Urban Outcasts

A Comparative Sociology of Advanced Marginality

Author: Loïc Wacquant

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0745657478

Category: Social Science

Page: 360

View: 9415

Breaking with the exoticizing cast of public discourse and conventional research, Urban Outcasts takes the reader inside the black ghetto of Chicago and the deindustrializing banlieue of Paris to discover that urban marginality is not everywhere the same. Drawing on a wealth of original field, survey and historical data, Loïc Wacquant shows that the involution of America's urban core after the 1960s is due not to the emergence of an 'underclass', but to the joint withdrawal of market and state fostered by public policies of racial separation and urban abandonment. In European cities, by contrast, the spread of districts of 'exclusion' does not herald the formation of ghettos. It stems from the decomposition of working-class territories under the press of mass unemployment, the casualization of work and the ethnic mixing of populations hitherto segregated, spawning urban formations akin to 'anti-ghettos'. Comparing the US 'Black Belt' with the French 'Red Belt' demonstrates that state structures and policies play a decisive role in the articulation of class, race and place on both sides of the Atlantic. It also reveals the crystallization of a new regime of marginality fuelled by the fragmentation of wage labour, the retrenchment of the social state and the concentration of dispossessed categories in stigmatized areas bereft of a collective idiom of identity and claims-making. These defamed districts are not just the residual 'sinkholes' of a bygone economic era, but also the incubators of the precarious proletariat emerging under neoliberal capitalism. Urban Outcasts sheds new light on the explosive mix of mounting misery, stupendous affluence and festering street violence resurging in the big cities of the First World. By specifying the different causal paths and experiential forms assumed by relegation in the American and the French metropolis, this book offers indispensable tools for rethinking urban marginality and for reinvigorating the public debate over social inequality and citizenship at century's dawn.
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Urban Outcasts

A Comparative Sociology of Advanced Marginality

Author: Loïc Wacquant

Publisher: Polity

ISBN: 074563124X

Category: Social Science

Page: 342

View: 941

This volume draws on a wealth of original fieldwork, surveys and historical data to show that the state of America's urban core is due to the public policies of segregation and abandonment.
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Prisons of Poverty

Author: Loïc J. D. Wacquant

Publisher: U of Minnesota Press

ISBN: 0816639000

Category: Social Science

Page: 217

View: 4770

In this title, the author examines how penal policies emanating from the United States have spread thoughout the world. The author argues that the policies have their roots in a network of Reagan-era conservative think tanks, which used them as weapons in their crusade to dismantle the welfare state and, in effect, criminalise poverty.
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Commodifying Bodies

Author: Nancy Scheper-Hughes,Loic Wacquant

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780761940340

Category: Social Science

Page: 199

View: 3020

With rapid developments in reproductive medicine, transplant ethics and bioethics, a new `ethic of parts' has emerged in which the body is increasingly seen as a commodity which can be bartered, sold or stolen. This book combines perspectives from anthropology and sociology to offer compelling new readings of the body.
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An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology

Author: Pierre Bourdieu,Loïc J. D. Wacquant

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226067414

Category: Social Science

Page: 332

View: 4598

Over the last three decades, the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu has produced one of the most imaginative and subtle bodies of social theory and research of the post war era. Yet, despite the influence of his work, no single introduction to his wide-ranging oeuvre is available. This book, intended for an English-speaking audience, offers a systematic and accessible overview, providing interpretive keys to the internal logic of Bourdieu's work by explicating thematic and methodological principles underlying his work. The structure of Bourdieu's theory of knowledge, practice, and society is first dissected by Loic Wacquant; he then collaborates with Bourdieu in a dialogue in which they discuss central concepts of Bourdieu's work, confront the main objections and criticisms his work has met, and outline Bourdieu's views of the relation of sociology to philosophy, economics, history, and politics. The final section captures Bourdieu in action in the seminar room as he addresses the topic of how to practice the craft of reflexive sociology. Throughout, they stress Bourdieu's emphasis on reflexivity—his inclusion of a theory of intellectual practice as an integral component of a theory of society—and on method—particularly his manner of posing problems that permits a transfer of knowledge from one area of inquiry into another. Amplified by notes and an extensive bibliography, this synthetic view is essential reading for both students and advanced scholars.
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Criminalisation and Advanced Marginality

Critically Exploring the Work of Loïc Wacquant

Author: Peter Squires,John Lea

Publisher: Policy Press

ISBN: 1447300017

Category: Social Science

Page: 272

View: 8488

Written by criminologists and policy analysts, Criminalisation and advanced marginality offers a constructive but critical application of Wacquant's ideas.
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Body & Soul

