Theory and Reality

An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science

Author: Peter Godfrey-Smith

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226300610

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 9394

How does science work? Does it tell us what the world is "really" like? What makes it different from other ways of understanding the universe? In Theory and Reality, Peter Godfrey-Smith addresses these questions by taking the reader on a grand tour of one hundred years of debate about science. The result is a completely accessible introduction to the main themes of the philosophy of science. Intended for undergraduates and general readers with no prior background in philosophy, Theory and Reality covers logical positivism; the problems of induction and confirmation; Karl Popper's theory of science; Thomas Kuhn and "scientific revolutions"; the views of Imre Lakatos, Larry Laudan, and Paul Feyerabend; and challenges to the field from sociology of science, feminism, and science studies. The book then looks in more detail at some specific problems and theories, including scientific realism, the theory-ladeness of observation, scientific explanation, and Bayesianism. Finally, Godfrey-Smith defends a form of philosophical naturalism as the best way to solve the main problems in the field. Throughout the text he points out connections between philosophical debates and wider discussions about science in recent decades, such as the infamous "science wars." Examples and asides engage the beginning student; a glossary of terms explains key concepts; and suggestions for further reading are included at the end of each chapter. However, this is a textbook that doesn't feel like a textbook because it captures the historical drama of changes in how science has been conceived over the last one hundred years. Like no other text in this field, Theory and Reality combines a survey of recent history of the philosophy of science with current key debates in language that any beginning scholar or critical reader can follow.
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American Democracy

Theory and Reality

Author: Robert Weissberg

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 560

View: 6904

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Theory and Reality in Financial Economics

Essays Toward a New Political Finance

Author: George M. Frankfurter

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9812770003

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 215

View: 2857

The current literature on financial economics is dominated by neoclassical dogma and, supposedly, the notion of value-neutrality. However, the failure of neoclassical economics to deal with real financial phenomena suggests that this might be too simplistic of an approach. This book consists of a collection of essays dealing with financial markets'' imperfections, and the inability of neoclassical economics to deal with such imperfections. Its central argument is that financial economics, as based on the tenets of neoclassical economics, cannot answer or solve the real-life problems that people face. It also shows the direct relationship between economics and politics OCo something that is usually denied in academic models, given that science is supposed to be value-neutral. In this thought-provoking and avant-garde book, the author not only exposes what has gone wrong, but also suggests reforms to both the academic and the political-economic systems that might help make markets fair rather than efficient. Drawing on interdisciplinary fields, this book will appeal to readers who are interested in finance, economics, business, the political economy and philosophy. Sample Chapter(s). Foreword (37 KB). Chapter 1: Method and Methodology (146 KB). Contents: Method and Methodology; What is All Efficiency?; Still Autistic Finance; The Young Finance Faculty''s Guide to Publishing; Prolific Authors in Finance; For-Profit Education: An Idea That Should be Put to Rest?; Weep Not for Microsoft: Monopoly''s Fatal Exception; The Socio-Economics of Scandals; Desperately Seeking Toto; And Now for Something Entirely Different; After the Ball; Capitalism or Industrial Fiefdom; The Theory of Fair Markets (TFM): Toward a New Finance Paradigm. Readership: Graduate students of finance; students of economics, economic methodology and philosophy of science."
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Price Determination in Theory and Reality

