Psychological Science Under Scrutiny

Recent Challenges and Proposed Solutions

Author: Scott O. Lilienfeld,Irwin D. Waldman

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118661044

Category: Psychology

Page: 400

View: 7019

Psychological Science Under Scrutiny explores a range of contemporary challenges to the assumptions and methodologies of psychology, in order to encourage debate and ground the discipline in solid science. Discusses the pointed challenges posed by critics to the field of psychological research, which have given pause to psychological researchers across a broad spectrum of sub-fields Argues that those conducting psychological research need to fundamentally change the way they think about data and results, in order to ensure that psychology has a firm basis in empirical science Places the recent challenges discussed into a broad historical and conceptual perspective, and considers their implications for the future of psychological methodology and research Challenges discussed include confirmation bias, the effects of grant pressure, false-positive findings, overestimating the efficacy of medications, and high correlations in functional brain imaging Chapters are authored by internationally recognized experts in their fields, and are written with a minimum of specialized terminology to ensure accessibility to students and lay readers
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Neuroimaging I

Basic Science

Author: Erin D. Bigler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1489917012

Category: Medical

Page: 342

View: 638

Until recent advents in neuroimaging, the brain had been inaccessible to in vivo visualization, short of neurosurgical procedures or some unfortunate traumatic exposure. It is a tribute to the early contributors to clinical neuroscience that through what, by today's standards, would be deemed extremely crude measure ments, advancements in understanding brain function were made. For example, the theories of higher cortical functions of the brain by Aleksandr Luria or Hans-Lukas Teuber in the 1950s were essentially based on military subjects who sustained traumatic head wounds during World War II. These researchers could inspect the patient and determine where penetrating entrance and exit wounds were on the head; sometimes they had skull films to identify entrance and exit fracture wounds, sometimes neurosurgical reports were available, and Luria even had the opportunity to acutely examine some patients with exposed wounds. Thus, one would take whatever information might be available and infer what regions of the brain were involved but could never actually visualize the brain. Of course, this changed dramatically with the introduction of brain imag ing in the 1970s, but it really was not until the 1990s that analysis and image display technologies finally caught up with the basic brain-imaging methods of computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
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Nutrition and Arthritis

Author: Margaret Rayman,Alison Callaghan

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1405172878

Category: Medical

Page: 280

View: 5960

Arthritis affects millions of people throughout the world and while its treatment is usually medical or surgical, there exists an increasingly large body of evidence concerning the positive effects of nutrition on the condition. There are over two hundred forms of rheumatoid disease, with conditions varying in prevalence. In this important title the authors have focussed on osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the most common arthritic diseases with the largest body of dietary data. Including coverage of disease incidence and prevalence, pathology, aetiology and measures of disease assessment and dietary risk factors, Nutrition and Arthritis is a clear, concise and user-friendly book gathering the latest research to bring the reader state-of-the-art information on: Micronutrients (e.g. vitamins C, D and selenium), food supplements and their potential to ameliorate arthritis Polyunsaturated fatty acids, with particular attention paid to n-3 fatty acids Glucosamine and chondroitin The value of exclusion, vegetarian, vegan and other dietary approaches Nutritionists and dietitians, including those working in the health services, rheumatologists, orthopaedic surgeons, general practitioners, osteopaths and commercial organisations involved in the formulation of dietary supplements will find this book an important and practical reference source. Libraries in medical schools and universities and research establishments where nutrition, dietetics and food science are studied and taught will find it a valuable addition to their shelves.
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The Human Microbiota

How Microbial Communities Affect Health and Disease

Author: David N. Fredricks

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118409809

Category: Science

Page: 376

View: 7413

The Human Microbiota offers a comprehensive review of all human-associated microbial niches in a single volume, focusing on what modern tools in molecular microbiology are revealing about human microbiota, and how specific microbial communities can be associated with either beneficial effects or diseases. An excellent resource for microbiologists, physicians, infectious disease specialists, and others in the field, the book describes the latest research findings and evaluates the most innovative research approaches and technologies. Perspectives from pioneers in human microbial ecology are provided throughout.
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Criminals in the Making