Notebooks of an Apprentice Boxer

Author: Loïc J. D. Wacquant

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195305620

Category: Social Science

Page: 274

View: 6014

In the late 1980s Wacquant, a white, French-born, French and American sociology graduate student, entered the Woodlawn gym on 63rd Street in Chicago and began training as a boxer. This text invites us to follow Wacquant's immersion into the everyday world of Chicago's boxers.
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Punishing the Poor

The Neoliberal Government of Social Insecurity

Author: Loïc Wacquant

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822392259

Category: Social Science

Page: 408

View: 1251

The punitive turn of penal policy in the United States after the acme of the Civil Rights movement responds not to rising criminal insecurity but to the social insecurity spawned by the fragmentation of wage labor and the shakeup of the ethnoracial hierarchy. It partakes of a broader reconstruction of the state wedding restrictive “workfare” and expansive “prisonfare” under a philosophy of moral behaviorism. This paternalist program of penalization of poverty aims to curb the urban disorders wrought by economic deregulation and to impose precarious employment on the postindustrial proletariat. It also erects a garish theater of civic morality on whose stage political elites can orchestrate the public vituperation of deviant figures—the teenage “welfare mother,” the ghetto “street thug,” and the roaming “sex predator”—and close the legitimacy deficit they suffer when they discard the established government mission of social and economic protection. By bringing developments in welfare and criminal justice into a single analytic framework attentive to both the instrumental and communicative moments of public policy, Punishing the Poor shows that the prison is not a mere technical implement for law enforcement but a core political institution. And it reveals that the capitalist revolution from above called neoliberalism entails not the advent of “small government” but the building of an overgrown and intrusive penal state deeply injurious to the ideals of democratic citizenship. Visit the author’s website.
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Code of the Street: Decency, Violence, and the Moral Life of the Inner City

Author: Elijah Anderson

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 9780393070385

Category: Social Science

Page: 352

View: 9455

Unsparing and important. . . . An informative, clearheaded and sobering book.—Jonathan Yardley, Washington Post (1999 Critic's Choice) Inner-city black America is often stereotyped as a place of random violence, but in fact, violence in the inner city is regulated through an informal but well-known code of the street. This unwritten set of rules—based largely on an individual's ability to command respect—is a powerful and pervasive form of etiquette, governing the way in which people learn to negotiate public spaces. Elijah Anderson's incisive book delineates the code and examines it as a response to the lack of jobs that pay a living wage, to the stigma of race, to rampant drug use, to alienation and lack of hope.
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Criminological Imagination

Author: Jock Young

Publisher: Polity

ISBN: 9780745641065

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 3766

For the last three decades Jock Young's work has had a profound impact on criminology. Yet, in this provocative new book, Young rejects much of what criminology has become, criticizing the rigid determinism and rampant positivism that dominate the discipline today. His erudite and entertaining examination of what's gone wrong with criminology draws on a range of research - from urban ethnography to sexology and criminal victimization studies - to illustrate its failings. At the same time, Young makes a passionate case for a return to criminology's creative and critical potential, partly informed by the new developments in cultural criminology. A late-modern counterpart to C.Wright Mills's classic The Sociological Imagination, this inspirational piece of writing from one of the most brilliant voices in contemporary criminology will command widespread attention. It will be essential reading for anyone who cares about the future of criminology, and the social sciences more generally.
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City Trenches

Author: Ira Katznelson

Publisher: Pantheon

ISBN: 0307833402

Category: Political Science

Page: 289

View: 7824

The urban crisis of the 1960s revived a dormant social activism whose protagonists placed their hoped for radical change and political effectiveness in community action. Ironically, the insurgents chose the local community as their terrain for a political battle that in reality involved a few strictly local issues. They failed to achieve their goals, Ira Katznelson argues, not so much because they had chosen their ground badly but because the deep split of the American political landscape into workplace politics and community politics defeats attempts to address grievances or raise demands that break the rules of bread-and-butter unionism on the one hand or of local politics on the other. A fascinating record of the encounter between today’s reformers—the community activists—and the powers they challenge. City Trenches is also a probing analysis of the causes of urban instability. Katznelson anatomizes the unique workings of the American urban system which allow it to contain opposition through “machine” politics and, as a last resort, institutional innovation and co-optation, for example, the authorities’ own version of decentralization used in the 1960s as a counter to a “community control.” Washington Heights–Inwood, a multi-ethnic working-class community in northern Manhattan, provides the setting for an absorbing close-up view of the historical evolution of local politics: the challenge to the system in the 1960s and its reconstitution in the 1970s.
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Scenescapes

