Ecological Research at the Offshore Windfarm alpha ventus

Challenges, Results and Perspectives

Author: Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency,Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3658024623

Category: Nature

Page: 201

View: 4767

At present and over the next few years, large-scale windfarms are being installed far off the coast of Germany in the North and Baltic Sea, making a major contribution to electricity generation from renewable energy sources. One of the German government’s aims is to ensure the environmentally sound and sustainable development of offshore wind energy. Germany’s first offshore test site, alpha ventus, was therefore accompanied from the construction phase to the first years of operation by an intensive environmental research programme, the StUKplus project, financed by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and coordinated by the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency. Marine and ecological aspects have been researched there for more than five years to improve the level of knowledge about the ecological impacts of offshore windfarms. This book provides a broad, richly illustrated overview of applied and new research methods and monitoring techniques. It summarises the key research findings on the impacts on benthic communities, fish, marine mammals and birds, also taking into account underwater sound and sediment measurements. Interpreting the results in the sense of lessons learned, new challenges and perspectives are discussed for future sustainable offshore development in German waters.

Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Ocean Studies Board,Committee on the Assessment of the Cumulative Effects of Anthropogenic Stressors on Marine Mammals

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309440513

Category: Science

Page: 146

View: 9363

Marine mammals face a large array of stressors, including loss of habitat, chemical and noise pollution, and bycatch in fishing, which alone kills hundreds of thousands of marine mammals per year globally. To discern the factors contributing to population trends, scientists must consider the full complement of threats faced by marine mammals. Once populations or ecosystems are found to be at risk of adverse impacts, it is critical to decide which combination of stressors to reduce to bring the population or ecosystem into a more favorable state. Assessing all stressors facing a marine mammal population also provides the environmental context for evaluating whether an additional activity could threaten it. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals builds upon previous reports to assess current methodologies used for evaluating cumulative effects and identify new approaches that could improve these assessments. This review focuses on ways to quantify exposure-related changes in the behavior, health, or body condition of individual marine mammals and makes recommendations for future research initiatives.

Handbook on Marine Environment Protection

Science, Impacts and Sustainable Management

Author: Markus Salomon,Till Markus

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319601563

Category: Science

Page: 1024

View: 5093

This handbook is the first of its kind to provide a clear, accessible, and comprehensive introduction to the most important scientific and management topics in marine environmental protection. Leading experts discuss the latest perspectives and best practices in the field with a particular focus on the functioning of marine ecosystems, natural processes, and anthropogenic pressures. The book familiarizes readers with the intricacies and challenges of managing coasts and oceans more sustainably, and guides them through the maze of concepts and strategies, laws and policies, and the various actors that define our ability to manage marine activities. Providing valuable thematic insights into marine management to inspire thoughtful application and further study, it is essential reading for marine environmental scientists, policy-makers, lawyers, practitioners and anyone interested in the field.

At the Margins of Planning

Offshore Wind Farms in the United Kingdom

Author: Stephen A. Jay

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 9780754671961

Category: Science

Page: 159

View: 5031

Illustrated with an in-depth empirical investigation of various proposed wind farms, this book provides a thorough analysis of the attitudes and involvement of local planning authorities and communities in the consents process, and interprets these in light of wider debates about the use and management of the seas and the potential contribution of the mechanisms of planning.

Offshore Wind Energy

Research on Environmental Impacts

Author: Julia Köller,Johann Köppel,Wolfgang Peters

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540346775

Category: Science

Page: 371

View: 8330

This book provides the only compendium of the research efforts of the German Federal Republic for the development of offshore wind energy that summarizes the main findings of German accompanying research. The main objective of the book is to show the relevance of the new results and realizations of the research projects for the planning and permission process for offshore wind energy plants.

