Ecological Research at the Offshore Windfarm alpha ventus

Challenges, Results and Perspectives

Author: Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency,Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3658024623

Category: Nature

Page: 201

View: 3398

At present and over the next few years, large-scale windfarms are being installed far off the coast of Germany in the North and Baltic Sea, making a major contribution to electricity generation from renewable energy sources. One of the German government’s aims is to ensure the environmentally sound and sustainable development of offshore wind energy. Germany’s first offshore test site, alpha ventus, was therefore accompanied from the construction phase to the first years of operation by an intensive environmental research programme, the StUKplus project, financed by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and coordinated by the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency. Marine and ecological aspects have been researched there for more than five years to improve the level of knowledge about the ecological impacts of offshore windfarms. This book provides a broad, richly illustrated overview of applied and new research methods and monitoring techniques. It summarises the key research findings on the impacts on benthic communities, fish, marine mammals and birds, also taking into account underwater sound and sediment measurements. Interpreting the results in the sense of lessons learned, new challenges and perspectives are discussed for future sustainable offshore development in German waters.
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Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Ocean Studies Board,Committee on the Assessment of the Cumulative Effects of Anthropogenic Stressors on Marine Mammals

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309440513

Category: Science

Page: 146

View: 7713

Marine mammals face a large array of stressors, including loss of habitat, chemical and noise pollution, and bycatch in fishing, which alone kills hundreds of thousands of marine mammals per year globally. To discern the factors contributing to population trends, scientists must consider the full complement of threats faced by marine mammals. Once populations or ecosystems are found to be at risk of adverse impacts, it is critical to decide which combination of stressors to reduce to bring the population or ecosystem into a more favorable state. Assessing all stressors facing a marine mammal population also provides the environmental context for evaluating whether an additional activity could threaten it. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals builds upon previous reports to assess current methodologies used for evaluating cumulative effects and identify new approaches that could improve these assessments. This review focuses on ways to quantify exposure-related changes in the behavior, health, or body condition of individual marine mammals and makes recommendations for future research initiatives.
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Handbook on Marine Environment Protection

Science, Impacts and Sustainable Management

Author: Markus Salomon,Till Markus

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319601563

Category: Science

Page: 1024

View: 8210

This handbook is the first of its kind to provide a clear, accessible, and comprehensive introduction to the most important scientific and management topics in marine environmental protection. Leading experts discuss the latest perspectives and best practices in the field with a particular focus on the functioning of marine ecosystems, natural processes, and anthropogenic pressures. The book familiarizes readers with the intricacies and challenges of managing coasts and oceans more sustainably, and guides them through the maze of concepts and strategies, laws and policies, and the various actors that define our ability to manage marine activities. Providing valuable thematic insights into marine management to inspire thoughtful application and further study, it is essential reading for marine environmental scientists, policy-makers, lawyers, practitioners and anyone interested in the field.
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On the Effect of Offshore Wind Farms on the Atmosphere and Ocean Dynamics

Author: Elke Ludewig

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319086413

Category: Law

Page: 162

View: 8339

Renewable energy resources now play an essential role in the energy supply debate, and especially a new interest in wind energy has resulted in the intensified construction of wind farms. Thanks to the growing demand for renewable energy, offshore wind farms (OWFs) are increasingly gaining in popularity, since yields over sea are greater and more reliable than over land. Against this background it is becoming particularly urgent to determine whether and if so to what extent such OWF expansion affects our oceans and local climates. OWFs produce a downstream wind speed reduction, the so-called wind-wake effect, which impacts atmospheric boundary layers, alters local wind characteristics and in turn affects ocean dynamics. This book will help readers to understand in detail these OWF-induced changes in the atmosphere and ocean by analyzing model simulations and measurements. In this context, OWF-induced upwelling and downwelling are key aspects.
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Offshore Wind Energy

Research on Environmental Impacts

Author: Julia Köller,Johann Köppel,Wolfgang Peters

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540346775

Category: Science

Page: 371

View: 1533

This book provides the only compendium of the research efforts of the German Federal Republic for the development of offshore wind energy that summarizes the main findings of German accompanying research. The main objective of the book is to show the relevance of the new results and realizations of the research projects for the planning and permission process for offshore wind energy plants.
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At the Margins of Planning

Offshore Wind Farms in the United Kingdom

Author: Stephen A. Jay

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 9780754671961

Category: Science

Page: 159

View: 9303

Illustrated with an in-depth empirical investigation of various proposed wind farms, this book provides a thorough analysis of the attitudes and involvement of local planning authorities and communities in the consents process, and interprets these in light of wider debates about the use and management of the seas and the potential contribution of the mechanisms of planning.
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Who Owns the Sea?