How Qualities of Place Shape Social Life

Author: Daniel Aaron Silver,Terry Nichols Clark

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022635699X

Category: Social Science

Page: 449

View: 3053

Familiar urban sights: the pub regular on his stool, beer mug in hand, or the young couple shining out on the dance floor, or the improvising musicians in a jazz clubthese are experiences created by a given scene, where we feel connected to others in places like the community center, neighborhood parish, or even the efficiently functioning train station. Scenes enable experience, but they also cultivate skills, create ambiances, and nourish commitments. A scene that encourages personal self-expression turns out to mean stronger wage growth for tech firms associated with that scene, but also higher rents, and more jobs. This book deals in vivid detail with scenes as local styles of life (including an analysis of 40,000 zip codes). The idea of scene is a powerful tool for understanding how and why places grow and change. There are many terrific case studies here but also comparative data sets which show the role of culture in local economic growth, patterns of residence, and politics. The authors ask us to consider how specific place characteristic combine into an aesthetic view of place, what is the style of life, the spirit, the meaning, the mood expressed in scenes. They give us tools for thinking about place and for deciding where to live, where to work, where to relax, where to organize communities . . . ."
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Pierre Bourdieu and Democratic Politics

The Mystery of Ministry

Author: Loïc Wacquant

Publisher: Polity

ISBN: 0745634885

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 8189

Pierre Bourdieu was a brilliant sociologist and social thinker; he was also an intensely political man whose work is of profound significance for rethinking democracy. This original volume presents and develops Bourdieu's distinctive contribution to the theory and practice of democratic politics. It explicates and illustrates his core concepts of political field and field of power, his historical model of the bureaucratic state, and his influential analyses of the practices and institutions involved in the paradoxical phenomenon of political representation - starting with the enigma of delegation, or what he called the "mystery of ministry." The fruitfulness of Bourdieu's approach is demonstrated in a series of integrated studies of voting, public opinion polls, party dynamics, class rule, and state-building, as well as by careful analyses of Bourdieu's own civic engagements and his theoretical treatment of the politics of reason and recognition in contemporary society. Charting the connections between Bourdieu's political views, the main nodes of his sociology of democratic representation, and the implications of this sociology for progressive civic thought and action, this book will be of interest to students and scholars across the gamut of disciplines as well as to citizens concerned with renewing struggles for social justice.
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The Management of Hate

Nation, Affect, and the Governance of Right-Wing Extremism in Germany

Author: Nitzan Shoshan

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400883652

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 9348

Since German reunification in 1990, there has been widespread concern about marginalized young people who, faced with bleak prospects for their future, have embraced increasingly violent forms of racist nationalism that glorify the country's Nazi past. The Management of Hate, Nitzan Shoshan’s riveting account of the year and a half he spent with these young right-wing extremists in East Berlin, reveals how they contest contemporary notions of national identity and defy the clichés that others use to represent them. Shoshan situates them within what he calls the governance of affect, a broad body of discourses and practices aimed at orchestrating their attitudes toward cultural difference—from legal codes and penal norms to rehabilitative techniques and pedagogical strategies. Governance has conventionally been viewed as rational administration, while emotions have ordinarily been conceived of as individual states. Shoshan, however, convincingly questions both assumptions. Instead, he offers a fresh view of governance as pregnant with affect and of hate as publicly mediated and politically administered. Shoshan argues that the state’s policies push these youths into a right-extremist corner instead of integrating them in ways that could curb their nationalist racism. His point is certain to resonate across European and non-European contexts where, amid robust xenophobic nationalisms, hate becomes precisely the object of public dispute. Powerful and compelling, The Management of Hate provides a rare and disturbing look inside Germany’s right-wing extremist world, and shines critical light on a German nationhood haunted by its own historical contradictions.
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Getting Into Local Power

The Politics of Ethnic Minorities in British and French Cities

Author: Romain Garbaye

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444355546

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 9920

This book presents a comparison of the patterns of ethnic minority politics in British and French city politics. A comparison of the participation of ethnic minorities in British and French cities Includes direct comparisons of particular cities Birmingham, Lille and Roubaix Shows how ethnic and cultural diversity translates into political conflict in different political systems Considers styles of political mobilisation of ethnic minorities in the context of urban political systems, as well as the strategies used by party leaders and to manage ethnic diversity in political competition Analyses how ethnic and cultural diversity in urban societies translates into conflictual politics Enhances our understanding of local politics and of the evolution of political representation in industrialised democracies
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Crime, Disorder and Symbolic Violence

Governing the Urban Periphery

Author: M. Bowden

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137330368

Category: Social Science

Page: 228

View: 8176

This timely book provides a theoretical and empirical engagement with contemporary understandings of the governance of crime, safety and security. Using a Bourdieuian framework, Bowden explores concepts such as capital, habitus and symbolic power to present an analytic tool-kit for a critically engaged public criminology.
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Patterns of Exclusion

Constructing Gypsy Ethnicity and the Making of an Underclass in Transitional Societies of Europe

