historische und aktuelle Analysen

Author: Meike Sophia Baader,Petra Götte,Wolfgang Gippert

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3658150211

Category: Education

Page: 330

View: 6527

Der Band präsentiert Untersuchungen zum Zusammenhang von Familie und Migration in aktueller und historischer Perspektive. Er gibt einen Einblick in neue Erkenntnisse zu Familie, Religion und Migration im 18. Jahrhundert, zu historischen Zäsuren und Migrationswellen im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert, zu Umstrukturierungen und (intergenerativem) Wandel von Familie, zu Migrationsprozessen und pädagogischen Organisationen sowie zu Fragen von Geschlecht, Recht und Politik. Welche Rolle spielen Familien, Verwandtschaften und ihre Netzwerke in allen Stadien des Migrationsprozesses? Migration ist häufig ein Familienprojekt, familiale Netzwerke können Formen der Unterstützung bereitstellen, aber Familien werden durch Migrationsprozesse auch auseinander gerissen und zerstört. Diese Fragen werden in aktuellen und historischen Perspektiven vom 18. Jahrhundert bis heute in interdisziplinären Perspektiven beleuchtet.
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Urban Ills

Twenty-first-Century Complexities of Urban Living in Global Contexts

Author: Carol Camp Yeakey,Vetta L. Sanders Thompson,Anjanette Wells

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 0739186388

Category: Social Science

Page: 352

View: 9424

Urban Ills: Confronting Twenty First Century Dilemmas of Urban Living in GlobalContexts brings together original research by a wide array of interdisciplinary scholars to examine contemporary dilemmas impacting urban life in global contexts, following the latest global economic downturn. Focusing extensively on vulnerable populations, economic, social, health and community dynamics are explored as they relate to human adaptation to complex environments.
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The Politics of HBO’s The Wire

Everything is Connected

Author: Shirin Deylami,Jonathan Havercroft

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136026002

Category: Political Science

Page: 192

View: 2470

This innovative new work suggests that The Wire reflects, not simply a cultural take on contemporary America, but a structural critique of the conditions of late-modernity and global capitalism. As such, it is a visual text worth investigating and exploring for its nuanced examination of power, difference and inequality. Deylami & Havercroft bring together nine essays addressing issues of interest to a range of academic fields in order to engage with this important cultural intervention that has transfixed audiences and sparked debate within the social scientific community. While the TV show is primarily focused upon the urban politics of Baltimore, the contributors to this volume read Baltimore as a global city. That is, they argue that the relations between race, class, power, and violence that the series examines only make sense if we understand that inner city Baltimore is a node in a larger global network of violence and economic inequality. The book is divided into three interrelated sections focusing on systemic and cultural violence, the rise and decline of national and state formations, and the dysfunctional and destructive forces of global capitalism. Throughout the series the relation of the urban to the global is constantly being explored. This innovative new volume explains clearly how The Wire portrays this interaction, and what this representation can show social scientists interested in race, neo-liberal processes of globalization, criminality, gender, violence and surveillance.
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Behold the Black Caiman

A Chronicle of Ayoreo Life

Author: Lucas Bessire

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022617560X

Category: Social Science

Page: 296

View: 2341

In 2004, one of the world’s last bands of voluntarily isolated nomads left behind their ancestral life in the dwindling thorn forests of northern Paraguay, fleeing ranchers’ bulldozers. Behold the Black Caiman is Lucas Bessire’s intimate chronicle of the journey of this small group of Ayoreo people, the terrifying new world they now face, and the precarious lives they are piecing together against the backdrop of soul-collecting missionaries, humanitarian NGOs, late liberal economic policies, and the highest deforestation rate in the world. Drawing on ten years of fieldwork, Bessire highlights the stark disconnect between the desperate conditions of Ayoreo life for those out of the forest and the well-funded global efforts to preserve those Ayoreo still living in it. By showing how this disconnect reverberates within Ayoreo bodies and minds, his reflexive account takes aim at the devastating consequences of our society’s continued obsession with the primitive and raises important questions about anthropology’s potent capacity to further or impede indigenous struggles for sovereignty. The result is a timely update to the classic literary ethnographies of South America, a sustained critique of the so-called ontological turn—one of anthropology’s hottest trends—and, above all, an urgent call for scholars and activists alike to rethink their notions of difference.
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Criminalisation and Advanced Marginality

Critically Exploring the Work of Loïc Wacquant

Author: Peter Squires,John Lea

Publisher: Policy Press

ISBN: 1447300017

Category: Social Science

Page: 272

View: 2159

Written by criminologists and policy analysts, Criminalisation and advanced marginality offers a constructive but critical application of Wacquant's ideas.
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Bourdieu-Handbuch

Leben – Werk – Wirkung

Author: Gerhard Fröhlich,Boike Rehbein

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3476013790

Category: Philosophy

Page: 436

View: 6562

Philosoph, politischer Intellektueller und Kultursoziologe. Das Werk Pierre Bourdieus ist umfangreich und vielseitig. Das Handbuch erschließt die Quellen und Bezugspunkte und erläutert die wesentlichen Begriffe, Schriften und Rezeptionszusammenhänge. Die Bourdieuschen Begriffe (z.B. Habitus , Distinktionsgewinn oder symbolisches Kapital ) wurden innerhalb verschiedenster Wissenschaften angewandt. Ihre Analyse schärft den Blick für unterschiedliche Interpretationsmöglichkeiten seines Gesamtwerks.
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Das Janusgesicht des Ghettos und andere Essays

