Understanding Viscoelasticity

An Introduction to Rheology

Author: Nhan Phan-Thien,Nam Mai-Duy

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319620002

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 3469

This book presents an introduction to viscoelasticity, in particular, to the theories of dilute polymer solutions and dilute suspensions of rigid particles in viscous and incompressible fluids. These theories are important, not just because they apply to practical problems of industrial interest, but because they form a solid theoretical base upon which mathematical techniques can be built, from which more complex theories can be constructed, to better mimic material behaviour. The emphasis of this book is not on the voluminous current topical research, but on the necessary tools to understand viscoelasticity. This is a compact book for a first year graduate course in viscoelasticity and modelling of viscoelastic multiphase fluids. The Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) is introduced as a particle-based method, relevant in modelling of complex-structured fluids. All the basic ideas in DPD are reviewed. The third edition has been updated and expanded with new results in the meso-scale modelling, links between the fluid modelling to its physical parameters and new matlab programs illustrating the modelling. Particle-based modelling techniques for complex-structure fluids are added together with some sample programs. A solution manual to the problems is included.
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Understanding Viscoelasticity

Basics of Rheology

Author: Nhan Phan-Thien

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 366210704X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 146

View: 2316

In this book, the necessary background for understanding viscoelasticity is covered; both the continuum and microstructure approaches to modelling viscoelastic materials are discussed, since neither approach alone is sufficient.
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The Theory of Polymer Dynamics

Author: Masao Doi,Sam F. Edwards

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198520337

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 391

View: 6651

'This book is destined to join the classics of polymer science...an essential purchase for any serious student of polymer dynamics.' British Polymer Journal
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Polymer Engineering Science and Viscoelasticity

An Introduction

Author: Hal F. Brinson,L. Catherine Brinson

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1489974857

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 482

View: 9349

This book provides a unified mechanics and materials perspective on polymers: both the mathematics of viscoelasticity theory as well as the physical mechanisms behind polymer deformation processes. Introductory material on fundamental mechanics is included to provide a continuous baseline for readers from all disciplines. Introductory material on the chemical and molecular basis of polymers is also included, which is essential to the understanding of the thermomechanical response. This self-contained text covers the viscoelastic characterization of polymers including constitutive modeling, experimental methods, thermal response, and stress and failure analysis. Example problems are provided within the text as well as at the end of each chapter. New to this edition: · One new chapter on the use of nano-material inclusions for structural polymer applications and applications such as fiber-reinforced polymers and adhesively bonded structures · Brings up-to-date polymer production and sales data and equipment and procedures for evaluating polymer characterization and classification · The work serves as a comprehensive reference for advanced seniors seeking graduate level courses, first and second year graduate students, and practicing engineers
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Understanding Rheology

Author: Faith A. Morrison

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780195141665

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 545

View: 7920

Rheology--the study of the deformation and flow of matter--deals primarily with the stresses generated during the flow of complex materials including polymers, colloids, foams, and gels. A rapidly growing and industrially important field, it plays a significant role in polymer processing, food processing, coating and printing, and many other manufacturing processes. Designed as a main text for advanced undergraduate- or graduate-level courses in rheology or polymer rheology, Understanding Rheology is also an ideal self-teaching guide for practicing engineers and scientists who find rheological principles applicable to their work. Covering the most important aspects of elementary modern rheology, this detailed and accessible text opens with an introduction to the field and then provides extensive background chapters on vector and tensor operations and Newtonian fluid mechanics. It continues with coverage of such topics as: * Standard Flows for Rheology * Material Functions * Experimental Observations * Generalized Newtonian Fluids * Generalized Linear-Viscoelastic Fluids * Nonlinear Constitutive Equations * Rheometry, including rheo-optics Understanding Rheology incorporates helpful pedagogical aids including numerous problems for each chapter, many worked examples, and an extensive glossary. It also contains useful appendices on nomenclature, mathematical tools, predictions of constitutive equations, and birefringence.
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An Introduction to Hydraulics of Fine Sediment Transport

