Author: Alfred Russel Wallace
Publisher: Palala Press
View: 4847This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work. As a reproduction of a historical artifact, this work may contain missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.
Author: Alfred Russel Wallace
Publisher: Kessinger Publishing
View: 61931891. Essays on descriptive and theoretical biology by Wallace, an English naturalist, evolutionist, geographer, anthropologist, and social critic. Contents: Natural Selection: On the Law which has Regulated the Introduction of New Species; On the Tendency of Varieties to Depart Indefinitely from the Original Type; Mimicry, and other Protective Resemblances Among Animals; On Instinct in Man and Animals; the Philosophy of Birds' Nests; A Theory of Birds' Nests; Creation by Law; The Development of Human Races Under the Law of Natural Selection; The Limits of Natural Selection as Applied to Man. Tropical Nature and Other Essays: The Climate and Physical Aspects of the Equatorial Zone; Equatorial Vegetation; Animal Life in the Tropical Forests; Hummingbirds: As Illustrating the Luxuriance of Tropical Nature; The Colors of Animals and Sexual Selection; The Colors of Plants and the Origin of the Color-Sense; The Antiquity and Origin of Man; The Antiquity of Man in North America; and The Debt of Science to Darwin. See other titles by this author available from Kessinger Publishing.
Author: Alfred Russel Wallace
Publisher: Read Books Ltd
View: 2916This early work by Alfred Russel Wallace was originally published in 1895 and we are now republishing it with a brand new introductory biography. 'Natural Selection and Tropical Nature Essays on Descriptive and Theoretical Biology' is a collection of essays that detail Wallace's observations of various bird species and outlines some of his ideas relating to evolutionary theory. Alfred Russel Wallace was born on 8th January 1823 in the village of Llanbadoc, in Monmouthshire, Wales. Wallace was inspired by the travelling naturalists of the day and decided to begin his exploration career collecting specimens in the Amazon rainforest. He explored the Rio Negra for four years, making notes on the peoples and languages he encountered as well as the geography, flora, and fauna. While travelling, Wallace refined his thoughts about evolution and in 1858 he outlined his theory of natural selection in an article he sent to Charles Darwin. Wallace made a huge contribution to the natural sciences and he will continue to be remembered as one of the key figures in the development of evolutionary theory.
Author: Nancy Leys Stepan
Publisher: Reaktion Books
View: 316Whether considered a sublime landscape, malignant wilderness, or the endangered site of environmental conflicts, the tropics are, Picturing Tropical Nature argues, largely a construct of American and European imaginations. Nancy Leys Stephan asserts that images of the tropics conveyed through drawings, paintings, photographs, literature, and travel writings are central to what Stepan calls the “tropicalization of nature,” or the often harmful misrepresentation of the tropics and its peoples. She here examines several aspects of such tropicalization as they emerge through the work of nineteenth- and twentieth-century scientists and artists, including Alexander von Humboldt, Alfred Russel Wallace, Louis Agassiz, Sir Patrick Manson, and Margaret Mee. From the earliest photographic attempts to represent tropical hybrid races to depictions of disease in new tropical medicines, Picturing Tropical Nature offers new insight into the convergence of the tropics with European and American science and art. “A brilliant and provocative book . . . the kind of book that carries forward a field in a single stride . . . undoubtedly the finest account of ‘tropicality’ we have.”—Social History of Medicine
Essays on History and Politics of Environment
Author: Sajal Nag
View: 1892The study of environmental history is no more only of forests, rivers, but also of agriculture, climate, economic practices and human culture. In recent times environmental studies as a discipline has come to the forefront with growing concerns over the ozone layer depletion but has led to investigation of the historical factors and processes of man and environment relationship and its impact. Very little was earlier known about the devastative impact on the environment of imperialism, state capitalism of post-colonial nations and the liberalization and globalization of these economies. There is no aspect of the environment which has not felt the impact of such developmental human process. Rivers have thus either dried up or are polluted with highly toxic materials, seas and oceans have become the dumping ground of nuclear and other wastes, streams are blocked, rains reduced, forest covers depleted, wildlife has dwindled, concrete jungles have replaced green fields and natural water-bodies, desertification of landscapes has happened. It has had its own impact on human life as well. Droughts, floods, dust storms, landslides, water shortage, agricultural decline and food crisis, starvation and epidemics followed. The planet earth and its inhabitants are currently in the throes of the most devastating man-made crisis for survival. In an attempt to enhance our understanding of the environmental crisis, the present collection has essays investigating wide ranging events ranging from understanding climate from logbook of East India Company to the construction of Himalayan tropics; environmental cost of damming the Damodar River to water politics of south India; impact of Tsunami of the years 1737 as well as of 2004-5; politics over earthquake rehabilitation to the Sarna movements of eastern Indian tribals.
