Theory and Reality of Democracy

A Case Study in Iraq

Author: Suman Gupta

Publisher: Bloomsbury Academic

ISBN: 9780826496386

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 6603

This is a study of conceptualizations and applications of the idea of democracy in international and transnational politics (outside the confines of constituted political states, or outside a broadly understood domestic political sphere), which uses a politically realist methodology. This study provides a critical survey of current conceptual positions assumed in this area, and tests these against specific real world events, using the invasion and occupation of Iraq by a US-UK led coalition as a case study. Several aspects of this context are examined here, with a view to discerning how existing conceptualizations of democracy in the international/ transnational domain impinge upon and are tested by the real world. Ultimately this study focuses on the confusions and obfuscations that follow from conflating the normative connotations of democracy with the oligarchic multi-party elective arrangements that are denoted as democratic. The book is divided into two parts - the first examines the six prevailing conceptual positions on democracy in the international/transnational domain in terms of: (a) their normative and legislative connotations; and (b) the manner in which they negotiate boundaries. The second part tests the observations made in Part 1 against real-world events, using the build up to military intervention in and subsequent occupation of Iraq. During these events the notion of democracy was continually being deployed and dissected in a wide variety of different ways: justifications for and against military action were constantly framed in terms of democracy; the democractic structure and credentials of the UN were stretched almost to breaking point; mass marches and rallies were claimed as a democratic expression of protest; and a discourse of 'democratization' has dominated the occupation period.
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Ökonomische Theorie der Demokratie

Author: Anthony Downs

Publisher: Mohr Siebeck

ISBN: 9783165290523

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 303

View: 9708

English summary: It was Anthony Downs' objective to create a model dealing with voter and government behavior. In order to do so, he established goals which governments, parties and lobbyists as well as the voters can pursue. To motivate all those concerned, he introduced the self-interest axiom and called for rationality in order to attain these goals. With the help of marginal analysis, each voter determines his/her party differential, which will help to determine each voter's choice at the ballot box and to decide which party's rule will give him/her greater utility in the future. Downs describes how crucial the concept of ideology is to his theory. He maintains that a two-party democracy could not provide stable and effective government unless there is a large measure of ideological consensus amongst its citizens, and that political parties encouraged voters to be irrational by remaining vague and ambiguous. German description: Anthony Downs' inzwischen klassisches Demokratie-Modell des Wahler- und Regierungsverhaltens orientiert sich an der okonomischen Theorie. Er nimmt an, dass politische Parteien und Wahler in der Verfolgung bestimmter, deutlich spezifizierter Ziele optimal handeln. So treffen die Wahler unter Ungewissheit uber den Wahlvorgang und die zukunftige Regierungsbildung ihre Wahl nach dem mutmasslichen Nutzen. Die Regierung versucht, mit Hilfe der Manipulation des Budgets ihre Wiederwahl zu erreichen.Ideologien der Parteien auf der einen Seite, Interessengruppen auf der anderen stellen den Wahlern bzw. der Regierung Informationen zur rationalen Entscheidungsfindung zur Verfugung. Dabei wird deutlich, dass Mehrparteiensysteme und Verhaltniswahlrecht jedes Wahl-Kalkul unlosbar werden lassen. Auf die weiteren Folgerungen fur Demokratie-Forschung und -Verstandnis geht Downs im letzten Teil seines Werkes ausfuhrlich ein.
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Democracy on Purpose

Justice and the Reality of God

Author: Franklin I. Gamwell

Publisher: Georgetown University Press

ISBN: 9781589013087

Category: Religion

Page: 376

View: 617

Western moral and political theory in the last two centuries has widely held that morality and politics are independent of a divine reality. Claiming that this consensus is flawed, prominent theologian Franklin I. Gamwell argues that there is a necessary relation between moral worth and belief in God. Without appealing to the beliefs of any specific religion, Gamwell defends a return to the view that moral and political principles depend on a divine purpose. To separate politics from the divine misrepresents the distinctive character of human freedom, Gamwell maintains, and thus prevents a full understanding of the nature of justice. Principles of justice define "democracy on purpose" as the political form in which we pursue the divine good. Engaging in a dialogue with such major representatives of the dominant consensus as Kant, Habermas, and Rawls, and informed by the philosophical writings of Alfred North Whitehead, this book makes the case for a neoclassical metaphysics that restores a religious sensibility to our political life.
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American Democracy

Theory and Reality

Author: Robert Weissberg

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 560

View: 4532

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The Problem of Democracy in Cuba