Author: Ashish J Mehta

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 9814449504

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1060

View: 4909

This book presents observations on the phenomena of fine sediment transport and their explanations under process-related divisions such as flocculation, erosion, and deposition. The text is a compilation of the author's lecture notes from nearly four decades of teaching and guiding graduate students in civil and coastal engineering. Illustrations of fine sediment transport processes and their complexities given in the book are taken from field and laboratory-based observations by the author and his students, as well as numerous investigators. The wide-ranging composition of particles (of inorganic and organic matter), their universal presence and their complex interactions with hydraulic forces make this branch of science a difficult one to deal with in a single treatise. It is therefore essential to study fine sediment transport as an independent subject rather than cover it in no more than a single chapter as many texts on coarse sediment transport have done. Even though the entire coverage is “introductory”, the twelve chapters collectively include more material than what can be reasonably dealt with in a one semester, three-credit course. The book includes an extensive description of the components of fine-grained — especially cohesive — sediment transport. It covers the development of the subject in scientific and engineering applications mainly from the 1950s to its present state. Solved examples and chapter-end exercises are also included. This text is aimed at senior civil engineering undergraduates and graduate students who, in the normal course of their study, seldom come across the subject of fine sediment transport in their curricula. Interested students should have a basic understanding of the mechanics of fluid flow and open channel hydraulics.
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Wave Fields in Real Media

Wave Propagation in Anisotropic, Anelastic, Porous and Electromagnetic Media

Author: José M. Carcione

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080468907

Category: Science

Page: 538

View: 9023

This book examines the differences between an ideal and a real description of wave propagation, where ideal means an elastic (lossless), isotropic and single-phase medium, and real means an anelastic, anisotropic and multi-phase medium. The analysis starts by introducing the relevant stress-strain relation. This relation and the equations of momentum conservation are combined to give the equation of motion. The differential formulation is written in terms of memory variables, and Biot's theory is used to describe wave propagation in porous media. For each rheology, a plane-wave analysis is performed in order to understand the physics of wave propagation. The book contains a review of the main direct numerical methods for solving the equation of motion in the time and space domains. The emphasis is on geophysical applications for seismic exploration, but researchers in the fields of earthquake seismology, rock acoustics, and material science - including many branches of acoustics of fluids and solids - may also find this text useful. * Presents the fundamentals of wave propagation in anisotropic, anelastic and porus media * Contains a new chapter on the analogy between acoustic and electromagnetic waves, incorporating the subject of electromagnetic waves * Emphasizes geophysics, particularly, seismic exploration for hydrocarbon reservoirs, which is essential for exploration and production of oil
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Theory of Viscoelasticity

Second Edition

Author: R. M. Christensen

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486318966

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 384

View: 8876

Integration of theoretical developments offers complete description of linear theory of viscoelastic behavior of materials, with theoretical formulations derived from continuum mechanics viewpoint and discussions of problem solving. 1982 edition.
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Polymer Viscoelasticity

Basics, Molecular Theories, Experiments, and Simulations

Author: Y.-H. Lin

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814313033

Category: Science

Page: 422

View: 4629

This book covers in great detail the Rouse-segment-based molecular theories in polymer viscoelasticity ? the Rouse theory and the extended reptation theory (based on the framework of the Doi?Edwards theory) ? that have been shown to explain experimental results in a consistently quantitative way. The explanation for the 3.4 power law of viscosity, quantitative line-shape analyses of viscoelastic responses and agreements between different sorts of viscoelastic responses, the consistency between the viscoelasticity and diffusion results, the clarification of the onset of entangelement, the discovery of the number of entanglement strands per cubed entanglement distance being a universal constant and the basic mechanism of the glass transition-related thermorheological complexity are discussed or shown in great detail. The mystery behind the success of the Rouse-segment-based molecular theories over the entropic region of a viscoelastic response is revealed by the Monte Carlo simulations on the Fraenkel chains. Specifically, the simulation studies give a natural explanation for the coexistence of the energy-driven and entropy-driven modes in a viscoelastic response and provide a theoretical basis resolving the paradox that the experimentally determined sizes of Rouse and Kuhn segments are nearly the same. This book starts from a very fundamental level; each chapter is built upon the contents of the previous chapters. Thus, the readers may use the book as a textbook and eventually reach an advanced research level. This book is also a useful source of reference for physicists, chemists and material scientists.
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Complex Fluids in Biological Systems

