Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects

Author: Committee on Environmental Impacts of Wind Energy Projects,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309108349

Category: Science

Page: 394

View: 493

The generation of electricity by wind energy has the potential to reduce environmental impacts caused by the use of fossil fuels. Although the use of wind energy to generate electricity is increasing rapidly in the United States, government guidance to help communities and developers evaluate and plan proposed wind-energy projects is lacking. Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects offers an analysis of the environmental benefits and drawbacks of wind energy, along with an evaluation guide to aid decision-making about projects. It includes a case study of the mid-Atlantic highlands, a mountainous area that spans parts of West Virginia, Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. This book will inform policy makers at the federal, state, and local levels.
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Offshore Wind Energy

Research on Environmental Impacts

Author: Julia Köller,Johann Köppel,Wolfgang Peters

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540346775

Category: Science

Page: 371

View: 2285

This book provides the only compendium of the research efforts of the German Federal Republic for the development of offshore wind energy that summarizes the main findings of German accompanying research. The main objective of the book is to show the relevance of the new results and realizations of the research projects for the planning and permission process for offshore wind energy plants.
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Offshore Wind

A Comprehensive Guide to Successful Offshore Wind Farm Installation

Author: Kurt Thomsen

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0124095941

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 404

View: 306

Offshore Wind is the first-ever roadmap to successful offshore wind installation. It provides a ready reference for wind project managers, teaching them how to deal with complications on-site, as well as for financers, who can utilize the text as an easy guide to asking the pivotal questions of petitioning wind project developers. These developers' planning stages will be improved by the book's expert advice on how to avoid wasting money by scoping out and mitigating potential problems up-front. Wind turbine manufacturers will benefit from insights into design optimization to support cheaper installation and hauling, thereby incurring lower project costs, and helping developers establish a quicker route to profitability. The book sheds light not just on how to solve a particular installation difficulty, but delves into why the problem may best be solved in that way. Enables all stakeholders to realize cheaper, faster, and safer offshore wind projects Explains the different approaches to executing on- and offshore projects, highlighting the economic impacts of the various financial and operational choices Provides practical, proven advice on how tough challenges can be overcome, using real-life examples from the author’s experiences to illustrate key issues
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Ecological Research at the Offshore Windfarm alpha ventus

Challenges, Results and Perspectives

Author: Anika Beiersdorf,Antje Radecke

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3658024623

Category: Nature

Page: 201

View: 9987

At present and over the next few years, large-scale windfarms are being installed far off the coast of Germany in the North and Baltic Sea, making a major contribution to electricity generation from renewable energy sources. One of the German government’s aims is to ensure the environmentally sound and sustainable development of offshore wind energy. Germany’s first offshore test site, alpha ventus, was therefore accompanied from the construction phase to the first years of operation by an intensive environmental research programme, the StUKplus project, financed by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and coordinated by the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency. Marine and ecological aspects have been researched there for more than five years to improve the level of knowledge about the ecological impacts of offshore windfarms. This book provides a broad, richly illustrated overview of applied and new research methods and monitoring techniques. It summarises the key research findings on the impacts on benthic communities, fish, marine mammals and birds, also taking into account underwater sound and sediment measurements. Interpreting the results in the sense of lessons learned, new challenges and perspectives are discussed for future sustainable offshore development in German waters.
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Offshore Wind Farms