Between Vision and Reality

Author: Carollee Bengelsdorf

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780195090147

Category: History

Page: 229

View: 6819

"A belated, but nontheless very good effort to explore the irreconocilable tension between democracy and authoritarian, paternalist socialism in revolutionary Cuba. Informed by critical Marxism, book challenges the notion that Cuba is an excellent case of 'direct democracy,' laying responsibility for the absence of freedom and accountability squarely on Castro's dictatorial vocation and the Communist party's hegemony. In a surprising departure, author concludes that 'to the degree the (Cuban) leadership continues to insist upon defining the boundaries of civil society, it must in the end fail' (p. 178)"--Handbook of Latin American Studies, v. 57.
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Wer beherrscht die Welt?

Die globalen Verwerfungen der amerikanischen Politik

Author: Noam Chomsky

Publisher: Ullstein eBooks

ISBN: 3843714436

Category: Political Science

Page: 416

View: 9387

„Die Frage, wer die Welt regiert, kann nicht eindeutig beantwortet werden. Aber die einflussreichsten Akteure sind klar auszumachen.“ Auch nach der Ära Obama gilt: Die USA betrachten sich grundsätzlich als die Guten – selbst dann, wenn sie das Gleiche tun wie jene, denen sie Böses unterstellen: Zivilflugzeuge abschießen, willkürlich Leute inhaftieren und mit Drohnen umbringen oder in fremde Länder einmarschieren. Das Primat der militärischen Intervention und der unerbittliche Drang, alleinige Weltmacht zu bleiben, bilden die Konstanten der amerikanischen Politik – auch wenn dadurch Staaten ins Chaos und Menschen ins Verderben getrieben werden. Im Land dagegen haben die Reichen und Mächtigen fast freie Hand, jenseits demokratischer Kontrollen und unbeachtet von einer zunehmend gleichgültigen Bevölkerung. Wohin führt uns das? Welche Folgen hat das für den Rest der Welt? In seiner so brillanten wie präzisen Analyse zeigt Noam Chomsky die fatalen Folgen der imperialen Politik der USA für das ohnehin immer chaotischere Zusammenleben auf unserem Planeten.
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Myth and Reality of the Legitimacy Crisis

Explaining Trends and Cross-National Differences in Established Democracies

Author: Carolien van Ham,Jacques Thomassen,Rudy Andeweg,Kees Aarts

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198793715

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 6485

Theories about the decline of legitimacy or a legitimacy crisis are as old as democracy itself. Yet, representative democracy still exists, and the empirical evidence for a secular decline of political support in established democracies is limited, questionable, or absent. This lack of conclusive evidence calls into question existing explanatory theories of legitimacy decline. How valid are theories of modernization, globalization, media malaise, social capital, and party decline, if the predicted outcome (i.e. secular decline of political support) does not occur? And which (new) explanations can account for the empirical variation in political support in established democracies? This book systematically evaluates the empirical evidence for legitimacy decline in established democracies, the explanatory power of theories of legitimacy decline, and promises new routes in investigating and assessing political legitimacy. In doing so, the book provides a broad and thorough reflection on the state of the art of legitimacy research, and outlines a new research agenda on legitimacy.
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Democracy Declassified

The Secrecy Dilemma in National Security

Author: Michael P. Colaresi

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199389799

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 8295

Recent scandals like WikiLeaks and Edward Snowden's disclosure of NSA documents have brought public debates over government accountability and secrecy bubbling to the surface. How can modern democracies balance the need for privacy in delicate foreign policy matters with the necessity of openness in gaining and maintaining the trust of citizens? Democracies keep secrets from potential enemies and their citizens. This simple fact challenges the surprisingly prevalent assumption that foreign policy successes and failures can be attributed to public transparency and accountability. In fact, the ability to keep secrets has aided democratic victories from the European and Pacific theatres in World War II to the global competition of the Cold War. At the same time, executive discretion over the capacity to classify information created the opportunity for abuse that contributed to Watergate, as well as domestic spying and repression in France, Norway and Canada over the past forty years. Therefore, democracies face a secrecy dilemma. Secrecy is useful, but once a group or person has the ability to decide what information is concealed from a rival, citizens can no longer monitor that information. How then can the public be assured that national security policies are not promoting hidden corruption or incompetence? As Democracy Declassified shows, it is indeed possible for democracies to keep secrets while also maintaining useful national security oversight institutions that can deter abuse and reassure the public. Understanding secrecy and oversight in democracies helps us explain not only why the Maginot Line rose and the French Republic fell, or how the US stumbled but eventually won the Cold War, but more generally how democracies can benefit from both public consent and necessary national security secrets. At a time when ubiquitous debates over the issue of institutional accountability and transparency have reached a fever pitch, Democracy Declassified provides a grounded and important view on the connection between the role of secrecy in democratic governance and foreign policy-making.
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Social Capitalism in Theory and Practice: Emergence of the new majority