Author: Paul Hart,Magnus Johnson

Publisher: Lulu.com

ISBN: 1409254100

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 684

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Offshore Wind Energy Generation

Control, Protection, and Integration to Electrical Systems

Author: Olimpo Anaya-Lara,David Campos-Gaona,Edgar Moreno-Goytia,Grain Adam

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118539621

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 306

View: 2326

The offshore wind sector’s trend towards larger turbines, bigger wind farm projects and greater distance to shore has a critical impact on grid connection requirements for offshore wind power plants. This important reference sets out the fundamentals and latest innovations in electrical systems and control strategies deployed in offshore electricity grids for wind power integration. Includes: All current and emerging technologies for offshore wind integration and trends in energy storage systems, fault limiters, superconducting cables and gas-insulated transformers Protection of offshore wind farms illustrating numerous system integration and protection challenges through case studies Modelling of doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG) and full-converter wind turbines structures together with an explanation of the smart grid concept in the context of wind farms Comprehensive material on power electronic equipment employed in wind turbines with emphasis on enabling technologies (HVDC, STATCOM) to facilitate the connection and compensation of large-scale onshore and offshore wind farms Worked examples and case studies to help understand the dynamic interaction between HVDC links and offshore wind generation Concise description of the voltage source converter topologies, control and operation for offshore wind farm applications Companion website containing simulation models of the cases discussed throughout Equipping electrical engineers for the engineering challenges in utility-scale offshore wind farms, this is an essential resource for power system and connection code designers and pratitioners dealing with integation of wind generation and the modelling and control of wind turbines. It will also provide high-level support to academic researchers and advanced students in power and renewable energy as well as technical and research staff in transmission and distribution system operators and in wind turbine and electrical equipment manufacturers.
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Wind Energy Engineering, Second Edition

Author: Pramod Jain

Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional

ISBN: 007184385X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: N.A

View: 4827

A fully up-to-date, comprehensive wind energy engineering resource This thoroughly updated reference offers complete details on effectively harnessing wind energy as a viable and economical power source. Globally recognized wind expert Pramod Jain clearly explains physics, meteorology, aerodynamics, wind measurement, wind turbines, and electricity. New energy policies and grid integration procedures are covered, including pre-deployment studies and grid modifications. Filled with diagrams, tables, charts, graphs, and statistics, Wind Energy Engineering, Second Edition, is a definitive guide to current developments and emerging technologies in wind energy. Wind Energy Engineering, Second Edition covers: The worldwide business of wind energy Wind energy basics Meteorological properties of wind and air Wind turbine aerodynamics Turbine blade element models and power curves Wind measurement and reporting Wind resource assessment Advanced resource assessment topics, including wake, losses, and uncertainty Wind turbine generator components Electricity and generator fundamentals Grid integration of wind energy Environmental impact of wind projects Financial modeling, planning, and execution of wind projects Wind energy policy and licensing guidelines
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Proposed Merger of British Antarctic Survey and National Oceanography Centre

Sixth Report of Session 2012-13, Report, Together with Formal Minutes

Author: Great Britain: Parliament: House of Commons: Science and Technology Committee

Publisher: The Stationery Office

ISBN: 9780215053282

Category: Science

Page: 70

View: 2485

In September 2012, the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) announced a consultation process on proposals to merge the British Antarctic Survey and National Oceanography Centre. It argued that there was a strong strategic case for the merger, arising from scientific synergies between the organisations, a drive to maximise the social and economic impact of scientific research output and a need to make the most cost effective use of marine and polar infrastructure. A number of serious concerns have been raised about the prospect of merging the British Antarctic Survey and National Oceanography Centre, and the way in which the consultation has been handled. It's important that these concerns are addressed by NERC before any further action is taken. NERC has not properly consulted on whether a merger is the best way to achieve its objectives and has not provided an adequate evidence base to support its case for a merger, with the absence of projected cost savings being particularly notable. In addition, NERC does not appear to have given adequate consideration to the British Antarctic Survey's geopolitical role when drafting its consultation proposals. Nor has it demonstrated an awareness of UK political commitments on protecting the environment, and polar regions in particular. NERC should consider whether its aims could be achieved by means other than a merger. Future consultations should be carried out with better engagement with scientists and other stakeholders
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Worker Health and Safety on Offshore Wind Farms