Experiment, Theory, and Computation

Author: Saverio Spagnolie

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1493920650

Category: Science

Page: 440

View: 629

This book serves as an introduction to the continuum mechanics and mathematical modeling of complex fluids in living systems. The form and function of living systems are intimately tied to the nature of surrounding fluid environments, which commonly exhibit nonlinear and history dependent responses to forces and displacements. With ever-increasing capabilities in the visualization and manipulation of biological systems, research on the fundamental phenomena, models, measurements, and analysis of complex fluids has taken a number of exciting directions. In this book, many of the world’s foremost experts explore key topics such as: Macro- and micro-rheological techniques for measuring the material properties of complex biofluids and the subtleties of data interpretation Experimental observations and rheology of complex biological materials, including mucus, cell membranes, the cytoskeleton, and blood The motility of microorganisms in complex fluids and the dynamics of active suspensions Challenges and solutions in the numerical simulation of biologically relevant complex fluid flows This volume will be accessible to advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in engineering, mathematics, biology, and the physical sciences, but will appeal to anyone interested in the intricate and beautiful nature of complex fluids in the context of living systems.
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Introduction to Biopolymer Physics

Author: Johan R C van der Maarel

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 9813101431

Category: Science

Page: 264

View: 4518

This book provides an ideal introduction to the physics of biopolymers. The structure, dynamics, and properties of biopolymers subjected to various forms of confinement are covered, and special attention is paid to the effect of charge and electrostatic screening (polyelectrolyte effect). By focusing on the development of physical intuition rather than mathematical rigor, readers will be better prepared to address complicated, real issues in the life sciences or related fields such as material or food sciences. The book is designed to serve as a bridge between undergraduate textbooks in physical (bio)chemistry and the professional literature, and is thus especially suitable for advanced undergraduate or postgraduate students and professionals who have already acquired basic knowledge of physics, thermodynamics, and molecular biology.
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The Oxford Handbook of Soft Condensed Matter

Author: Eugene Michael Terentjev,David A. Weitz

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199667926

Category: Science

Page: 640

View: 2036

This handbook will provide the reader with a profound introduction to the key subjects comprising the relatively new topic of Soft Condensed Matter. It will provide students and researchers with an authoritative overview of the field, identify key principles at play, and the most prominent ways of further development.
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Statistical Physics of Polymers

An Introduction

Author: Toshihiro Kawakatsu

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540434405

Category: Science

Page: 216

View: 1728

This textbook provides senior undergraduate and graduate students with an introduction to the basic concepts used the statistical physics of polymers. Methods of Gaussian chain statistics are discussed in detail. Applications to numerous interesting phenomena ranging from the microscopic (chain conformations, biopolymers, etc.) to the macroscopic (phase separations, rheology, etc.) are described. Readers are assumed to have taken elementary courses on statistical physics, quantum physics and mathematical physics, but prior knowledge of polymer science is not required. The book contains many illustrations and diagrams as well as exercises, which will help readers to easily and intuitively understand the concepts described in the text.
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An Introduction to Rheology

Author: Howard A. Barnes,John Fletcher Hutton,Kenneth Walters

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780444871404

Category: Science

Page: 199

View: 6011

This text introduces the subject of rheology in terms understandable to non-experts and describes the application of rheological principles to many industrial products and processes.
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Microstructures in Elastic Media