The Life of Alfred Russel Wallace
Author: Ross A. Slotten
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Category: Biography & Autobiography
View: 2439During their lifetimes, Wallace and Darwin shared credit and fame for the independent and near-simultaneous discovery of natural selection. Their rivalry, usually amicable but occasionally acrimonious, forged modern evolutionary theory. Yet today, few people today know much about Wallace. This book explores the controversial life and scientific contributions of the Victorian traveler, scientist and spiritualist. His twelve years of often harrowing travels in the western and eastern tropics place him in the pantheon of the greatest explorer-naturalists of the nineteenth century. Tracing his discovery of natural selection, the book then follows the remaining fifty years of Wallace's eccentric and entertaining life. In addition to his divergence from Darwin on two fundamental issues--sexual selection and the origin of the human mind--he pursued topics that most scientific figures of his day conspicuously avoided, including spiritualism, phrenology, mesmerism, environmentalism, and life on Mars.--From publisher description.
Author: Andrew C. Isenberg
Publisher: Oxford University Press
View: 5552The field of environmental history emerged just decades ago but has established itself as one of the most innovative and important new approaches to history, one that bridges the human and natural world, the humanities and the sciences. With the current trend towards internationalizing history, environmental history is perhaps the quintessential approach to studying subjects outside the nation-state model, with pollution, global warming, and other issues affecting the earth not stopping at national borders. With 25 essays, this Handbook is global in scope and innovative in organization, looking at the field thematically through such categories as climate, disease, oceans, the body, energy, consumerism, and international relations.
The Life and Science of Alfred Russel Wallace: A Biographical Study on the Psychology of History
Author: Michael Shermer
Publisher: Oxford University Press
View: 2915Virtually unknown today, Alfred Russel Wallace was the co-discoverer of natural selection with Charles Darwin and an eminent scientist who stood out among his Victorian peers as a man of formidable mind and equally outsized personality. Now Michael Shermer rescues Wallace from the shadow of Darwin in this landmark biography. Here we see Wallace as perhaps the greatest naturalist of his age--spending years in remote jungles, collecting astounding quantities of specimens, writing thoughtfully and with bemused detachment at his reception in places where no white man had ever gone. Here, too, is his supple and forceful intelligence at work, grappling with such arcane problems as the bright coloration of caterpillars, or shaping his 1858 paper on natural selection that prompted Darwin to publish (with Wallace) the first paper outlining the theory of evolution. Shermer also shows that Wallace's self-trained intellect, while powerful, also embraced surprisingly naive ideas, such as his deep interest in the study of spiritual manifestations and seances. Shermer shows that the same iconoclastic outlook that led him to overturn scientific orthodoxy as he worked in relative isolation also led him to embrace irrational beliefs, and thus tarnish his reputation. As author of Why People Believe Weird Things and founding publisher of Skeptic magazine, Shermer is an authority on why people embrace the irrational. Now he turns his keen judgment and incisive analysis to Wallace's life and his contradictory beliefs, restoring a leading figure in the rise of modern science to his rightful place.
An Unnatural History
Author: Elizabeth Kolbert
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
View: 4358Over the last half a billion years, there have been five mass extinctions of life on earth. Scientists around the world are currently monitoring the sixth, predicted to be the most devastating extinction event since the asteroid impact that wiped out the dinosaurs. Elizabeth Kolbert combines brilliant field reporting, the history of ideas and the work of geologists, botanists and marine biologists to tell the gripping stories of a dozen species – including the Panamanian golden frog and the Sumatran rhino – some already gone, others at the point of vanishing. The sixth extinction is likely to be mankind's most lasting legacy and Elizabeth Kolbert's book urgently compels us to rethink the fundamental question of what it means to be human.