Lessons for Liberalization and Globalization Policy

Author: Fred Haber

Publisher: Atlantic Publishers & Dist

ISBN: 9788171568512

Category: Capitalism

Page: 174

View: 2953

Do The Prices Paid For The Goods And Services People Need Or The Money Received For Work They Do Correspond To Their Real Value? Most Individuals, After A Moment Of Consideration, Would Probably Answer No. If So, Why Not? Don T The Economic Laws Of Supply And Demand Govern The Prices Paid For Goods And Services In The Competitive Market?Fred Haber Has Looked At This Fundamental Question And Found Distortions In The Way Market Economies Actually Function. He Finds The Distortions Are Caused By The Influence Of Power And Notes That The Most Powerful Entities In An Economy Not Only Have The Capability To Set And Enforce Price, But Can Influence The Distribution Of Their Products As Well. Just As Significantly, The Author Finds That Great Amounts Of Capital Are Being Diverted To Speculative Ends In Real Estate, On Stock Exchanges, In Foreign Currency. When This Happens, Less Capital Is Available For Productive Activities And The Creation Of Meaningful Work Opportunities. Where Free Competition Used To Restrict The Exercise Of Power In The Market, The Global Economy Has Given Rise To Consolidations To Massive Forces Whose Power Now Determines Ultimate Success.To Prove His Case, Haber Examines The Theories Of A Number Of Prominent Economists And Compares These Theories With Economic Reality. The Author Has Invested His Work With The Kind Of Rigorous Scholarship Demanded Of An Academic Study. There Is A Reason Behind This Approach.
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Theory and Reality in Development

Author: Sanjaya Lall,Frances Stewart

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1349181285

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 291

View: 1158

This collection of papers by some of the world's leading development economists is remarkable for its wide scope. It covers such varied topics as stagflation in the third world; the extension of free trade to include international investment; the early 1980s in Latin America; the economic growth of Africa and communal land tenure systems and their role in rural development. As well as representing important contributions in themselves, the papers acquire unity from a similarity in approach - always giving priority to reality if it comes into conflict with theoretical bias.
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Dewey's Empirical Theory of Knowledge and Reality

Author: John R. Shook

Publisher: Vanderbilt University Press

ISBN: 9780826513625

Category: Philosophy

Page: 316

View: 676

The ongoing revival of interest in the work of American philosopher and pragmatist John Dewey has given rise to a burgeoning flow of commentaries, critical editions, and reevaluations of Dewey's writings. While previous studies of Dewey's work have taken either a historical or a topical focus, Shook offers an innovative, organic approach to understanding Dewey and eloquently shows that Dewey's instrumentalism grew seamlessly out of his idealism. He argues that most current scholarship operates under a mistaken impression of Dewey's early philosophical positions and convincingly demonstrates a number of key points: that Dewey's metaphysical empiricism remained more indebted to Kant and Hegel than is commonly supposed; that Dewey owed more to the influence of Wundt than is commonly believed; that the influence of Peirce and James was not as significant for the development of Dewey's theories of mind and truth as has been argued in the past; and that Dewey's pragmatic theory of knowledge never really abandoned idealism. Shook's exposition of the unity of Dewey's thought challenges a large scholarly industry devoted to suppressing or explaining away the consistency between Dewey's early thought and his later work. In every respect, Dewey's Empirical Theory of Knowledge and Reality is a provocative and engaging study that will occupy a unique niche in this field. It is certain to stimulate discussion and controversy, forcing Dewey traditionalists out of habitual modes of thought and transforming our conventional understanding of the development of classical American philosophy.
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The Security Council and the Use of Force

Theory and Reality, a Need for a Change?

Author: Niels M. Blokker,Nico Schrijver

Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

ISBN: 9004146423

Category: Political Science

Page: 308

View: 2341

This book addresses the authority of the UN Security Council to regulate the use of force. In particular, it examines the question of whether the present composition, functions, and powers of the Security Council are adequate to meet recent demands, such as the need perceived by states to use force in cases of humanitarian emergency and pre-emptive action in response to international terrorism and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Is the Security Council still well positioned today to deal with these demands and challenges? In seeking a response, the book analyzes both Charter law and Security Council practice. It addresses not only the hotly debated recent crises concerning Kosovo, Afghanistan, and Iraq, but also resolutions dealing with the use of force by peacekeeping operations. A number of issues relating to the right of self-defence are analyzed, as are the emerging new roles of NATO and the African Union. Separate chapters of the book are devoted to the current discussion concerning the reform of the Security Council. A particular feature of the book is the interaction between academics and practitioners as well as between theory and reality.
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The Truth of Science

Physical Theories and Reality

Author: Roger G. Newton

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674910928

Category: Science

Page: 260

View: 3891

Examines the aims and tools of science for creating theories and explanations of phenomena, with an eye to answering the question of whether or not science actually leads to true comprehension of reality
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Social Theory and Human Reality