Criminality Across the Life Course

Author: John Paul Wright,Stephen G. Tibbetts,Leah E. Daigle

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1483321932

Category: Social Science

Page: 328

View: 2282

Why do individuals exposed to the same environment turn out so differently, with some engaging in crime and others abiding by societal rules and norms? Why are males involved in violent crime more often than females? And why do the precursors of serious pathological behavior typically emerge in childhood? Criminals in the Making: Criminality Across the Life Course, Second Edition, by John Paul Wright, Stephen G. Tibbetts, and Leah E. Daigle, addresses key questions surrounding criminal propensity by discussing studies of the life-course perspective—criminological research that links biological factors associated with criminality with the social and environmental agents thought to cause, facilitate, or otherwise influence a tendency towards criminal activity. The book provides comprehensive, interdisciplinary coverage of the current thinking in the field about criminal behavior over the course of a lifetime. Additionally, it highlights interventions proven effective and illustrates how the life-course perspective has contributed to a greater understanding of the causes of crime.
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Hyaluronic Acid

Production, Properties, Application in Biology and Medicine

Author: V. N. Khabarov,P. Y. Boykov,M. A. Selyanin

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111869595X

Category: Science

Page: 216

View: 2432

Hyaluronic acid is an essential part of connective, epithelial and neural tissues, and contributes to cell proliferation and migration. It is used as a stimulating agent for collagen synthesis and is a common ingredient in skin-care products, a multi-billion dollar industry, as it is believed to be a key factor in fighting the aging process. Hyaluronic Acid: Production, Properties, Application in Biology and Medicine consists of six chapters discussing the various issues of hyaluronic acid research. In Chapter 1, a historical analysis recounts the discovery and milestones of the research leading to the practical applications of hyaluronan. Chapter 2 is dedicated to biological role of the hyaluronic acid in nature, in particular in the human body. The chapter starts from the phylogenesis of hyaluronic acid, then describes hyaluronan functions in human ontogenesis and especially the role which hyaluronan plays in extracellular matrix of the different tissues. Chapter 3 describes the methods to manufacture and purify hyaluronic acid, including the analytical means for assessing quality of the finished product. Chapter 4 discusses the structure and rheological properties of hyaluronic acid considering effects on conformation and biological properties related to molecular weight. In Chapter 5, the physical and chemical methods for modifying the structure of hyaluronan are discussed including cross-linking using bi-functional reagents, solid-phase modification and effects of the combined action of high pressures and shift deformation. The final chapter focuses on the products derived from hyaluronic acid, including therapeutics composed of modified hyaluronan conjugated to vitamins, amino acids and oligo-peptides. The biological roles and medical applications of this polysaccharide have been extensively studied and this book provides a wealth of scientific data demonstrating the critical role of hyaluronic acid and its promise as a multifaceted bio-macromolecule. Approaching hyaluronic acid from multiple angles, this book links relationships between its biological functions, structure and physical–chemical properties. It will be an invaluable resource to researchers, both industrial and academic, involved in all aspects of hyaluronan-based technologies.
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HACCP and ISO 22000

Application to Foods of Animal Origin

Author: Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781444320930

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 560

View: 4820

Food Safety is an increasingly important issue. Numerous food crises have occurred internationally in recent years (the use of the dye Sudan Red I; the presence of acrylamide in various fried and baked foods; mislabelled or unlabelled genetically modified foods; and the outbreak of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease) originating in both primary agricultural production and in the food manufacturing industries. Public concern at these and other events has led government agencies to implement a variety of legislative actions covering many aspects of the food chain. This book presents and compares the HACCP and ISO 22000:2005 food safety management systems. These systems were introduced to improve and build upon existing systems in an attempt to address the kinds of failures which can lead to food crises. Numerous practical examples illustrating the application of ISO 22000 to the manufacture of food products of animal origin are presented in this extensively-referenced volume. After an opening chapter which introduces ISO 22000 and compares it with the well-established HACCP food safety management system, a summary of international legislation relating to safety in foods of animal origin is presented. The main part of the book is divided into chapters which are devoted to the principle groups of animal-derived food products: dairy, meat, poultry, eggs and seafood. Chapters are also included on catering and likely future directions. The book is aimed at food industry managers and consultants; government officials responsible for food safety monitoring; researchers and advanced students interested in food safety.
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Cortical Areas

Unity and Diversity

Author: Almut Schuez,Robert Miller

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780203299296

Category: Science

Page: 526

View: 6639

The study of areas in the cerebral cortex has a long history, bringing empirical data into close relation with fundamental conceptual issues about the cortex. The subject is currently being revitalized with the advent of new experimental methods and this book brings a modern perspective to the study of these areas. Cortical Areas: Unity and Diversity explores the correspondence of different methods of mapping areas, the correlation between connectivity and areas, interspecies variations and the developmental origin of areal differences. Cortical areas are also discussed in relation to functional evidence, discussing for instance similarities in cybernetic function between different sensory areas. The book also considers morphological substrates for integration between areas before exploring fundamental questions often asked in neurobiology and brain theory.
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Game Research Methods: An Overview

Author: Patri Lankoski,Staffan Björk,et al.