Author: Loïc Wacquant

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3764379634

Category: Architecture

Page: 208

View: 4598

Die hier versammelten Essays gelten dem Zusammenhang von sozialer und ethnischer Ausgrenzung und staatlicher Politik in den Metropolen zu Beginn des 21. Jahrhunderts. Die aus einer erfahrungsgestützten Perspektive geschriebenen Beiträge diagnostizieren die sich überall abzeichnenden Formen städtischer Armut und Gewalt in den entwickelten Gesellschaften des reichen Westens. Der Autor arbeitet mit einem soziologischen Konzept des Ghettos als Instrument ethnischer Kontrolle und Einschließung. Er zeigt, wie sich Staaten zunehmend von der Idee und der Praxis der sozialen Wohlfahrt trennen und zur Ausgrenzung der «sozial Abgehängten» übergehen. Essays in diesem Band sind unter anderem «Städtische Ausgrenzung im 21. Jahrhundert» und «Die Bestrafung der Armut und der Aufstieg des Neoliberalismus».
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Die Theorie sozialer Schließung

Tradition, Analysen, Perspektiven

Author: Jürgen Mackert

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3663079120

Category: Social Science

Page: 275

View: 7743

Die Theorie sozialer Schließung ist ein ungleichheits-, konflikt- und machttheoretischer Ansatz zur Analyse des Auschlusses von Individuen von jeglicher Art sozialer Systeme und deren Kampf um Inklusion. Der Sammelband vereinigt klassische Texte und aktuelle schließungstheoretische Analysen der politischen, ökonomischen, sozialen und kulturellen Partizipation von Individuen in modernen Gesellschaften. Mit Beiträgen von Frank Parkin, Randall Collins, Raymond Murphy, Loïc Wacquant, Sighard Neckel, Sylvia Wilz, Heinz Bude, June Edmunds, Bryan S. Turner, Phillip Brown, Jürgen Mackert
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Punishing the Poor

The Neoliberal Government of Social Insecurity

Author: Loïc Wacquant

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822392259

Category: Social Science

Page: 408

View: 9029

The punitive turn of penal policy in the United States after the acme of the Civil Rights movement responds not to rising criminal insecurity but to the social insecurity spawned by the fragmentation of wage labor and the shakeup of the ethnoracial hierarchy. It partakes of a broader reconstruction of the state wedding restrictive “workfare” and expansive “prisonfare” under a philosophy of moral behaviorism. This paternalist program of penalization of poverty aims to curb the urban disorders wrought by economic deregulation and to impose precarious employment on the postindustrial proletariat. It also erects a garish theater of civic morality on whose stage political elites can orchestrate the public vituperation of deviant figures—the teenage “welfare mother,” the ghetto “street thug,” and the roaming “sex predator”—and close the legitimacy deficit they suffer when they discard the established government mission of social and economic protection. By bringing developments in welfare and criminal justice into a single analytic framework attentive to both the instrumental and communicative moments of public policy, Punishing the Poor shows that the prison is not a mere technical implement for law enforcement but a core political institution. And it reveals that the capitalist revolution from above called neoliberalism entails not the advent of “small government” but the building of an overgrown and intrusive penal state deeply injurious to the ideals of democratic citizenship. Visit the author’s website.
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The Culture of Punishment

Prison, Society, and Spectacle

Author: Michelle Brown

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 9780814799994

Category: Social Science

Page: 251

View: 4644

Analyzes social aspects of prison, covering various theories about the role and function of punishment in society in the United States, including how the culture of imprisonment carries over into everyday life through television shows, movies, prison tourism, and other avenues, and examines the negative impact of penal spectatorship.
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Christianity and the New Social Order

A Manifesto for a Fairer Society

Author: John Atherton

Publisher: SPCK

ISBN: 0281067716

Category: Religion

Page: 160

View: 6569

Is Britain a broken society? Written in accessible language that speaks directly into church, public sphere and also academy it enters the current political, economic and social policy/civil society debates concerning the values and directions of British society. It covers religion and the public square, wellbeing and happiness in the public square, the new economics, faiths and social welfare, a new political manifesto.
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Urban Alchemy

Restoring Joy in America's Sorted-Out Cities

Author: Mindy Thompson Fullilove

Publisher: New Village Press

ISBN: 1613320124

Category: Social Science

Page: 3523

View: 7996

What if divided neighborhoods were causing public health problems? What if a new approach to planning and design could tackle both the built environment and collective well-being at the same time? What if cities could help each other? Dr. Mindy Fullilove, the acclaimed author of Root Shock, uses her unique perspective as a public health psychiatrist to explore ways of healing social and spatial fractures simultaneously. Using the work of French urbanist Michel Cantal-Dupart as a guide, Fullilove takes readers on a tour of successful collaborative interventions that repair cities and make communities whole.
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In the Shadow of Du Bois

Author: Robert Gooding-Williams

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674035267

Category: Philosophy

Page: 350

View: 9971

The Souls of Black Folk is Du Bois's outstanding contribution to modern political theory. It is his still influential answer to the question, "What kind of politics should African Americans conduct to counter white supremacy?" Here, in a major addition to American studies and the first book-length philosophical treatment of Du Bois's thought, Robert Gooding-Williams examines the conceptual foundations of Du Bois's interpretation of black politics.
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