Religion and Politics in America: An Encyclopedia of Church and State in American Life [2 volumes]

An Encyclopedia of Church and State in American Life

Author: Frank J. Smith

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1598844369

Category: Religion

Page: 899

View: 2015

There has always been an intricate relationship between religion and politics. This encyclopedia provides a comprehensive overview of the interrelation of religion and politics from colonial days to the present. • Enables readers to understand why religion and politics are necessarily interrelated • Demonstrates how today's heated controversies about the delicate balance between religious beliefs and government policies in America are not new but have existed since the foundation of the nation • Represents an ideal resource for students writing position papers regarding the separation of church and state (or lack of)
Release

The zoning of America

Euclid v. Ambler

Author: Michael Allan Wolf

Publisher: Univ Pr of Kansas

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: 188

View: 5771

When the Cleveland suburb of Euclid first zoned its land in 1922, the Ambler Realty Company was left with a sizable tract it could no longer sell for industrial use--and so the company sued. What emerged was the seminal zoning case in American history, pitting reformers against private property advocates in the Supreme Court and raising the question of whether a municipality could deny property owners the right to use their land however they chose. Reconstructing the case that made zoning a central element in urban planning for cities and towns throughout America, Michael Allan Wolf provides the first book-length study of the Supreme Court's landmark Euclid v. Ambler decision. Wolf describes how the ordinance, and the defense of it, burst onto the national stage and became the focus of litigation before moving all the way to the nation's highest court. He subsequently reveals how and why Justice George Sutherland broke from the Court's conservative bloc to support the urban reform movement eager to protect residential neighborhoods from disturbances created by rapidly expanding commercial, industrial, or multifamily uses of land. Following that decision, America saw the rapid proliferation of zoning ordinances, which greatly increased the power of local government to control and rationalize urban planning. As Wolf attests, many of today's environmental and land use laws might not have been deemed legal had Euclid v. Ambler been decided differently. But he also points out the potential dangers that emerged from the decision, such as its anticompetitive impact on the real estate market, its catalyzing effect on suburban sprawl, and its establishment of a legal basis for excluding minoritygroups from neighborhoods. Wolf's compelling account makes it clear that Euclid v. Ambler fundamentally altered how we think about the urban landscape, changed the way our cities and suburbs are organized, and left a long shadow over subsequent cases such as the controversial Supreme Court decision in Kelo v. New London (2005).
Release

The Encyclopedia of Housing, Second Edition

Author: Andrew T. Carswell

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1412989574

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 872

View: 4613

The second edition of the Encyclopedia of Housing has been updated to reflect the significant changes in the market that make the landscape of the industry so different today, and includes articles from a fresh set of scholars who have contributed to the field over the past twelve years.
Release

The sodomy cases

Bowers v. Hardwick and Lawrence v. Texas

Author: David A. J. Richards

Publisher: Univ Pr of Kansas

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: 214

View: 3082

For America's gay community, the question of rights is often reduced to the issue of privacy. Until very recently, even though this right has been upheld by the Supreme Court in landmark cases relating to contraception and abortion, the issue of "nonprocreational sex" continued to trigger a double standard for gay men. Now David Richards, a leading legal scholar who is himself gay, shows how two other landmark cases nearly twenty years apart shed light on America's evolving views of privacy. The Supreme Court's decision in Bowers v. Hardwick (1986) stemmed from a 1982 gay-sex arrest in an Atlanta home under a Georgia law that criminalized sodomy--a case not originally prosecuted, but then pursued in court to challenge the statute's constitutionality. Lawrence v. Texas (2003) followed a similar arrest in 1998 in Houston, where Texas law also criminalized sodomy--but only when practiced by members of the same sex. Richards views these cases as the nadir and apogee of the gay community's efforts to fight discrimination through the courts. In Bowers, the Supreme Court ruled that there was no constitutional protection for sodomy and that states could outlaw those practices. But in Lawrence, the Court overturned the Texas law--and the Bowers decision as well--because it denied due process protection to consenting adults whose sexual practices were conducted in private. Justice Kennedy's majority opinion reaffirmed a constitutionally protected right to privacy that prevented the government from regulating intimate behavior. Tracing the Court's deliberations, Richards shows how Lawrence unambiguously establishes that the right to a private life is an innately human right and that ourconstitutional right to privacy rests on the moral bedrock of equal protection. He shifts gracefully from the law to literature, and from the Courts to the wider culture, to offer a brilliant analysis of the relevant arguments, going beneath their surface to link them to the emotional and moral foundations of the controversies raging around these decisions. Both of these cases show a Supreme Court ready to take seriously the idea that homosexuals have human rights--and that these rights are the basis of judicially enforceable constitutional rights. In describing these challenges to public prejudice, Richards's book offers students and general readers new insight into the practice and theory of constitutional law.
Release

Land Use and Society, Revised Edition

Geography, Law, and Public Policy

Author: Rutherford H. Platt

Publisher: Island Press

ISBN: 1559636858

Category: Architecture

Page: 455

View: 9493

Land Use and Society is a unique and compelling exploration of interactions among law, geography, history, and culture and their joint influence on the evolution of land use and urban form in the United States. Originally published in 1996, this completely revised, expanded, and updated edition retains the strengths of the earlier version while introducing a host of new topics and insights on the twenty-first century metropolis. This new edition of Land Use and Society devotes greater attention to urban land use and related social issues with two new chapters tracing American city and metropolitan change over the twentieth century. More emphasis is given to social justice and the environmental movement and their respective roles in shaping land use and policy in recent decades. This edition of Land Use and Society by Rutherford H. Platt is updated to reflect the 2000 Census, the most recent Supreme Court decisions, and various topics of current interest such as affordable housing, protecting urban water supplies, urban biodiversity, and "ecological cities." It also includes an updated conclusion that summarizes some positive and negative outcomes of urban land policies to date.
Release