Publisher: Lulu.com

ISBN: 1312884738

Category: Education

Page: 374

View: 5257

Games are increasingly becoming the focus for research due to their cultural and economic impact on modern society. However, there are many different types of approaches and methods than can be applied to understanding games or those that play games. This book provides an introduction to various game research methods that are useful to students in all levels of higher education covering both quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods. In addition, approaches using game development for research is described. Each method is described in its own chapter by a researcher with practical experience of applying the method to topic of games. Through this, the book provides an overview of research methods that enable us to better our understanding on games.
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Integrating Complementary Medicine into Veterinary Practice

Author: Paula Jo Broadfoot,Richard E. Palmquist,Karen Johnston,Jiu Jia Wen,Barbara Fougere

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0813804434

Category: Medical

Page: 928

View: 3830

Integrating complementary treatment options with traditional veterinary practice is a growing trend in veterinary medicine. Veterinarians and clients alike have an interest in expanding treatment options to include alternative approaches such as Western and Chinese Herbal Medicine, Acupuncture, Nano-Pharmacology, Homotoxicology, and Therapeutic Nutrition along with conventional medicine. Integrating Complementary Medicine into Veterinary Practice introduces and familiarizes veterinarians with the terminology and procedures of these complementary treatment modalities in a traditional clinical format that facilitates the easy integration of these methods into established veterinary practices.
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Plant-derived Natural Products

Synthesis, Function, and Application

Author: Anne E. Osbourn,Virginia Lanzotti

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387854984

Category: Science

Page: 597

View: 3633

Plants produce a huge array of natural products (secondary metabolites). These compounds have important ecological functions, providing protection against attack by herbivores and microbes and serving as attractants for pollinators and seed-dispersing agents. They may also contribute to competition and invasiveness by suppressing the growth of neighboring plant species (a phenomenon known as allelopathy). Humans exploit natural products as sources of drugs, flavoring agents, fragrances and for a wide range of other applications. Rapid progress has been made in recent years in understanding natural product synthesis, regulation and function and the evolution of metabolic diversity. It is timely to bring this information together with contemporary advances in chemistry, plant biology, ecology, agronomy and human health to provide a comprehensive guide to plant-derived natural products. Plant-derived natural products: synthesis, function and application provides an informative and accessible overview of the different facets of the field, ranging from an introduction to the different classes of natural products through developments in natural product chemistry and biology to ecological interactions and the significance of plant-derived natural products for humans. In the final section of the book a series of chapters on new trends covers metabolic engineering, genome-wide approaches, the metabolic consequences of genetic modification, developments in traditional medicines and nutraceuticals, natural products as leads for drug discovery and novel non-food crops.
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Meditation Practices for Health

State of the Research

Author: Maria B. Ospina

Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 1428988068

Category:

Page: 263

View: 6109

Reviews & synthesizes the state of research on a variety of meditation practices (MP), incl.: the specific MP examined; the research designs employed & the conditions & outcomes examined; the efficacy & effectiveness of different MP for the 3 most studied conditions; the role of effect modifiers on outcomes; & the effects of meditation on physiological & neuropsychological outcomes. Conclusions: scientific research on MP does not have a common theoretical perspective & is characterized by poor methodological quality. Firm conclusions on the effects of MP in healthcare cannot be drawn based on the available evidence. Future research on MP must be more rigorous in the design & execution of studies & in the analysis & reporting of results. Illus.
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Encapsulation and Controlled Release Technologies in Food Systems

Author: Jamileh M. Lakkis

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118733525

Category: Science

Page: 408

View: 7864

The emergence of the discipline of encapsulation and controlled release has had a great impact on the food and dietary supplements sectors; principally around fortifying food systems with nutrients and health-promoting ingredients. The successful incorporation of these actives in food formulations depends on preserving their stability and bioavailability as well as masking undesirable flavors throughout processing, shelf life and consumption. This second edition of Encapsulation and Controlled Release Technologies in Food Systems serves as an improvement and a complement companion to the first. However, it differentiates itself in two main aspects. Firstly, it introduces the reader to novel encapsulation and controlled release technologies which have not yet been addressed by any existing book on this matter, and secondly, it offers an in-depth discussion on the impact of encapsulation and controlled release technologies on the bioavailability of health ingredients and other actives. In common with the first edition the book includes chapters written by distinguished authors and researchers in their respective areas of specialization. This book is designed as a reference for scientists and formulators in the food, nutraceuticals and consumer products industries who are looking to formulate new or existing products using microencapsulated ingredients. It is also a post-graduate text designed to provide students with an introduction to encapsulation and controlled release along with detailed coverage of various encapsulation technologies and their adaptability to specific applications.
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Protocols for Cytogenetic Mapping of Arthropod Genomes