Technologies, Design and Operation

Author: Chong Ng,Li Ran

Publisher: Woodhead Publishing

ISBN: 0081007809

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 654

View: 7724

Offshore Wind Farms: Technologies, Design and Operation provides the latest information on offshore wind energy, one of Europe’s most promising and quickly maturing industries, and a potentially huge untapped renewable energy source which could contribute significantly towards EU 20-20-20 renewable energy generation targets. It has been estimated that by 2030 Europe could have 150GW of offshore wind energy capacity, meeting 14% of our power demand. Offshore Wind Farms: Technologies, Design and Operation provides a comprehensive overview of the emerging technologies, design, and operation of offshore wind farms. Part One introduces offshore wind energy as well as offshore wind turbine siting with expert analysis of economics, wind resources, and remote sensing technologies. The second section provides an overview of offshore wind turbine materials and design, while part three outlines the integration of wind farms into power grids with insights to cabling and energy storage. The final section of the book details the installation and operation of offshore wind farms with chapters on condition monitoring and health and safety, amongst others. Provides an in-depth, multi-contributor, comprehensive overview of offshore technologies, including design, monitoring, and operation Edited by respected and leading experts in the field, with experience in both academia and industry Covers a highly relevant and important topic given the great potential of offshore wind power in contributing significantly to EU 20-20-20 renewable energy targets
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On the Effect of Offshore Wind Farms on the Atmosphere and Ocean Dynamics

Author: Elke Ludewig

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319086413

Category: Law

Page: 162

View: 7555

Renewable energy resources now play an essential role in the energy supply debate, and especially a new interest in wind energy has resulted in the intensified construction of wind farms. Thanks to the growing demand for renewable energy, offshore wind farms (OWFs) are increasingly gaining in popularity, since yields over sea are greater and more reliable than over land. Against this background it is becoming particularly urgent to determine whether and if so to what extent such OWF expansion affects our oceans and local climates. OWFs produce a downstream wind speed reduction, the so-called wind-wake effect, which impacts atmospheric boundary layers, alters local wind characteristics and in turn affects ocean dynamics. This book will help readers to understand in detail these OWF-induced changes in the atmosphere and ocean by analyzing model simulations and measurements. In this context, OWF-induced upwelling and downwelling are key aspects.
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Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Ocean Studies Board,Committee on the Assessment of the Cumulative Effects of Anthropogenic Stressors on Marine Mammals

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309440513

Category: Science

Page: 146

View: 5460

Marine mammals face a large array of stressors, including loss of habitat, chemical and noise pollution, and bycatch in fishing, which alone kills hundreds of thousands of marine mammals per year globally. To discern the factors contributing to population trends, scientists must consider the full complement of threats faced by marine mammals. Once populations or ecosystems are found to be at risk of adverse impacts, it is critical to decide which combination of stressors to reduce to bring the population or ecosystem into a more favorable state. Assessing all stressors facing a marine mammal population also provides the environmental context for evaluating whether an additional activity could threaten it. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals builds upon previous reports to assess current methodologies used for evaluating cumulative effects and identify new approaches that could improve these assessments. This review focuses on ways to quantify exposure-related changes in the behavior, health, or body condition of individual marine mammals and makes recommendations for future research initiatives.
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Wind Energy and Wildlife Interactions

Presentations from the CWW2015 Conference

Author: Johann Köppel

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319512722

Category: Science

Page: 289

View: 3533

This book presents a selection of new insights in understanding and mitigating impacts on wildlife and their habitats. Topics such as, species behaviour and responses; collision risk and fatality estimation; landscape features and gradients, are considered. Other chapters in the book cover the results of current research on mitigation; compensation; effectiveness of measures; monitoring and long-term effects; planning and siting. Examples are given of current research on shutdown on demand and curtailment algorithms. By identifying what we have learned so far, and which predominate uncertainties and gaps remain for future research, this book contributes to the most up to date knowledge on research and management options. This book includes presentations from the Conference on Wind Energy and Wildlife impacts (CWW15), March 2015, hosted by the Berlin Institute of Technology, which offered a platform to national and international participants to showcase the current state of knowledge in wind energy’s wildlife implications.
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Offshore Wind Turbines

Reliability, Availability and Maintenance

Author: Peter Tavner

Publisher: IET

ISBN: 1849192294

Category: Science

Page: 269

View: 9189

The first book to specifically focus on offshore wind turbine technology and which addresses practically wind turbine reliability and availability. The book draws on the author’s experience of power generation reliability and availability and the condition monitoring of that plant to describe the problems facing the developers of offshore wind farms and the solutions available to them to raise availability, reduce cost of energy and improve through life cost.
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Offshore Wind Energy Generation