Author: Robert Corfe

Publisher: Arena books

ISBN: 9780955605536

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 324

View: 7963

The opening volume in a trilogy describes the new heterogeneous middle-middle majority who have climbed from proletarian origins, as well as those from the upper middle classes whose confidence and affluence have been broken on the wheel of egalitarian forces.
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Communicative Rationality and Deliberative Democracy of Jürgen Habermas

Toward Consolidation of Democracy in Africa

Author: Ukoro Theophilus Igwe

Publisher: LIT Verlag Münster

ISBN: 9783825879082

Category: Religion

Page: 520

View: 389

This book critically investigates Jurgen Habermas's attempt to develop communicative conception of human rationality. It explores Habermas's fundamental commitment to the practical import and ramifications of communicative rationality in the field of African political philosophy. Within this context, Habermas's ambitious project to reconcile law, justice, and democracy is wide-ranging. This work explores how it is, among other things, that deliberative institutions can become more democratic through, as Dewey put it, "improvements in the methods and conditions of debate, discussion and persuasion".
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Postcommunism and the Theory of Democracy

Author: Richard D. Anderson Jr.,M. Steven Fish,Stephen E. Hanson,Philip G. Roeder

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691089171

Category: Political Science

Page: 201

View: 3177

Why did the wave of democracy that swept the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe starting more than a decade ago develop in ways unexpected by observers who relied on existing theories of democracy? In Postcommunism and the Theory of Democracy, four distinguished scholars conduct the first major assessment of democratization theory in light of the experience of postcommunist states. Richard Anderson, Steven Fish, Stephen Hanson, and Philip Roeder not only apply theory to practice, but using a wealth of empirical evidence, draw together the elements of existing theory into new syntheses. The authors each highlight a development in postcommunist societies that reveals an anomaly or lacuna in existing theory. They explain why authoritarian leaders abandon authoritarianism, why democratization sometimes reverses course, how subjects become citizens by beginning to take sides in politics, how rulers become politicians by beginning to seek popular support, and not least, how democracy becomes consolidated. Rather than converging on a single approach, each author shows how either a rationalist, institutionalist, discursive, or Weberian approach sheds light on this transformation. They conclude that the experience of postcommunist democracy demands a rethinking of existing theory. To that end, they offer rich new insights to scholars, advanced students, policymakers, and anyone interested in postcommunist states or in comparative democratization.
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Political Morality

A Theory of Liberal Democracy

Author: Richard Vernon

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 9780826450661

Category: Political Science

Page: 202

View: 3900

Although liberal democratic polities have an important place in contemporary politics, their justification is contentious. Liberalism and democracy are commonly thought to be inconsistent, or at least in tension with one another; and the reality of liberal democracy is perceived as falling far short of the ideal. In Political Morality, Richard Vernon sets out to show that liberal democracy can make sense as a single political conception, rather than a trade-off between two different values. He also argues that in conceiving of liberal democracy as proposed, other problems inherent in liberalism and in democracy are eased; liberal democracy is not exposed to the same objections as liberalism and it can avoid some of the paradoxes that are said to plague democratic theory. The book also points to some of the ways in which polities currently termed 'liberal democracies' fall clearly short of the values that might legitimize them.
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Democratic Theory and Mass Incarceration

Author: Richard Sparks

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190243090

Category: Crime prevention

Page: 360

View: 5854

The United States leads the world in incarceration, and the United Kingdom is persistently one of the European countries with the highest per capita rates of imprisonment. Yet despite its increasing visibility as a social issue, mass incarceration - and its inconsistency with core democratic ideals - rarely surfaces in contemporary Anglo-American political theory. Democratic Theory and Mass Incarceration seeks to overcome this puzzling disconnect by deepening the dialogue between democratic theory and punishment policy. This collection of original essays initiates a multi-disciplinary discussion among philosophers, political theorists, and criminologists regarding ways in which contemporary democratic theory might begin to think beyond mass incarceration. Rather than viewing punishment as a natural reaction to crime and imprisonment as a sensible outgrowth of this reaction, the volume argues that crime and punishment are institutions that reveal unmet demands for public oversight and democratic influence. Chapters explore theoretical paths towards de-carceration and alternatives to prison, suggest ways in which democratic theory can strengthen recent reform movements, and offer creative alternatives to mass incarceration. Democratic Theory and Mass Incarceration offers guideposts for critical thinking about incarceration, examining ways to rebuild crime control institutions and create a healthier, more just society.
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Democracy and Political Theory