On the Effect of Offshore Wind Farms on the Atmosphere and Ocean Dynamics

Author: Elke Ludewig

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319086413

Category: Law

Page: 162

View: 5509

Renewable energy resources now play an essential role in the energy supply debate, and especially a new interest in wind energy has resulted in the intensified construction of wind farms. Thanks to the growing demand for renewable energy, offshore wind farms (OWFs) are increasingly gaining in popularity, since yields over sea are greater and more reliable than over land. Against this background it is becoming particularly urgent to determine whether and if so to what extent such OWF expansion affects our oceans and local climates. OWFs produce a downstream wind speed reduction, the so-called wind-wake effect, which impacts atmospheric boundary layers, alters local wind characteristics and in turn affects ocean dynamics. This book will help readers to understand in detail these OWF-induced changes in the atmosphere and ocean by analyzing model simulations and measurements. In this context, OWF-induced upwelling and downwelling are key aspects.

Who Owns the Sea?

Author: Paul Hart,Magnus Johnson


ISBN: 1409254100


Page: N.A

View: 1131


Proposed Merger of British Antarctic Survey and National Oceanography Centre

Sixth Report of Session 2012-13, Report, Together with Formal Minutes

Author: Great Britain: Parliament: House of Commons: Science and Technology Committee

Publisher: The Stationery Office

ISBN: 9780215053282

Category: Science

Page: 70

View: 3298

In September 2012, the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) announced a consultation process on proposals to merge the British Antarctic Survey and National Oceanography Centre. It argued that there was a strong strategic case for the merger, arising from scientific synergies between the organisations, a drive to maximise the social and economic impact of scientific research output and a need to make the most cost effective use of marine and polar infrastructure. A number of serious concerns have been raised about the prospect of merging the British Antarctic Survey and National Oceanography Centre, and the way in which the consultation has been handled. It's important that these concerns are addressed by NERC before any further action is taken. NERC has not properly consulted on whether a merger is the best way to achieve its objectives and has not provided an adequate evidence base to support its case for a merger, with the absence of projected cost savings being particularly notable. In addition, NERC does not appear to have given adequate consideration to the British Antarctic Survey's geopolitical role when drafting its consultation proposals. Nor has it demonstrated an awareness of UK political commitments on protecting the environment, and polar regions in particular. NERC should consider whether its aims could be achieved by means other than a merger. Future consultations should be carried out with better engagement with scientists and other stakeholders

Worker Health and Safety on Offshore Wind Farms

Author: National Research Council (U.S.). Transportation Research Board. Committee on Offshore Wind Farm Worker Safety

Publisher: Transportation Research Board National Research


Category: Offshore wind power plants

Page: 158

View: 3194

"TRB Special Report 310: Worker Health and Safety on Offshore Wind Farms examines the hazards and risks to workers on offshore wind farms on the outer continental shelf as compared with the hazards and risks to workers on offshore oil and gas operations. The report explores gaps and overlaps in jurisdictional authority for worker health and safety on offshore wind farms and evaluates the adequacy of--and recommends enhancements to--the existing safety management system (SMS) requirement published in 30 CFR 585.810. The study committee recommends that the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) adopt a full SMS rule for workers on offshore wind farms at a level of detail that includes the baseline elements identified in this report. An enhanced SMS rule should require the use of human factors engineering elements in the design process and should encompass all activities that the lessee and its contractors undertake. In collaboration with other regulatory agencies and industry stakeholders, BOEM should clearly define roles and responsibilities and indicate which standards could apply for all phases of wind farm development, regardless of jurisdiction. Also, with the help of stakeholders, BOEM should support the development of guidelines and recommended practices that could be used as guidance documents or adopted by referen"-