Control, Protection, and Integration to Electrical Systems

Author: Olimpo Anaya-Lara,David Campos-Gaona,Edgar Moreno-Goytia,Grain Adam

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118539621

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 306

View: 2250

The offshore wind sector’s trend towards larger turbines, bigger wind farm projects and greater distance to shore has a critical impact on grid connection requirements for offshore wind power plants. This important reference sets out the fundamentals and latest innovations in electrical systems and control strategies deployed in offshore electricity grids for wind power integration. Includes: All current and emerging technologies for offshore wind integration and trends in energy storage systems, fault limiters, superconducting cables and gas-insulated transformers Protection of offshore wind farms illustrating numerous system integration and protection challenges through case studies Modelling of doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG) and full-converter wind turbines structures together with an explanation of the smart grid concept in the context of wind farms Comprehensive material on power electronic equipment employed in wind turbines with emphasis on enabling technologies (HVDC, STATCOM) to facilitate the connection and compensation of large-scale onshore and offshore wind farms Worked examples and case studies to help understand the dynamic interaction between HVDC links and offshore wind generation Concise description of the voltage source converter topologies, control and operation for offshore wind farm applications Companion website containing simulation models of the cases discussed throughout Equipping electrical engineers for the engineering challenges in utility-scale offshore wind farms, this is an essential resource for power system and connection code designers and pratitioners dealing with integation of wind generation and the modelling and control of wind turbines. It will also provide high-level support to academic researchers and advanced students in power and renewable energy as well as technical and research staff in transmission and distribution system operators and in wind turbine and electrical equipment manufacturers.
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The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life II

Author: Arthur N. Popper,Anthony Hawkins

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 149392981X

Category: Medical

Page: 1292

View: 4304

The meeting of Aquatic Noise 2013 will introduce participants to the most recent research data, regulatory issues and thinking about effects of man-made noise and will foster critical cross-disciplinary discussion between the participants. Emphasis will be on the cross-fertilization of ideas and findings across species and noise sources. As with its predecessor, The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life: 3rd International Conference will encourage discussion of the impact of underwater sound, its regulation and mitigation of its effects. With over 100 contributions from leading researchers, a wide range of sources of underwater sound will be considered.
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Wind Energy Essentials

Societal, Economic, and Environmental Impacts

Author: Andrew Swift

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118877896

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 550

View: 5627

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Long-term Research Challenges in Wind Energy - A Research Agenda by the European Academy of Wind Energy

Author: Gijs van Kuik,Joachim Peinke

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319469193

Category: Science

Page: 98

View: 5209

This book presents the view of European wind energy experts on the long-term research challenges to be solved in order to develop wind energy beyond the applications of today and tomorrow. By this book, the European Academy of Wind Energy (eawe), representing universities and institutes with a significant wind energy programme in 14 countries, wants to: identify current technological and scientific barriers and to stimulate new creative ideas to overcome these barriers define priorities for future scientific research rethink our scientific view of wind energy stimulate the cooperation among researchers in fundamental and applied sciences towards wind energy research The eawe has discussed these long-term research with an explicit focus on a longer-term perspective, in contrast to research agendas addressing short- to medium-term research activities. In other words, this long-term research agenda is driven by problems and curiosity, addressing basic research and fundamental knowledge in 11 research areas, ranging from physics and design to environmental and societal aspects. Because of the very nature of this initiative, this document does not intend to be permanent or complete. It shows the vision of the experts of the European Academy of Wind Energy, but other views may be possible. The eawe sincerely hopes that it will spur an even more intensive discussion worldwide within the wind energy community.
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Handbook on Marine Environment Protection