Principles and Computational Methods

Author: Nhan Phan-Thien,Sangtae Kim

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195358070

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 5963

This monograph describes various methods for solving deformation problems of particulate solids, taking the reader from analytical to computational methods. The book is the first to present the topic of linear elasticity in mathematical terms that will be familiar to anyone with a grounding in fluid mechanics. It incorporates the latest advances in computational algorithms for elliptic partial differential equations, and provides the groundwork for simulations on high performance parallel computers. Numerous exercises complement the theoretical discussions, and a related set of self-documented programs is available to readers with Internet access. The work will be of interest to advanced students and practicing researchers in mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, applied physics, computational methods, and developers of numerical modeling software.
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Viscoelasticity of Polymers

Theory and Numerical Algorithms

Author: Kwang Soo Cho

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9401775648

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 612

View: 9537

This book offers a comprehensive introduction to polymer rheology with a focus on the viscoelastic characterization of polymeric materials. It contains various numerical algorithms for the processing of viscoelastic data, from basic principles to advanced examples which are hard to find in the existing literature. The book takes a multidisciplinary approach to the study of the viscoelasticity of polymers, and is self-contained, including the essential mathematics, continuum mechanics, polymer science and statistical mechanics needed to understand the theories of polymer viscoelasticity. It covers recent achievements in polymer rheology, such as theoretical and experimental aspects of large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS), and numerical methods for linear viscoelasticity, as well as new insights into the interpretation of experimental data. Although the book is balanced between the theoretical and experimental aspects of polymer rheology, the author’s particular interest in the theoretical side will not remain hidden. Aimed at readers familiar with the mathematics and physics of engineering at an undergraduate level, the multidisciplinary approach employed enables researchers with various scientific backgrounds to expand their knowledge of polymer rheology in a systematic way.
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Viscoelastic Properties of Polymers

Author: John D. Ferry

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471048947

Category: Science

Page: 641

View: 5847

Viscoelastic behavior reflects the combined viscous and elastic responses, under mechanical stress, of materials which are intermediate between liquids and solids in character. Polymers—the basic materials of the rubber and plastic industries and important to the textile, petroleum, automobile, paper, and pharmaceutical industries as well—exhibit viscoelasticity to a pronounced degree. Their viscoelastic properties determine the mechanical performance of the final products of these industries, and also the success of processing methods at intermediate stages of production. Viscoelastic Properties of Polymers examines, in detail, the effects of the many variables on which the basic viscoelastic properties depend. These include temperature, pressure, and time; polymer chemical composition, molecular weight and weight distribution, branching and crystallinity; dilution with solvents or plasticizers; and mixture with other materials to form composite systems. With guidance by molecular theory, the dependence of viscoelastic properties on these variables can be simplified by introducing certain ancillary concepts such as the fractional free volume, the monomeric friction coefficient, and the spacing between entanglement loci, to provide a qualitative understanding and in many cases a quantitative prediction of how to achieve desired results. The phenomenological theory of viscoelasticity—which permits interrelation of the results of different types of experiments—is presented first, with many useful approximation procedures for calculations given. A wide variety of experimental methods is then described, with critical evaluation of their applicability to polymeric materials of different consistencies and in different regions of the time scale (or, for oscillating deformations, the frequency scale). A review of the present state of molecular theory follows, so that viscoelasticity can be related to the motions of flexible polymer molecules and their entanglements and network junctions. The dependence of viscoelastic properties on temperature and pressure, and its descriptions using reduced variables, are discussed in detail. Several chapters are then devoted to the dependence of viscoelastic properties on chemical composition, molecular weight, presence of diluents, and other features, for several characteristic classes of polymer materials. Finally, a few examples are given to illustrate the many potential applications of these principles to practical problems in the processing and use of rubbers, plastics, and fibers, and in the control of vibration and noise. The third edition has been brought up to date to reflect the important developments, in a decade of exceptionally active research, which have led to a wider use of polymers, and a wider recognition of the importance and range of application of viscoelastic properties. Additional data have been incorporated, and the book’s chapters on dilute solutions, theory of undiluted polymers, plateau and terminal zones, cross-linked polymers, and concentrated solutions have been extensively rewritten to take into account new theories and new experimental results. Technical managers and research workers in the wide range of industries in which polymers play an important role will find that the book provides basic information for practical applications, and graduate students in chemistry and engineering will find, in its illustrations with real data and real numbers, an accessible introduction to the principles of viscoelasticity.
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Mechanics of Agricultural Materials

