Theory and Reality

An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science

Author: Peter Godfrey-Smith

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226300610

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 1766

How does science work? Does it tell us what the world is "really" like? What makes it different from other ways of understanding the universe? In Theory and Reality, Peter Godfrey-Smith addresses these questions by taking the reader on a grand tour of one hundred years of debate about science. The result is a completely accessible introduction to the main themes of the philosophy of science. Intended for undergraduates and general readers with no prior background in philosophy, Theory and Reality covers logical positivism; the problems of induction and confirmation; Karl Popper's theory of science; Thomas Kuhn and "scientific revolutions"; the views of Imre Lakatos, Larry Laudan, and Paul Feyerabend; and challenges to the field from sociology of science, feminism, and science studies. The book then looks in more detail at some specific problems and theories, including scientific realism, the theory-ladeness of observation, scientific explanation, and Bayesianism. Finally, Godfrey-Smith defends a form of philosophical naturalism as the best way to solve the main problems in the field. Throughout the text he points out connections between philosophical debates and wider discussions about science in recent decades, such as the infamous "science wars." Examples and asides engage the beginning student; a glossary of terms explains key concepts; and suggestions for further reading are included at the end of each chapter. However, this is a textbook that doesn't feel like a textbook because it captures the historical drama of changes in how science has been conceived over the last one hundred years. Like no other text in this field, Theory and Reality combines a survey of recent history of the philosophy of science with current key debates in language that any beginning scholar or critical reader can follow.
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Genetic Theory of Reality

Author: James Mark Baldwin

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 1412824427

Category: Psychology

Page: 335

View: 8598

James Mark Baldwin left a legacy that has yet to be fully examined, one with profound implications for science and the humanities. In some sense it paralleled that of his friend Charles Sanders Peirce, whose semiotics became understood only a century later. Baldwin was trying to make sense of complex biological and social processes which only now have come into the limelight as biological sciences, and slowly but surely, have re-emerged in psychology. Baldwin's focus on development, based on the observation of his own children and extrapolated to his general theoretical scheme, is fully in line with where our contemporary biological sciences are heading. This is exemplified by the bounded flexibility of the work of the genetic system. The general principle of persistent exploration of the environment with the result of creating novelty, which was the core of Baldwin's theoretical system, has since the 1960s become the guiding idea in genetics. Contemporary developmental science is rooted in Baldwin's thinking. In his new introduction, Jaan Valsiner shows that Baldwin's Genetic Theory of Reality demonstrates how human beings are in their nature social beings, establishes an alternative conceptualization of evolutionary theory, and formulates a system of developmental logic, all of which serve as the foundation for developmental psychology as a whole. Th is is a work of social science rediscovery long overdue.
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Theory and Reality in Financial Economics

Essays Toward a New Political Finance

Author: George M. Frankfurter

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9812770003

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 215

View: 7999

The current literature on financial economics is dominated by neoclassical dogma and, supposedly, the notion of value-neutrality. However, the failure of neoclassical economics to deal with real financial phenomena suggests that this might be too simplistic of an approach. This book consists of a collection of essays dealing with financial markets'' imperfections, and the inability of neoclassical economics to deal with such imperfections. Its central argument is that financial economics, as based on the tenets of neoclassical economics, cannot answer or solve the real-life problems that people face. It also shows the direct relationship between economics and politics OCo something that is usually denied in academic models, given that science is supposed to be value-neutral. In this thought-provoking and avant-garde book, the author not only exposes what has gone wrong, but also suggests reforms to both the academic and the political-economic systems that might help make markets fair rather than efficient. Drawing on interdisciplinary fields, this book will appeal to readers who are interested in finance, economics, business, the political economy and philosophy. Sample Chapter(s). Foreword (37 KB). Chapter 1: Method and Methodology (146 KB). Contents: Method and Methodology; What is All Efficiency?; Still Autistic Finance; The Young Finance Faculty''s Guide to Publishing; Prolific Authors in Finance; For-Profit Education: An Idea That Should be Put to Rest?; Weep Not for Microsoft: Monopoly''s Fatal Exception; The Socio-Economics of Scandals; Desperately Seeking Toto; And Now for Something Entirely Different; After the Ball; Capitalism or Industrial Fiefdom; The Theory of Fair Markets (TFM): Toward a New Finance Paradigm. Readership: Graduate students of finance; students of economics, economic methodology and philosophy of science."
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Multi-hop Ad Hoc Networks from Theory to Reality

Author: Marco Conti,Jon Crowcroft,Andrea Passarella

Publisher: Nova Publishers

ISBN: 9781600216053

Category: Computers

Page: 306

View: 5586

Mobile Multi-hop Ad Hoc Networks are collections of mobile nodes connected together over a wireless medium. These nodes can freely and dynamically self-organise into arbitrary and temporary, "ad-hoc" network topologies, allowing people and devices to seamlessly internetwork in areas with no pre-existing communication infrastructure, (e.g., disaster recovery environments). The aim of this book is to present some of the most relevant results achieved by applying an experimental approach to the research on multi-hop ad hoc networks. The unique aspect of the book is to present measurements, experiences and lessons obtained by implementing ad hoc networks prototypes.
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Theory of Reality