Author: János Ladányi,Iván Szelényi

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 9780880335744

Category: History

Page: 227

View: 4661

Drawing on historical and demographic data from the past 150 years, Ivan Szelenyi and Janos Ladanyi examine how the social conditions of the Roma (Gypsies) has changed over time and across countries. While Gypsies always tended to be poor and at the margins of society, the depth and nature of their poverty and the ways they were excluded varied substantially. In addition to providing a detailed history of these changes, the book also contributes to debates regarding Gypsies' status as part of an underclass. The historical case studies show that during the nineteenth century Gypsies belonged to the lower class, during the interwar years they could be seen as a lower caste, and it is only during the last two decades that they are in the process of becoming an underclass. The underclass debate has so far been framed in ideological terms. This book's main aim is to turn this ideological controversy into an analytic project: under what socioeconomic conditions is a social group's situation sufficiently different from earlier times? Is its exclusion from society sufficiently rigid that underclass is the concept that best describes its condition?
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Nashville in the New Millennium

Immigrant Settlement, Urban Transformation, and Social Belonging

Author: Jamie Winders

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 1610448022

Category: Social Science

Page: 340

View: 8347

Beginning in the 1990s, the geography of Latino migration to and within the United States started to shift. Immigrants from Central and South America increasingly bypassed the traditional gateway cities to settle in small cities, towns, and rural areas throughout the nation, particularly in the South. One popular new destination—Nashville, Tennessee—saw its Hispanic population increase by over 400 percent between 1990 and 2000. Nashville, like many other such new immigrant destinations, had little to no history of incorporating immigrants into local life. How did Nashville, as a city and society, respond to immigrant settlement? How did Latino immigrants come to understand their place in Nashville in the midst of this remarkable demographic change? In Nashville in the New Millennium, geographer Jamie Winders offers one of the first extended studies of the cultural, racial, and institutional politics of immigrant incorporation in a new urban destination. Moving from schools to neighborhoods to Nashville’s wider civic institutions, Nashville in the New Millennium details how Nashville’s long-term residents and its new immigrants experienced daily life as it transformed into a multicultural city with a new cosmopolitanism. Using an impressive array of methods, including archival work, interviews, and participant observation, Winders offers a fine-grained analysis of the importance of historical context, collective memories and shared social spaces in the process of immigrant incorporation. Lacking a shared memory of immigrant settlement, Nashville’s long-term residents turned to local history to explain and interpret a new Latino presence. A site where Latino day laborers gathered, for example, became a flashpoint in Nashville’s politics of immigration in part because the area had once been a popular gathering place for area teenagers in the 1960s and 1970s. Teachers also drew from local historical memories, particularly the busing era, to make sense of their newly multicultural student body. They struggled, however, to help immigrant students relate to the region’s complicated racial past, especially during history lessons on the Jim Crow era and the Civil Rights movement. When Winders turns to life in Nashville’s neighborhoods, she finds that many Latino immigrants opted to be quiet in public, partly in response to negative stereotypes of Hispanics across Nashville. Long-term residents, however, viewed this silence as evidence of a failure to adapt to local norms of being neighborly. Filled with voices from both long-term residents and Latino immigrants, Nashville in the New Millennium offers an intimate portrait of the changing geography of immigrant settlement in America. It provides a comprehensive picture of Latino migration’s impact on race relations in the country and is an especially valuable contribution to the study of race and ethnicity in the South.
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The Ghetto

Contemporary Global Issues and Controversies

Author: Ray Hutchison

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0429976143

Category: Social Science

Page: 386

View: 7036

Too often the term ?ghetto? is simply applied to any African American community, to the inner city as a whole, or recently to anything that is degraded or unrefined. But what is a ghetto? Does it arise organically from cities, or is it a consequence of social conflict and government policy? Are the banlieues, barrios, favelas, shantytowns, and slums of Europe, South America, and other continents similar to the American ghetto?The Ghetto invites us to reexamine our assumptions by addressing these and other critical questions. Concise, original essays from top scholars around the world clearly describe essential arguments and discoveries, making the current discussion of marginalized urban spaces accessible for all readers and students of urban studies and sociology.
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The Truly Disadvantaged

The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy, Second Edition

Author: William Julius Wilson

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226924653

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 6951

Renowned American sociologist William Julius Wilson takes a look at the social transformation of inner city ghettos, offering a sharp evaluation of the convergence of race and poverty. Rejecting both conservative and liberal interpretations of life in the inner city, Wilson offers essential information and a number of solutions to policymakers. The Truly Disadvantaged is a wide-ranging examination, looking at the relationship between race, employment, and education from the 1950s onwards, with surprising and provocative findings. This second edition also includes a new afterword from Wilson himself that brings the book up to date and offers fresh insight into its findings. “The Truly Disadvantaged should spur critical thinking in many quarters about the causes and possible remedies for inner city poverty. As policymakers grapple with the problems of an enlarged underclass they—as well as community leaders and all concerned Americans of all races—would be advised to examine Mr. Wilson's incisive analysis.”—Robert Greenstein, New York Times Book Review
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