Embezzlement and Financial Fraud
Author: Howard E. Williams
Publisher: Charles C Thomas Publisher
The 11 chapters of this book are intended to assist police investigators in obtaining the evidence required to prove the distinctive criminal elements of embezzlement and fraud. The first chapter defines "white-collar crime" and describes types of white-collar crime under the categories of crimes by individuals, crimes in the furtherance of legitimate business, and criminal activity disguised as legitimate business. The international scope of white-collar crime and the enforcement of white-collar crime are then discussed. The second chapter focuses on the white-collar crime of embezzlement, which occurs when a person fraudulently appropriates to his/her own benefit money or property entrusted to him/her by another without the effective consent of the owner. Fraud is the subject of the third chapter. Fraud occurs when a person obtains the property of another by deception. The deception involves making representations that are knowingly false by the design of the offender, and these representations are made with the intent to defraud a targeted victim. Relying on these false representations, the victim is induced to voluntarily give his/her property to the offender. The fourth chapter, a new chapter in this second edition, addresses identity theft, its incidence and costs, and the laws that it violates. The remaining chapters focus on the practical aspects of investigating embezzlement, fraud, and identity theft. Separate chapters cover accounting theory for investigators; auditing theory for investigators; financial interviewing and interrogation; public information, subpoenas, and search warrants; evidence and documentation; proving illicit transactions; and case preparation and the investigative report. Seven appendixes pertain to the numerical system of the American Bankers Association, the affidavit of financial information, area assignments of Social Security numbers, a guide to sources for financial information, consent to search, customer consent and authorization for access to financial records, and statement of rights.