Wind Energy Essentials

Societal, Economic, and Environmental Impacts

Author: Andrew Swift

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118877896

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 550

View: 3731


Structural Integrity of Offshore Wind Turbines

Oversight of Design, Fabrication, and Installation - Special Report 305

Author: Transportation Research Board

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309225159

Category: Science

Page: 140

View: 6189

TRB Special Report 305: Structural Integrity of Offshore Wind Turbines: Oversight of Design, Fabrication, and Installation explores the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement (BOEMRE) approach to overseeing the development and safe operation of wind turbines on the outer continental shelf, with a focus on structural safety. The committee that developed the report recommended that in order to facilitate the orderly development of offshore wind energy and support the stable economic development of this nascent industry, the United States needs a set of clear requirements that can accommodate future design development. The report recommends that BOEMRE develop a set of requirements that establish goals and objectives with regard to structural integrity, environmental performance, and energy generation. The committee found that the risks to human life and the environment associated with offshore wind farms are substantially lower than for other industries such as offshore oil and gas, because offshore wind farms are primarily unmanned and contain minimal quantities of hazardous substances. This finding implies that an approach with significantly less regulatory oversight may be taken for offshore wind farms. Under this approach, industry would be responsible for proposing sets of standards, guidelines, and recommended practices that meet the performance requirements established by BOEMRE. The domestic industry can build on standards, guidelines, and practices developed in Europe, where the offshore wind energy is further developed, but will have to fill gaps such as the need to address wave and wind loadings encountered in hurricanes. The report also includes findings and recommendations about the role that certified verification agents (third party evaluators) can play in reviewing packages of standards and project-specific proposals.

Energy and Climate Change

Creating a Sustainable Future

Author: David Coley

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119964458

Category: Science

Page: 672

View: 5265

For more information on this title, including student exercises, please visit , Energy and Climate Change: Creating a Sustainable Future provides an up-to-date introduction to the subject examining the relationship between energy and our global environment. The book covers the fundamentals of the subject, discussing what energy is, why it is important, as well as the detrimental effect on the environment following our use of energy. Energy is placed at the front of a discussion of geo-systems, living systems, technological development and the global environment, enabling the reader to develop a deeper understanding of magnitudes. Learning is re-enforced, and the relevance of the topic broadened, through the use of several conceptual veins running through the book. One of these is an attempt to demonstrate how systems are related to each other through energy and energy flows. Examples being wind-power, and bio-mass which are really solar power via another route; how the energy used to evaporate sea water must be related to the potential for hydropower; and where a volcano’s energy really comes from. With fermi-like problems and student exercises incorporated throughout every chapter, this text provides the perfect companion to the growing number of students taking an interest in the subject.

Marine Biodiversity Conservation

A Practical Approach

Author: Keith Hiscock

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317934342

Category: Nature

Page: 318

View: 8142

Effective marine biodiversity conservation is dependent upon a clear scientific rationale for practical interventions. This book is intended to provide knowledge and tools for marine conservation practitioners and to identify issues and mechanisms for upper-level undergraduate and Masters students. It also provides sound guidance for marine biology field course work and professionals. The main focus is on benthic species living on or in the seabed and immediately above, rather than on commercial fisheries or highly mobile vertebrates. Such species, including algae and invertebrates, are fundamental to a stable and sustainable marine ecosystem. The book is a practical guide based on a clear exposition of the principles of marine ecology and species biology to demonstrate how marine conservation issues and mechanisms have been tackled worldwide and especially the criteria, structures and decision trees that practitioners and managers will find useful. Well illustrated with conceptual diagrams and flow charts, the book includes case study examples from both temperate and tropical marine environments.

Wind Energy

Renewable Energy and the Environment

Author: Vaughn Nelson

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420075694

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 328

View: 9236

Due to the mounting demand for energy and increasing population of the world, switching from nonrenewable fossil fuels to other energy sources is not an option—it is a necessity. Focusing on a cost-effective option for the generation of electricity, Wind Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment covers all facets of wind energy and wind turbines. The book begins by outlining the history of wind energy, before providing reasons to shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy. After examining the characteristics of wind, such as shear, power potential, and turbulence, it discusses the measurement and siting of individual wind turbines and wind farms. The text then presents the aerodynamics, operation, control, applications, and types of wind turbines. The author also describes the design of wind turbines and system performance for single wind turbines, water pumping, village systems, and wind farms. In addition, he explores the wind industry from its inception in the 1970s to today as well as the political and economic factors regarding the adoption of wind as an energy source. Since energy cannot be created nor destroyed—only transformed to another form—we are not encountering an energy crisis. Rather, we face an energy dilemma in the use of finite energy resources and their effects on the environment, primarily due to the burning of fossil fuels. Wind Energy explores one of the most economical solutions to alleviate our energy problems.