Author: Pertti Alasuutari

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780761951650

Category: Social Science

Page: 181

View: 9724

This book gets to the heart of what the social sciences really know about the elusive and contradictory object of research: human reality.
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Sociological Theory and Educational Reality

Education and Society in Australia Since 1949

Author: Alan Barcan

Publisher: UNSW Press

ISBN: 9780868401256

Category: Education

Page: 411

View: 9273

An examination of the major classical sociological theories relevant to education and of the rise and decline of the new sociology of education. Author also discusses the vexed questions of equality of opportunity, the relationship between school and society, the growth of educational bureaucracies and the roles of state, church and family in education in Australia since 1949. Includes endnotes, tables and index.
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Marxism, China, and Development

Reflections on Theory and Reality

Author: A. James Gregor

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351506714

Category: Political Science

Page: 294

View: 1295

China has always been something of a mystery to Westerners. For one genera-tion, Mao Zedong and his followers were simple "agrarian reformers," while for another they were the "communist emperor and his blue ants." In the 1970s, some of the finest Sinologists believed there was much the United States could learn from Mao's Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution with regard to bureaucracy, criminal justice, health care, and mass education. By the 1980s, those same theo-rists asserted that Maoism was nothing more than a feudal fascism and had abso-lutely nothing positive to teach. Marxism, China, and Development provides a plausible explanation of these developments that have had such a powerful effect on the people of China for the past half century.The author describes and explains the strange collection of beliefs that made up the Marxism of Mao Zedong. He seeks to understand why the communist leader-ship of China, like that of the USSR, tried to spur economic growth by abandoning the market modalities common to developed economies. A. James Gregor's con-ceptual framework is both original, and makes more comprehensible the history of Marxism and the history of China. Among the major topics he covers are imperi-alism, political democracy, economics, and alternatives to Maoism and Marxism for China.While it is unlikely that our understanding of so complex a series of events as modern Chinese history will soon become less controversial, Marxism, China, and Development's clear, concise explanations will clarify some perplexing areas, and make the new turns in Chinese political economy more understandable. This is a monumental effort at theory construction that will be of interest to political scien-tists, economists, sociologists, and Sinologists.
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Critical Reasoning in Contemporary Culture

Opacity, Theory, and Reality, 1960-1991 -- An Israeli Perspective

Author: Richard A. Talaska

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 9780791409794

Category: Philosophy

Page: 422

View: 981

Here we have, for the first time in a single volume, diverse perspectives on the meaning, conditions, and goals of critical reasoning in contemporary culture. Part One emphasizes critical reasoning and education, engaging the debate over the connection between critical reasoning skills and the learning of the content. Part Two offers analyses of the theoretical, methodological, and historical debates concerning critical reasoning abilities. The authors represent a variety of disciplines and theoretical approaches which lend the book valuable intellectual pluralism. The book evaluates other aspects of critical thinking such as creativity, insight, questioning, learning, practical thought, interpretation, intellectual prejudice, and the historical and temporary aspects of thought. -- Back cover.
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Contemporary Issues in Couples Counseling

A Choice Theory and Reality Therapy Approach

Author: Patricia A. Robey,Robert E. Wubbolding,Jon Carlson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0415891256

Category: Psychology

Page: 254

View: 2347

"Contemporary Issues in Couples Counseling addresses the most common and difficult issues that people in the helping professions face when using CBT with couples--and provides concrete solutions for addressing them effectively. In it, clinicians will find a handy reference for professionals who are looking for useful information and skills that can be applied immediately in their sessions. The book uses the time-tested, evidence-based strategies for helping clients focus on the here and now, not the past, and for helping clinicians create effective treatment plans and ensure that that clients meet their individual needs while also addressing the needs of their partners"--
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Signs, Mind, and Reality