Author: Claude Lefort

Publisher: Polity

ISBN: 9780745604374

Category: Political Science

Page: 100

View: 9680

This book examines the central questions of democracy and politics in modern societies. Through an analysis of some of the key texts of 19th and 20th century thought - from Marx, Michelet and de Tocqueville to Hannah Arendt - the author explores the ambiguities of democracy, the nature of human rights, the idea and the reality of revolution, the emergence of totalitarianism and the changing relations between politics, religion and the image of the body. While developing a highly original account of the nature of politics and power in modern societies, he links political reflection to the interpretation of history as an open, indeterminate process of which we are part. This work should interest specialists in social and political theory and philosophers.
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The Real World of Democratic Theory

Author: Ian Shapiro

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400836833

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 9448

In this book Ian Shapiro develops and extends arguments that have established him as one of today's leading democratic theorists. Shapiro is hardheaded about the realities of politics and power, and the difficulties of fighting injustice and oppression. Yet he makes a compelling case that democracy's legitimacy depends on pressing it into the service of resisting domination, and that democratic theorists must rise to the occasion of fashioning the necessary tools. That vital agenda motivates the arguments of this book. Tracing modern democracy's roots to John Locke and the American founders, Shapiro shows that they saw more deeply into the dynamics of democratic politics than have many of their successors. Drawing on Lockean and Madisonian insights, Shapiro evaluates democracy's changing global fortunes over the past two decades. He also shows how elusive democracy can be by exploring the contrast between its successful establishment in South Africa and its failures elsewhere--particularly the Middle East. Shapiro spells out the implications of his account for long-standing debates about public opinion, judicial review, abortion, and inherited wealth--as well as more recent preoccupations with globalization, national security, and international terrorism. Scholars, students, and democratic activists will all learn from Shapiro's trenchant account of democracy's foundations, its history, and its contemporary challenges. They will also find his distinctive democratic vision both illuminating and appealing.
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Dewey's Empirical Theory of Knowledge and Reality

Author: John R. Shook

Publisher: Vanderbilt University Press

ISBN: 9780826513625

Category: Philosophy

Page: 316

View: 2738

The ongoing revival of interest in the work of American philosopher and pragmatist John Dewey has given rise to a burgeoning flow of commentaries, critical editions, and reevaluations of Dewey's writings. While previous studies of Dewey's work have taken either a historical or a topical focus, Shook offers an innovative, organic approach to understanding Dewey and eloquently shows that Dewey's instrumentalism grew seamlessly out of his idealism. He argues that most current scholarship operates under a mistaken impression of Dewey's early philosophical positions and convincingly demonstrates a number of key points: that Dewey's metaphysical empiricism remained more indebted to Kant and Hegel than is commonly supposed; that Dewey owed more to the influence of Wundt than is commonly believed; that the influence of Peirce and James was not as significant for the development of Dewey's theories of mind and truth as has been argued in the past; and that Dewey's pragmatic theory of knowledge never really abandoned idealism. Shook's exposition of the unity of Dewey's thought challenges a large scholarly industry devoted to suppressing or explaining away the consistency between Dewey's early thought and his later work. In every respect, Dewey's Empirical Theory of Knowledge and Reality is a provocative and engaging study that will occupy a unique niche in this field. It is certain to stimulate discussion and controversy, forcing Dewey traditionalists out of habitual modes of thought and transforming our conventional understanding of the development of classical American philosophy.
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Democracy Beyond the State?

The European Dilemma and the Emerging Global Order

Author: Michael Th Greven,Louis W. Pauly

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9780847699018

Category: Political Science

Page: 191

View: 3907

Political authority in today s leading democracies rests on generally shared perceptions by a given people that their government is responsible to them and considers each individual citizen equal under the law. Yet since the dawn of the industrial age, democratic governments have presided over economies that function on the basis of an unequal distribution of real resources. As globalization opens these economies, the gap between legal, ideal and economic reality widens and boundaries separating the people of different democracies erode. This thought-provoking book explores the consequent challenge posed for the inherent legitimacy of democratic systems. When distinctive bonds between political power and social obligation break down, that erosion creates democratic deficits. Pressures build to reconstitute political authority beyond the state, and governance-in-practice grows ever more distant from democracy-in-principle. Nowhere is the deepening dilemma more evident than in the European Union. This book examines the contemporary breakdown and transformation of the democratic welfare state in Europe and draws fascinating contrasts with North America. In a cohesive and insightful collection of essays, a group of distinguished political scientists debates the implications of these trends both for theory and for policy."
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Democracy in Theory and Practice