Science, Impacts and Sustainable Management

Author: Markus Salomon,Till Markus

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319601563

Category: Science

Page: 1024

View: 1292

This handbook is the first of its kind to provide a clear, accessible, and comprehensive introduction to the most important scientific and management topics in marine environmental protection. Leading experts discuss the latest perspectives and best practices in the field with a particular focus on the functioning of marine ecosystems, natural processes, and anthropogenic pressures. The book familiarizes readers with the intricacies and challenges of managing coasts and oceans more sustainably, and guides them through the maze of concepts and strategies, laws and policies, and the various actors that define our ability to manage marine activities. Providing valuable thematic insights into marine management to inspire thoughtful application and further study, it is essential reading for marine environmental scientists, policy-makers, lawyers, practitioners and anyone interested in the field.
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Wind Energy Engineering

A Handbook for Onshore and Offshore Wind Turbines

Author: Trevor M. Letcher

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 012809429X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 622

View: 6508

Wind Energy Engineering: A Handbook for Onshore and Offshore Wind Turbines is the most advanced, up-to-date and research-focused text on all aspects of wind energy engineering. Wind energy is pivotal in global electricity generation and for achieving future essential energy demands and targets. In this fast moving field this must-have edition starts with an in-depth look at the present state of wind integration and distribution worldwide, and continues with a high-level assessment of the advances in turbine technology and how the investment, planning, and economic infrastructure can support those innovations. Each chapter includes a research overview with a detailed analysis and new case studies looking at how recent research developments can be applied. Written by some of the most forward-thinking professionals in the field and giving a complete examination of one of the most promising and efficient sources of renewable energy, this book is an invaluable reference into this cross-disciplinary field for engineers. Contains analysis of the latest high-level research and explores real world application potential in relation to the developments Uses system international (SI) units and imperial units throughout to appeal to global engineers Offers new case studies from a world expert in the field Covers the latest research developments in this fast moving, vital subject
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Understanding Wind Power Technology

Theory, Deployment and Optimisation

Author: Alois Schaffarczyk

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118701550

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 488

View: 4090

Wind energy technology has progressed enormously over the last decade. In coming years it will continue to develop in terms of power ratings, performance and installed capacity of large wind turbines worldwide, with exciting developments in offshore installations. Designed to meet the training needs of wind engineers, this introductory text puts wind energy in context, from the natural resource to the assessment of cost effectiveness and bridges the gap between theory and practice. The thorough coverage spans the scientific basics, practical implementations and the modern state of technology used in onshore and offshore wind farms for electricity generation. Key features: provides in-depth treatment of all systems associated with wind energy, including the aerodynamic and structural aspects of blade design, the flow of energy and loads through the wind turbine, the electrical components and power electronics including control systems explains the importance of wind resource assessment techniques, site evaluation and ecology with a focus of project planning and operation describes the integration of wind farms into the electric grid and includes a whole chapter dedicated to offshore wind farms includes questions in each chapter for readers to test their knowledge Written by experts with deep experience in research, teaching and industry, this text conveys the importance of wind energy in the international energy-policy debate, and offers clear insight into the subject for postgraduates and final year undergraduate students studying all aspects of wind engineering. Understanding Wind Power Systems is also an authoritative resource for engineers designing and developing wind energy systems, energy policy makers, environmentalists, and economists in the renewable energy sector.
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Offshore Wind Energy

Research on Environmental Impacts

Author: Julia Köller,Johann Köppel,Wolfgang Peters

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540346775

Category: Science

Page: 371

View: 5533

This book provides the only compendium of the research efforts of the German Federal Republic for the development of offshore wind energy that summarizes the main findings of German accompanying research. The main objective of the book is to show the relevance of the new results and realizations of the research projects for the planning and permission process for offshore wind energy plants.
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Artificial Reefs in European Seas

Author: Antony Jensen,K. Collins,A.P. Lockwood

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401142157

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 508

View: 5486

Artificial Reefs in European Seas focuses on artificial reef research in the Mediterranean and NE Atlantic. The book describes most of the long-term projects running in European seas, presents the legal and economic issues, and suggests future uses for artificial reefs in the European context. Readership: Professionals working on or interested in the uses of artificial reefs for fishery management, coastal zone management, aquaculture and nature conservation. The case studies of reef research programmes make the book ideal for degree students studying topics in ecology, and fisheries and coastal management.
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