Author: Alfred Russel Wallace
Publisher: Kiepenheuer & Witsch
Category: Biography & Autobiography
View: 6581Sammler des verlorenen Schatzes. Ein waghalsiger Forscher begibt sich auf eine der abenteuerlichsten Expeditionen, die es je gab: Alfred Russel Wallace und seine Forschungsreise ins Amazonasgebiet. Auf eigene Faust bricht der Naturenthusiast Alfred Russel Wallace im Jahr 1848 von England nach Brasilien auf, um die Tier- und Pf lanzenwelt am Amazonas zu erforschen. Wallace schlägt sich von Pará (heute Belém) aus zu den Oberläufen des Rio Negro durch – und gelangt dabei in Gegenden, die noch kein Europäer vor ihm betreten hatte. Die Beobachtung der Affen- und Schmetterlingsarten an beiden Flussufern bringt ihn erstmals auf die Spur der Evolutionstheorie, die er später zeitgleich mit Charles Darwin entwickeln wird. Die Erträge seiner Expedition sind großartig, das Unternehmen endet jedoch in einer Katastrophe: Von Krankheiten, Sandf löhen (die ihre Eier unter seine Zehennägel legen) und den ewigen Kriebelmücken geplagt, ist Wallace am Ende so ausgezehrt, dass er nur mit der Hilfe der Einheimischen überlebt. Die aber trinken den Alkohol, mit dem eigentlich die Fundstücke konserviert werden sollten; und Horden von Ameisen machen sich über die Sammlung her. Auf dem Rückweg setzt Wallace alles auf eine Karte: Er selbst, seine Aufzeichnungen und Zigtausende Sammlungsstücke treten auf dem Zweimaster Helen die Heimreise an. Auf hoher See bricht an Bord ein Feuer aus. Die Besatzung kann sich auf Beiboote retten. Doch für Wallace’ Sammlung, auch für die lebenden Affen und Vögel, die in England an Zoos und Sammler verkauft werden sollten, gibt es keine Rettung. Nur einen einzigen Papagei kann Wallace lebend aus dem Wasser fischen. Der gesamte Ertrag seiner Reise versinkt in den Fluten des Ozeans. Zurück in England, rekonstruiert Wallace seine Erlebnisse anhand von wenigen Notizen und Erinnerungen. Seinen Reisebericht, sowohl Abenteuerroman, Forschungsgeschichte und frühes Zeugnis der Suche nach dem Ursprung der Arten, gab es auf Deutsch nur 1855 in einer stark verstümmelten Fassung – nun, nach über 150 Jahren, wird er endlich für die deutschsprachige Leserschaft erschlossen!
Charles Darwin, Natural Science and the Visual Arts
Author: Diana Donald,Jane Munro
Publisher: Yale University Press
View: 1821Charles Darwin’s revolutionary theories of evolution and natural selection have not only had a profound influence on the fields of biology and natural history, but also provided fertile territory for the creative imagination. This lavishly illustrated book accompanies an exhibition organized by the Fitzwilliam Museum, University of Cambridge, in association with the Yale Center for British Art, that will coincide with the global celebration of the bicentenary of Darwin’s birth and the 150th anniversary of the publication of On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859). The essays in this exceptionally wide-ranging book examine both the profound impact that Darwin’s ideas had on European and American artists and the ways in which his theories were influenced by the visual traditions he inherited. In works by artists as diverse as Church, Landseer, Liljefors, Heade, Redon, Cézanne, Lear, Tissot, Rossetti, and Monet, from imaginative projections of prehistory to troubled evocations of a life dominated by the struggle for existence, Darwin’s sense of the interplay of all living things and his response to the beauties of the natural world proved inspirational.
Warum Gesellschaften überleben oder untergehen
Author: Jared Diamond
Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag
View: 6641Der Weltbestseller als erweiterte Neuausgabe! Die überwucherten Tempelruinen von Angkor Wat, die zerfallenden Pyramiden der Maya in Yucatan und die rätselhaften Moai-Statuen der Osterinsel – sie alle sind stille Zeugen von einstmals blühenden Kulturen, die irgendwann verschwanden. Doch was waren die Ursachen dafür? Jared Diamond zeichnet in seiner erweiterten, faszinierenden wie hochaktuellen Studie die Muster nach, die dem Untergang von Gesellschaften (oder ihrem Überleben) zugrunde liegen, und zeigt, was wir für unsere Zukunft daraus lernen können.
Environmental Projects in South and Southeast Asia
Author: Paul Greenough,Anna Lowenhaupt Tsing
Publisher: Duke University Press
Category: Business & Economics
View: 9582A nuanced look at how nature has been culturally constructed in South and Southeast Asia, Nature in the Global South is a major contribution to understandings of the politics and ideologies of environmentalism and development in a postcolonial epoch. Among the many significant paradigms for understanding both the preservation and use of nature in these regions are biological classification, state forest management, tropical ecology, imperial water control, public health, and community-based conservation. Focusing on these and other ways that nature has been shaped and defined, this pathbreaking collection of essays describes projects of exploitation, administration, science, and community protest. With contributors based in anthropology, ecology, sociology, history, and environmental and policy studies, Nature in the Global South features some of the most innovative and influential work being done in the social studies of nature. While some of the essays look at how social and natural landscapes are created, maintained, and transformed by scientists, officials, monks, and farmers, others analyze specific campaigns to eradicate smallpox and save forests, waterways, and animal habitats. In case studies centered in the Philippines, India, Pakistan, Thailand, Indonesia, and South and Southeast Asia as a whole, contributors examine how the tropics, the jungle, tribes, and peasants are understood and transformed; how shifts in colonial ideas about the landscape led to extremely deleterious changes in rural well-being; and how uneasy environmental compromises are forged in the present among rural, urban, and global allies. Contributors: Warwick Anderson Amita Baviskar Peter Brosius Susan Darlington Michael R. Dove Ann Grodzins Gold Paul Greenough Roger Jeffery Nancy Peluso K. Sivaramakrishnan Nandini Sundar Anna Lowenhaupt Tsing Charles Zerner