A Theory of Language as the Folk Model of the World

Author: Sebastian Shaumyan

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9027252017

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 315

View: 6419

The book presents a new science of semiotic linguistics. The goal of semiotic linguistics is to discover what characterizes language as an intermediary between the mind and reality so that language creates the picture of reality we perceive. The cornerstone of semiotic linguistics is the discovery and resolution of language antinomies ­-contradictions between two apparently reasonable principles or laws. Language antinomies constitute the essence of language, and hence must be studied from both linguistic and philosophical points of view. The basic language antinomy which underlies all other antinomies is the antinomy between meaning and information. Both generative and classical linguistic theories are unaware of the need to distinguish between meaning and information. By confounding these notions they are unable to discover language antinomies and confine their research to naturalistic description of superficial language phenomena rather than the quest for the essence of language.(Series A)
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Theory and Reality

Federal Ideas in Australia, England and Europe

Author: Solomon Rufus Davis

Publisher: University of Queensland Press(Australia)

ISBN: 9780702226052

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 1973

A collection of essays from one of the world's leading authorities on federalism, critically focusing on topics central to the working of the Australian political and constitutional system.
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Moral Development and Reality

Beyond the Theories of Kohlberg and Hoffman

Author: John C. Gibbs

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780761923893

Category: Philosophy

Page: 299

View: 5934

In Moral Development and Reality the author explores moral development through the theories of Kohlberg and Hoffman. The book should find a place not only as classroom reading, but also as a contribution to broader dialogues in the academic community on the question and nature of moral development and behaviour.
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Social Theory and the Urban Question

Author: Peter Saunders

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135685916

Category: Science

Page: 312

View: 7463

Social Theory and the Urban Question offers a guide to, and a critical evaluation of key themes in contemporary urban social theory, as well as a re-examination of more traditional approaches in the light of recent developments and criticism. Dr Saunders discusses current theoretical positions in the context of the work of Marx, Weber and Durkheim. He suggests that later writers have often misunderstood or ignored the arguments of these 'founding fathers' of the urban question. Dr Saunders uses his final chapter to apply the lessons learned from a review of their work in order to develop a new framework for urban social and political analysis. This book was first published in 1981.
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Quantum Theory and the Flight from Realism

Philosophical Responses to Quantum Mechanics

Author: Christopher Norris

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134595247

Category: Philosophy

Page: 280

View: 8109

This book is a critical introduction to the long-standing debate concerning the conceptual foundations of quantum mechanics and the problems it has posed for physicists and philosophers from Einstein to the present. Quantum theory has been a major infulence on postmodernism, and presents significant problems for realists. Keeping his own realist position in check, Christopher Norris subjects a wide range of key opponents and supporters of realism to a high and equal level of scrutiny. With a characteristic combination of rigour and intellectual generosity, he draws out the merits and weaknesses from opposing arguments. In a sequence of closely argued chapters, Norris examines the premises of orthodox quantum theory, as developed most influentially by Bohr and Heisenberg, and its impact on varous philosophical developments. These include the ideas developed by W.V Quine, Thomas Kuhn, Michael Dummett, Bas van Fraassen, and Hilary Puttnam. In each case, Norris argues, these thinkers have been influenced by the orthodox construal of quantum mechanics as requiring drastic revision of principles which had hitherto defined the very nature of scientific method, causal explanati and rational enquiry. Putting the case for a realist approach which adheres to well-tried scientific principles of causal reasoning and inference to the best explanation, Christopher Norris clarifies these debates to a non-specialist readership and scholars of philosophy, science studies and the philosophy of science alike. Quantum Theory and the Flight From Realism suggests that philosophical reflection can contribute to a better understanding of these crucial, current issues.
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Crises in World Politics

Theory and Reality

Author: Michael Brecher

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483100553

Category: Political Science

Page: 694

View: 4073

Crises in World Politics: Theory & Reality presents the study of international conflict. This book discusses the danger of crises to global and regional stability. Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the key concepts of the inquiry, conflict, crisis, and war. This text then explores the four phases of an interstate crisis, namely, onset, escalation, de-escalation, and impact. Other chapters consider the unified model of crisis, which is applied to the Gulf Crisis-War of 1990–91. This book discusses as well the most intense military-security crisis in the 20th century, the dynamics of the process, and how the actors coped with their crisis. The final chapter summarizes the primary findings about models and concepts, and about each phase and its corresponding period at the actor level, namely, pre-crisis, crisis, end-crisis, and post-crisis. This book is a valuable resource for historians, policy makers, and social scientists.
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