Author: National Research Council (U.S.). Transportation Research Board. Committee on Offshore Wind Farm Worker Safety

Publisher: Transportation Research Board National Research

ISBN: N.A

Category: Offshore wind power plants

Page: 158

View: 8490

"TRB Special Report 310: Worker Health and Safety on Offshore Wind Farms examines the hazards and risks to workers on offshore wind farms on the outer continental shelf as compared with the hazards and risks to workers on offshore oil and gas operations. The report explores gaps and overlaps in jurisdictional authority for worker health and safety on offshore wind farms and evaluates the adequacy of--and recommends enhancements to--the existing safety management system (SMS) requirement published in 30 CFR 585.810. The study committee recommends that the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) adopt a full SMS rule for workers on offshore wind farms at a level of detail that includes the baseline elements identified in this report. An enhanced SMS rule should require the use of human factors engineering elements in the design process and should encompass all activities that the lessee and its contractors undertake. In collaboration with other regulatory agencies and industry stakeholders, BOEM should clearly define roles and responsibilities and indicate which standards could apply for all phases of wind farm development, regardless of jurisdiction. Also, with the help of stakeholders, BOEM should support the development of guidelines and recommended practices that could be used as guidance documents or adopted by referen"-
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Structural Integrity of Offshore Wind Turbines

Oversight of Design, Fabrication, and Installation - Special Report 305

Author: Transportation Research Board

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309225159

Category: Science

Page: 140

View: 4586

TRB Special Report 305: Structural Integrity of Offshore Wind Turbines: Oversight of Design, Fabrication, and Installation explores the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement (BOEMRE) approach to overseeing the development and safe operation of wind turbines on the outer continental shelf, with a focus on structural safety. The committee that developed the report recommended that in order to facilitate the orderly development of offshore wind energy and support the stable economic development of this nascent industry, the United States needs a set of clear requirements that can accommodate future design development. The report recommends that BOEMRE develop a set of requirements that establish goals and objectives with regard to structural integrity, environmental performance, and energy generation. The committee found that the risks to human life and the environment associated with offshore wind farms are substantially lower than for other industries such as offshore oil and gas, because offshore wind farms are primarily unmanned and contain minimal quantities of hazardous substances. This finding implies that an approach with significantly less regulatory oversight may be taken for offshore wind farms. Under this approach, industry would be responsible for proposing sets of standards, guidelines, and recommended practices that meet the performance requirements established by BOEMRE. The domestic industry can build on standards, guidelines, and practices developed in Europe, where the offshore wind energy is further developed, but will have to fill gaps such as the need to address wave and wind loadings encountered in hurricanes. The report also includes findings and recommendations about the role that certified verification agents (third party evaluators) can play in reviewing packages of standards and project-specific proposals.
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Large-Scale Offshore Wind Power in the United States

Assessment of Oppportunities and Barriers

Author: Walter Musial

Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 1437941338

Category:

Page: 221

View: 7670

This is a print on demand edition of a hard to find publication. Offshore wind power is poised to deliver an essential contribution to a clean, robust, and diversified U.S. energy portfolio. Capturing and using this large and inexhaustible resource has the potential to mitigate climate change, improve the environment, increase energy security, and stimulate the U.S. economy. The U.S. is now deliberating an energy policy that will have a powerful impact on the nation¿s energy and economic health for decades to come. This report provides a broad understanding of today¿s wind industry and the offshore resource, as well as the associated technology challenges, economics, permitting procedures, and potential risks and benefits. Charts and tables.
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Wind Energy and Wildlife Interactions

Presentations from the CWW2015 Conference

Author: Johann Köppel

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319512722

Category: Science

Page: 289

View: 9542

This book presents a selection of new insights in understanding and mitigating impacts on wildlife and their habitats. Topics such as, species behaviour and responses; collision risk and fatality estimation; landscape features and gradients, are considered. Other chapters in the book cover the results of current research on mitigation; compensation; effectiveness of measures; monitoring and long-term effects; planning and siting. Examples are given of current research on shutdown on demand and curtailment algorithms. By identifying what we have learned so far, and which predominate uncertainties and gaps remain for future research, this book contributes to the most up to date knowledge on research and management options. This book includes presentations from the Conference on Wind Energy and Wildlife impacts (CWW15), March 2015, hosted by the Berlin Institute of Technology, which offered a platform to national and international participants to showcase the current state of knowledge in wind energy’s wildlife implications.
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Wind Energy Essentials