Author: Stephen Elstub

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135703485

Category: Political Science

Page: 119

View: 8129

Democracy is an issue of major importance in theory and practice in politics throughout the world. However, democracy’s study and advancement has been significantly compromised by a dichotomy between theorising about democracy, and empirical studies of democracy in practice. In addition to highlighting the need for this gap to be overcome, this book contributes to overcoming this divide, by demonstrating a number of ways that democracy in theory and practice can be synthesised; deepening our understanding of the relationship between democracy in theory and practice in the process. Different, but related, democratic principles and concepts are considered such as legitimacy, political equality, deliberation, and participation. A range of practical contexts are also investigated including multi-level polities, deeply divided societies, whole polities, local rural and urban areas, and a range of democratic processes, innovations and spectacular events. Moreover, the book sets the agenda for future work to combine democracy in theory and practice. This book was originally published as a special issue of Representation.
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Communication and Democracy

Exploring the intellectual Frontiers in Agenda-setting theory

Author: Maxwell E. McCombs,Donald L. Shaw,David H. Weaver

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113668509X

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 288

View: 7604

Exciting intellectual frontiers are open for exploration as agenda-setting theory moves beyond its 25th anniversary. This volume offers an intriguing set of maps to guide this exploration over the near future. It is intended for those who are already reasonably well read in the research literature that has accumulated since the publication of McCombs and Shaw's original 1972 Public Opinion Quarterly article. This piece of literature documented the influence of the news media agenda on the public agenda in a wide variety of geographic and social settings, elaborated the characteristics of audiences and media that enhance or diminish those agenda-setting effects, and cataloged those exogenous factors explaining who sets the media's agenda. In the current volume, a provocative set of maps for explicating new levels of agenda-setting theory have been sketched by a new generation of young scholars, launching an enterprise that has significant implications for theoretical research and for the day-to-day role of mass communication in democratic societies. At the first level of agenda setting are agendas of objects--the traditional domain of agenda setting research--represented by an accumulation of hundreds of studies over the past quarter century. At the second level of agenda setting are agendas of attributes--one of the new theoretical frontiers whose aspects are discussed in detail in the opening chapters. Other chapters offer maps of yet other theoretical frontiers, including political advertising agendas and their impact on behavior, the framing of various agendas in the mass media and the differential impact of print and TV, the theoretical role of individual differences in the agenda-setting influence of the news media on the public agenda, methodological advances for determining cause and effect roles in agenda-setting, and the application of agenda-setting theory to historical analysis. This volume is an invitation to others to become active members of the invisible college of agenda-setting scholarship. As such, the goals of this book are threefold: * to introduce a broad set of ideas about agenda-setting; * to enrich the exploration of these ideas by enhancing scholarly dialogue among the members of this invisible college; and * to enhance the discussion of agenda-setting research in seminars and research groups around the world. Agenda-setting has remained a vital and productive area of communication research over a quarter century because it has continued to introduce new research questions into the marketplace of ideas and to integrate this work with other theoretical concepts and perspectives about journalism and mass communication. Understanding the dynamics of agenda- setting is central to understanding the dynamics of contemporary democracy. This book's set of theoretical essays, grounded in the accumulated literature of agenda- setting theory and in the creative insights of young scholars, will help lead the way toward that understanding.
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Democratic Evaluation and Democracy

Exploring the Reality

Author: Donna Podems

Publisher: IAP

ISBN: 1681237903

Category: Education

Page: 257

View: 806

Democratic evaluation brings a way of thinking about evaluation’s role in society and in particular, its role in strengthening social justice. Yet the reality of applying it, and what happens when it is applied particularly outside the West, is unclear. Set in South Africa, a newly formed democracy in Southern Africa, the book affords an indepth journey that immerses a reader into the realities of evaluation and its relation to democracy. The book starts with the broader introductory chapters that set the scene for more detailed ones which bring thorough insights into national government, local government, and civil societies’ experience of evaluation, democratic evaluation and their understanding of how it contributes to strengthening democracy (or not). A teaching case, the book concludes by providing guiding questions that encourage reflection, discussion and learning that ultimately aims to inform practice and theory.
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