Author: G. Sitkei

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0444601031

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 488

View: 665

The importance of economical production of agricultural materials, especially crops and animal products serving as base materials for foodstuffs, and of their technological processing (mechanical operations, storage, handling etc.) is ever-increasing. During technological processes agricultural materials may be exposed to various mechanical, thermal, electrical, optical and acoustical (e.g. ultrasonic) effects. To ensure optimal design of such processes, the interactions between biological materials and the physical effects acting on them, as well as the general laws governing the same, must be known. The mechanics of agricultural materials, as a scientific discipline, is still being developed, and therefore has no exact methods as yet, in many cases. However, the methods developed so far can already be utilized successfully for designing and optimizing machines and technological processes. This present work is the first attempt to summarize the calculation methods developed in the main fields of agricultural mechanics, and to indicate the material laws involved on the basis of a unified approach, with all relevant physico-mechanical properties taken into account. The book deals with material properties, gives the necessary theoretical background for description of the mechanical behaviour of these materials including modern powerful calculation methods and finally discusses a large number of experimental results. Many of them can only be found in this book. Special attention is paid to the unified approach concerning theory and practice. The systematic treatment of the material makes the book useful to a wide circle of designers, researchers and students in the field of agricultural engineering. The book can also be used as a textbook at technical and agricultural universities.
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Statistical Mechanics of Nonequilibrium Liquids

Author: Denis J. Evans,Gary P. Morriss

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483260453

Category: Science

Page: 316

View: 1113

Statistical Mechanics of Nonequilibrium Liquids deals with theoretical rheology. The book discusses nonlinear response of systems and outlines the statistical mechanical theory. In discussing the framework of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, the book explains the derivation of a nonequilibrium analogue of the Gibbsian basis for equilibrium statistical mechanics. The book reviews the linear irreversible thermodynamics, the Liouville equation, and the Irving-Kirkwood procedure. The text then explains the Green-Kubo relations used in linear transport coefficients, the linear response theory, the isothermal linear response theory, as well as the equivalence of thermostatted linear responses. The book also describes how thermostatted linear mechanical response of many-body systems can be related to equilibrium fluctuations. The text explains the procedure for calculating the linear Navier-Stokes transport coefficients through computer simulation algorithms. The book also discusses the van Kampen objection to linear response theory, the steady-state fluctuations, and the thermodynamics of steady states. The text will prove valuable for researchers in molecular chemistry, scientists, and academicians involved in advanced physics.
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Deformation of Earth Materials

An Introduction to the Rheology of Solid Earth

Author: Shun-ichiro Karato

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139469568

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 4967

This graduate textbook presents a comprehensive, unified treatment of the materials science of deformation as applied to solid Earth geophysics and geology. The deformation of Earth materials is presented in a systematic way covering elastic, anelastic and viscous deformation. Advanced discussions on relevant debates are also included to bring readers a full picture of science in this interdisciplinary area. This textbook is ideal for graduate courses on the rheology and dynamics of solid Earth, and includes review questions with solutions so readers can monitor their understanding of the material presented. It is also a much-needed reference for geoscientists in many fields including geology, geophysics, geochemistry, materials science, mineralogy and ceramics.
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