Author: John Keyes

Publisher: Lulu.com

ISBN: 0557193451

Category: Science

Page: 56

View: 3195

Einstein's 'Theory of Relativity' has been the backbone of Physics for more than a century. Einstein was faced with the incompatibility between the constancy of the speed of light and the principle of relativity. It should have been obvious to him that the speed of light was not constant. The original experiments that led to this belief were flawed. Instead, Einstein dropped two of what he called unjustifiable hypothesis from classical mechanics; that time and space were fixed. 'Theory of Reality' is a short allegory. Logic is used to replace the concepts of relativity with new concepts of reality. Johnbat, the main character, systematically examines the logic behind the theory of relativity pointing out flaws in the original definitions, experiments and logical conclusions that were used to develop special relativity. A new 'Theory of Reality' is presented as its replacement.
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Price Determination in Theory and Reality

Lessons for Liberalization and Globalization Policy

Author: Fred Haber

Publisher: Atlantic Publishers & Dist

ISBN: 9788171568512

Category: Capitalism

Page: 174

View: 7552

Do The Prices Paid For The Goods And Services People Need Or The Money Received For Work They Do Correspond To Their Real Value? Most Individuals, After A Moment Of Consideration, Would Probably Answer No. If So, Why Not? Don T The Economic Laws Of Supply And Demand Govern The Prices Paid For Goods And Services In The Competitive Market?Fred Haber Has Looked At This Fundamental Question And Found Distortions In The Way Market Economies Actually Function. He Finds The Distortions Are Caused By The Influence Of Power And Notes That The Most Powerful Entities In An Economy Not Only Have The Capability To Set And Enforce Price, But Can Influence The Distribution Of Their Products As Well. Just As Significantly, The Author Finds That Great Amounts Of Capital Are Being Diverted To Speculative Ends In Real Estate, On Stock Exchanges, In Foreign Currency. When This Happens, Less Capital Is Available For Productive Activities And The Creation Of Meaningful Work Opportunities. Where Free Competition Used To Restrict The Exercise Of Power In The Market, The Global Economy Has Given Rise To Consolidations To Massive Forces Whose Power Now Determines Ultimate Success.To Prove His Case, Haber Examines The Theories Of A Number Of Prominent Economists And Compares These Theories With Economic Reality. The Author Has Invested His Work With The Kind Of Rigorous Scholarship Demanded Of An Academic Study. There Is A Reason Behind This Approach.
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A Comparative Study of the Jaina Theories of Reality and Knowledge

Author: Y. J. Padmarajiah

Publisher: Motilal Banarsidass Publ.

ISBN: 9788120800366

Category: Jaina philosophy

Page: 423

View: 3910

An attempt to determine the meaning and contents of the notion of dravya and distinguish between the two concepts of guna and paryaya. Cursorily also discusses notions of realtivity, continuity, divisibilty and negation. It presents an analytical account and a critical estimation of the methods of knowledge with an investigation into the nature and the logical evolution of the theory of manifoldness (anekantavada). The work has aimed throughout at a comparative treatment of the problems. Effort has been made to avoid strained and far-fetched comparisons and contrasts and to treat criticisms and controversies in a constructive spirit.
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Sāṁkhya; Or, The Theory of Reality

A Critical and Constructive Study of Īśvarakṛṣṇa's Sāṁkhya-Kārikā

Author: J. N. Mukerji

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Sankhya

Page: 102

View: 6857

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Theory and Reality in Development

Author: Sanjaya Lall,Frances Stewart

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1349181285

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 291

View: 1960

This collection of papers by some of the world's leading development economists is remarkable for its wide scope. It covers such varied topics as stagflation in the third world; the extension of free trade to include international investment; the early 1980s in Latin America; the economic growth of Africa and communal land tenure systems and their role in rural development. As well as representing important contributions in themselves, the papers acquire unity from a similarity in approach - always giving priority to reality if it comes into conflict with theoretical bias.
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Simple Theory, Hard Reality

The Impact of Sentencing Reforms on Courts, Prisons, and Crime

Author: Tamasak Wicharaya

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 9780791425084

Category: Social Science

Page: 235

View: 9251

This book evaluates the impact of tough sentencing reforms on the courts, prisons, and crime. It also unpacks the resulting policy implications.
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Theory and Reality