Societal, Economic, and Environmental Impacts

Author: Andrew Swift

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118877896

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 550

View: 744

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The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life II

Author: Arthur N. Popper,Anthony Hawkins

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 149392981X

Category: Medical

Page: 1292

View: 3017

The meeting of Aquatic Noise 2013 will introduce participants to the most recent research data, regulatory issues and thinking about effects of man-made noise and will foster critical cross-disciplinary discussion between the participants. Emphasis will be on the cross-fertilization of ideas and findings across species and noise sources. As with its predecessor, The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life: 3rd International Conference will encourage discussion of the impact of underwater sound, its regulation and mitigation of its effects. With over 100 contributions from leading researchers, a wide range of sources of underwater sound will be considered.
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Engineering Geology and the Environment

Author: G.C. Koukis,P.G. Marinos,G.C. Stourna,G.C. Tsiambaos

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9789058091970

Category: Science

Page: 508

View: 2686

Composed of the proceedings of a symposium on engineering geology and the environment, held in Athens in June, 1997, this work provides a survey of trends in engineering geology, and an interdisciplinary collaboration with hydrogeology, geochemistry, geomorphology, and soil and rock mechanics.
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Meer – Wind – Strom

Forschung am ersten deutschen Offshore-Windpark alpha ventus

Author: Michael Durstewitz,Bernhard Lange

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3658097833

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 260

View: 7977

Die Offshore-Windenergie wird in der zukünftigen Stromversorgung eine entscheidende Rolle spielen. Diese Entwicklung steht aber gerade erst an ihrem Anfang. Ein großes Team aus Forschung, Industrie, Verwaltung und Politik hat sich deshalb zum Ziel gesetzt, die aktuellen und grundlegenden Fragen der Offshore-Windenergienutzung zu bearbeiten. Über 100 Forscher der RAVE-Initiative (Research at alpha ventus) arbeiteten in interdisziplinären Forschungsprojekten daran, unser Wissen zu erweitern und anwendungsorientierte Lösungen für die Offshore-Windenergie zu finden. Damit tragen sie dazu bei, die Offshore-Windenergie als eine zuverlässige, nachhaltige und kostengünstige Energiequelle auf Dauer zu etablieren. Im Testfeld alpha ventus, Deutschlands erstem Offshore-Windpark, wurden die Voraussetzungen für diese Forschung geschaffen. Der Windpark wurde mit umfangreicher Messtechnik ausgestattet: Über 1200 Messgrößen werden aufgezeichnet und sind über ein zentrales Forschungsarchiv zugänglich. Die Forscher der RAVE-Initiative haben somit die weltweit einmalige Möglichkeit, eine Vielzahl von Messdaten aus einem operativen Windpark zu nutzen. Die Auswertungen erfolgen dezentral an Forschungseinrichtungen im gesamten Bundesgebiet. Über Ziele, Methoden und Schwierigkeiten der RAVE-Forschungsprojekte wird in allgemeinverständlicher Form berichtet und die Ergebnisse sowie ihre Bedeutung für die weitere Nutzung der Offshore-Windenergie dargestellt. Der Leser erhält somit einen Überblick über den aktuellen Stand der Offshore-Windenergieforschung und die Ergebnisse der Forschungsarbeiten.
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Energy and Climate Change

Creating a Sustainable Future

Author: David Coley

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119964458

Category: Science

Page: 672

View: 1955

For more information on this title, including student exercises, please visit , http://www.people.ex.ac.uk/DAColey/ Energy and Climate Change: Creating a Sustainable Future provides an up-to-date introduction to the subject examining the relationship between energy and our global environment. The book covers the fundamentals of the subject, discussing what energy is, why it is important, as well as the detrimental effect on the environment following our use of energy. Energy is placed at the front of a discussion of geo-systems, living systems, technological development and the global environment, enabling the reader to develop a deeper understanding of magnitudes. Learning is re-enforced, and the relevance of the topic broadened, through the use of several conceptual veins running through the book. One of these is an attempt to demonstrate how systems are related to each other through energy and energy flows. Examples being wind-power, and bio-mass which are really solar power via another route; how the energy used to evaporate sea water must be related to the potential for hydropower; and where a volcano’s energy really comes from. With fermi-like problems and student exercises incorporated throughout every chapter, this text provides the perfect companion to the growing number of students taking an interest in the subject.
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