Author: Igor V. Sharakhov

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466598158

Category: Science

Page: 526

View: 8326

Arthropods are important to worldwide agriculture, food safety, human health, and energy production. Besides their practical significance, various species represent excellent model systems for biological investigations of evolution, development, physiology, reproduction, and social interaction. For these reasons, arthropod genomics is receiving increasing attention from researchers around the globe. Protocols for Cytogenetic Mapping of Arthropod Genomes is a collection of up-to-date, detailed protocols for physical chromosome mapping and their applications for studying genome organization and evolution in insects and ticks. This book brings together the expertise of cytogeneticists working on diverse groups of arthropods. Each chapter demonstrates approaches to tissue dissection, chromosome preparation, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and imaging. The book is a timely and complementary effort to the i5K initiative, which will obtain whole-genome sequences for 5,000 insect and related arthropod species. This comprehensive resource provides cytogeneticists with the necessary background and protocols to understand and develop chromosome-based genome assemblies from such whole-genome sequence data.
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Rational Phytotherapy

A Reference Guide for Physicians and Pharmacists

Author: Volker Schulz,Rudolf Hänsel,Mark Blumenthal,V. E. Tyler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662096668

Category: Medical

Page: 417

View: 8714

All practitioners and pharmacists interested in treatment with herbal remedies should have this book at their disposal. It is the definitive practice-oriented introduction - now in its fifth edition - to phytotherapy. Methodically classified by organic systems and fields of application, the text provides a quick insight into dosage, form of application and effects of the most important herbal remedies. Only those herbal remedies that are of pharmacological and clinical efficiency have been considered. The authors are highly experienced in the field of postgraduate medical education, and, with this work, present an indispensable reference book for the medical practice.
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Harp Seals, Man and Ice

Author: David E. Sergeant

Publisher: Fisheries and Oceans, Communications Directorate

ISBN: N.A

Category: Harp seal

Page: 153

View: 1430

Reviews the biology and population dynamics of the harp seal, Phoca groenlandica Erxleben, the history of its hunting over several centuries and its eventual conservation.
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High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography (HPTLC)

Author: ManMohan Srivastava

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642140259

Category: Science

Page: 397

View: 5921

The present edited book is the presentation of 18 in-depth national and international contributions from eminent professors, scientists and instrumental chemists from educational institutes, research organizations and industries providing their views on their experience, handling, observation and research outputs on HPTLC, a multi-dimensional instrumentation. The book describes the recent advancements made on TLC which have revolutionized and transformed it into a modern instrumental technique HPTLC. The book addresses different chapters on HPTLC fundamentals: principle, theory, understanding; instrumentation: implementation, optimization, validation, automation and qualitative and quantitative analysis; applications: phytochemical analysis, biomedical analysis, herbal drug quantification, analytical analysis, finger print analysis and potential for hyphenation: HPTLC future to combinatorial approach, HPTLC-MS, HPTLC-FTIR and HPTLC-Scanning Diode Laser. The chapters in the book have been designed in such away that the reader follows each step of the HPTLC in logical order.
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Smart Computing and Informatics

Proceedings of the First International Conference on SCI 2016

Author: Suresh Chandra Satapathy,Vikrant Bhateja,Swagatam Das

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9811055440

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 755

View: 9896

This volume contains 74 papers presented at SCI 2016: First International Conference on Smart Computing and Informatics. The conference was held during 3-4 March 2017, Visakhapatnam, India and organized communally by ANITS, Visakhapatnam and supported technically by CSI Division V – Education and Research and PRF, Vizag. This volume contains papers mainly focused on applications of advanced intelligent techniques to video processing, medical imaging, machine learning, sensor technologies, and network security.
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Cosmetic Dermatology

Author: Cheryl M. Burgess

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540230649

Category: Medical

Page: 170

View: 6747

This book provides the dermatologist with the essential information needed to properly treat all skin types cosmetically. All chapters have been written by female dermatologists with many years of personal experience in the field. The volume includes an overview of the systemic, intrinsic and extrinsic aging process, essential information on anti-aging skin care product ingredients, detailed discussions of patient selection and indications, and a wide range of cosmetic procedures. This concise book allows you - through its well-organized use of sidebars, photographs and illustrations - to extract any information you may need quickly and easily.
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