The Development of Social Systems

Author: Władysław Bieńkowski

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780850314021

Category: Capitalism

Page: 303

View: 4136

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A Theory of Reality

An Essay in Metaphysical System Upon the Basis of Human Cognitive Experience

Author: George Trumbull Ladd

Publisher: BiblioBazaar, LLC

ISBN: 9780559380327

Category: History

Page: 576

View: 9322

This is a pre-1923 historical reproduction that was curated for quality. Quality assurance was conducted on each of these books in an attempt to remove books with imperfections introduced by the digitization process. Though we have made best efforts - the books may have occasional errors that do not impede the reading experience. We believe this work is culturally important and have elected to bring the book back into print as part of our continuing commitment to the preservation of printed works worldwide.
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Global Business

Connecting Theory to Reality

Author: Yongsun Paik,Jong-Wook Kwon,Dong Chen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131540432X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 402

View: 5417

This textbook is designed to help students understand the key issues of global business by connecting theory with reality. Divided into three parts, it covers critical issues of international business, introducing readers to topics they will connect with, and discussing core concepts. With a user-friendly pedagogy and a host of helpful visuals, the authors offer a practitioner’s perspective on global business knowledge, examining familiar theory on trade, direct investment, and political environment alongside fresh topics, like geopolitical conflicts, emerging markets, and sustainability. Over sixty case studies are included to illustrate the magnitude and complexity of global business involving different stakeholders. Undergraduate students looking for an introduction to international business and graduate students looking to apply their knowledge will find Global Business stimulating, since it demonstrates how theories and concepts work in real-world business settings.
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Dewey's Empirical Theory of Knowledge and Reality

Author: John R. Shook

Publisher: Vanderbilt University Press

ISBN: 9780826513625

Category: Philosophy

Page: 316

View: 798

The ongoing revival of interest in the work of American philosopher and pragmatist John Dewey has given rise to a burgeoning flow of commentaries, critical editions, and reevaluations of Dewey's writings. While previous studies of Dewey's work have taken either a historical or a topical focus, Shook offers an innovative, organic approach to understanding Dewey and eloquently shows that Dewey's instrumentalism grew seamlessly out of his idealism. He argues that most current scholarship operates under a mistaken impression of Dewey's early philosophical positions and convincingly demonstrates a number of key points: that Dewey's metaphysical empiricism remained more indebted to Kant and Hegel than is commonly supposed; that Dewey owed more to the influence of Wundt than is commonly believed; that the influence of Peirce and James was not as significant for the development of Dewey's theories of mind and truth as has been argued in the past; and that Dewey's pragmatic theory of knowledge never really abandoned idealism. Shook's exposition of the unity of Dewey's thought challenges a large scholarly industry devoted to suppressing or explaining away the consistency between Dewey's early thought and his later work. In every respect, Dewey's Empirical Theory of Knowledge and Reality is a provocative and engaging study that will occupy a unique niche in this field. It is certain to stimulate discussion and controversy, forcing Dewey traditionalists out of habitual modes of thought and transforming our conventional understanding of the development of classical American philosophy.
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Theory and Reality

Federal Ideas in Australia, England and Europe

Author: Solomon Rufus Davis

Publisher: University of Queensland Press(Australia)

ISBN: 9780702226052

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 5890

A collection of essays from one of the world's leading authorities on federalism, critically focusing on topics central to the working of the Australian political and constitutional system.
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Nietzsche's Theory of Knowledge

Author: Rüdiger Hermann Grimm

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110861224

Category: Philosophy

Page: 218

View: 3670

In der Reihe werden herausragende monographische Interpretationen von Nietzsches Werk im Ganzen oder von spezifischen Themen und Aspekten aus unterschiedlichen wissenschaftlichen Perspektiven veröffentlicht, vor allem aus philosophischer, literatur- und kommunikationswissenschaftlicher, soziologischer und historischer Sicht. Die Publikationen repräsentieren den aktuellen Stand. Jeder Band ist peer-reviewed.
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Treaty interpretation

theory and reality

Author: Edward Slavko Yambrusic

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Political Science

Page: 298

View: 5478

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The Security Council and the Use of Force

Theory and Reality, a Need for a Change?

Author: Niels M. Blokker,Nico Schrijver

Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

ISBN: 9004146423

Category: Political Science

Page: 308

View: 7134

This book addresses the authority of the UN Security Council to regulate the use of force. In particular, it examines the question of whether the present composition, functions, and powers of the Security Council are adequate to meet recent demands, such as the need perceived by states to use force in cases of humanitarian emergency and pre-emptive action in response to international terrorism and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Is the Security Council still well positioned today to deal with these demands and challenges? In seeking a response, the book analyzes both Charter law and Security Council practice. It addresses not only the hotly debated recent crises concerning Kosovo, Afghanistan, and Iraq, but also resolutions dealing with the use of force by peacekeeping operations. A number of issues relating to the right of self-defence are analyzed, as are the emerging new roles of NATO and the African Union. Separate chapters of the book are devoted to the current discussion concerning the reform of the Security Council. A particular feature of the book is the interaction between academics and practitioners as well as between theory and reality.
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