Learning from Wind Power

Governance, Societal and Policy Perspectives on Sustainable Energy

Author: Joseph Szarka,Richard Cowell,Geraint Ellis,Peter A. Strachan,Charles Warren

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137265272

Category: Science

Page: 259

View: 8037

Bringing together contributions from leading researchers, this volume reflects on the political, institutional and social factors that have shaped the recent expansion of wind energy, and to consider what lessons this experience may provide for the future expansion of other renewable technologies.

Wind Turbine Control and Monitoring

Author: Ningsu Luo,Yolanda Vidal,Leonardo Acho

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319084135

Category: Science

Page: 466

View: 5059

Maximizing reader insights into the latest technical developments and trends involving wind turbine control and monitoring, fault diagnosis, and wind power systems, ‘Wind Turbine Control and Monitoring’ presents an accessible and straightforward introduction to wind turbines, but also includes an in-depth analysis incorporating illustrations, tables and examples on how to use wind turbine modeling and simulation software. Featuring analysis from leading experts and researchers in the field, the book provides new understanding, methodologies and algorithms of control and monitoring, computer tools for modeling and simulation, and advances the current state-of-the-art on wind turbine monitoring and fault diagnosis; power converter systems; and cooperative & fault-tolerant control systems for maximizing the wind power generation and reducing the maintenance cost. This book is primarily intended for researchers in the field of wind turbines, control, mechatronics and energy; postgraduates in the field of mechanical and electrical engineering; and graduate and senior undergraduate students in engineering wishing to expand their knowledge of wind energy systems. The book will also interest practicing engineers dealing with wind technology who will benefit from the comprehensive coverage of the theoretic control topics, the simplicity of the models and the use of commonly available control algorithms and monitoring techniques.

Vulnerability of Coastal Ecosystems and Adaptation

Author: André Monaco,Patrick Prouzet

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119007755

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 8237

The vulnerability of socio-ecosystem combines the probability of exposure to natural or anthropogenic pressure, sensitivity and resilience. This book presents a systemic view of the diversity of pressures and impacts produced by climate change and human actions. Erosion of biodiversity by changing ocean chemistry, the intensification of global change raises the problem of the adaptation of living resources.

Offshore Wind Energy Generation

Control, Protection, and Integration to Electrical Systems

Author: Olimpo Anaya-Lara,David Campos-Gaona,Edgar Moreno-Goytia,Grain Adam

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118539621

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 306

View: 9859

The offshore wind sector’s trend towards larger turbines, bigger wind farm projects and greater distance to shore has a critical impact on grid connection requirements for offshore wind power plants. This important reference sets out the fundamentals and latest innovations in electrical systems and control strategies deployed in offshore electricity grids for wind power integration. Includes: All current and emerging technologies for offshore wind integration and trends in energy storage systems, fault limiters, superconducting cables and gas-insulated transformers Protection of offshore wind farms illustrating numerous system integration and protection challenges through case studies Modelling of doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG) and full-converter wind turbines structures together with an explanation of the smart grid concept in the context of wind farms Comprehensive material on power electronic equipment employed in wind turbines with emphasis on enabling technologies (HVDC, STATCOM) to facilitate the connection and compensation of large-scale onshore and offshore wind farms Worked examples and case studies to help understand the dynamic interaction between HVDC links and offshore wind generation Concise description of the voltage source converter topologies, control and operation for offshore wind farm applications Companion website containing simulation models of the cases discussed throughout Equipping electrical engineers for the engineering challenges in utility-scale offshore wind farms, this is an essential resource for power system and connection code designers and pratitioners dealing with integation of wind generation and the modelling and control of wind turbines. It will also provide high-level support to academic researchers and advanced students in power and renewable energy as well as technical and research staff in transmission and distribution system operators and in wind turbine and electrical equipment manufacturers.