Capital punishment on trial

Furman v. Georgia and the death penalty in modern America

Author: David M. Oshinsky

Publisher: Univ Pr of Kansas

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 144

View: 2746

In his first book since the Pulitzer Prize--winning Polio: An American Story, renowned historian David Oshinsky takes a new and closer look at the Supreme Court's controversial and much-debated stances on capital punishment--in the landmark case of Furman v. Georgia. Career criminal William Furman shot and killed a homeowner during a 1967 burglary in Savannah, Georgia. Because it was a "black-on-white" crime in the racially troubled South, it also was an open-and-shut case. The trial took less than a day, and the nearly all-white jury rendered a death sentence. Aided by the NAACP's Legal Defense Fund, Furman's African-American attorney, Bobby Mayfield, doggedly appealed the verdict all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court, which in 1972 overturned Furman's sentence by a narrow 5--4 vote, ruling that Georgia's capital punishment statute, and by implication all other state death-penalty laws, was so arbitrary and capricious as to violate the Eighth Amendment's prohibition against "cruel and unusual punishment." Furman effectively, if temporarily, halted capital punishment in the United States. Every death row inmate across the nation was resentenced to life in prison. The decision, however, did not rule the death penalty per se to be unconstitutional; rather, it struck down the laws that currently governed its application, leaving the states free to devise new ones that the Court might find acceptable. And this is exactly what happened. In the coming years, the Supreme Court would uphold an avalanche of state legislation endorsing the death penalty. Capital punishment would return stronger than ever, with many more defendants sentenced to death and eventually executed. Oshinsky demonstrates the troubling roles played by race and class and region in capital punishment. And he concludes by considering the most recent Supreme Court death-penalty cases involving minors and the mentally ill, as well as the impact of international opinion. Compact and engaging, Oshinsky's masterful study reflects a gift for empathy, an eye for the telling anecdote and portrait, and a talent for clarifying the complex and often confusing legal issues surrounding capital punishment.
Release

Program of the ... Annual Meeting

Author: American Historical Association,History of Science Society. Meeting

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Medical

Page: N.A

View: 1955

Release

Gibbons v. Ogden

John Marshall, steamboats, and the commerce clause

Author: Herbert Alan Johnson

Publisher: Univ Pr of Kansas

ISBN: N.A

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 198

View: 3078

Release

The Reader's Companion to American History

Author: Eric Foner,John A. Garraty

Publisher: HMH

ISBN: 0547561342

Category: History

Page: 1248

View: 8525

An A-to-Z historical encyclopedia of US people, places, and events, with nearly 1,000 entries “all equally well written, crisp, and entertaining” (Library Journal). From the origins of its native peoples to its complex identity in modern times, this unique alphabetical reference covers the political, economic, cultural, and social history of America. A fact-filled treasure trove for history buffs, The Reader’s Companion is sponsored by the Society of American Historians, an organization dedicated to promoting literary excellence in the writing of biography and history. Under the editorship of the eminent historians John A. Garraty and Eric Foner, a large and distinguished group of scholars, biographers, and journalists—nearly four hundred contemporary authorities—illuminate the critical events, issues, and individuals that have shaped our past. Readers will find everything from a chronological account of immigration; individual entries on the Bull Moose Party and the Know-Nothings as well as an article on third parties in American politics; pieces on specific religious groups, leaders, and movements and a larger-scale overview of religion in America. Interweaving traditional political and economic topics with the spectrum of America’s social and cultural legacies—everything from marriage to medicine, crime to baseball, fashion to literature—the Companion is certain to engage the curiosity, interests, and passions of every reader, and also provides an excellent research tool for students and teachers.
Release

Biographical Encyclopedia of the Supreme Court

The Lives and Legal Philosophies of the Justices

Author: Melvin I. Urofsky

Publisher: CQ Press

ISBN: 1452267286

Category: Political Science

Page: 624

View: 8976

The recent dramatic shift in makeup of the U.S. Supreme Court has led to great interest in the rulings and legal opinions of its justices. Now, CQ Press brings you a comprehensive volume that analyzes the lives and legal philosophies of all past and present justices of the Court. Biographical Encyclopedia of the Supreme Court includes signed essays profiling the men and women who have served and are serving on the U.S. Supreme Court. This one-of-a-kind reference includes not only important biographical information, but also in-depth details of the legal contributions made by the men and women of the nation's highest bench. Keeping up with the recent changes to the Court, this volume includes all current justices. New essays profile Chief Justice John Roberts and Justice Samuel Alito. Justices are arranged in an easy-to-use alphabetical format. Each essay is prefaced with key biographical information for each justice such as: Birth and death dates Date of nomination to the Court The name of president who nominated the justice The date he or she was seated Date range of service on the Court Within each essay, written by a top legal expert, scholar, or journalist, Biographical Encyclopedia of the Supreme Court provides facts and context along with analysis of the opinions and legal philosophies for each justice. This new volume is an updated edition of The Supreme Court Justices: A Biographical Dictionary (1994). It will prove a valuable resource for academic, community college, law school, and public libraries.
Release

Land Use and Society

Geography, Law, and Public Policy

Author: Rutherford H. Platt

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: City planning

Page: 507

View: 6150

Land Use and Society: Geography, Law, and Public Policy examines the history, current practice, and unmet needs of land use planning and regulation in the United States. Rutherford H. Platt, a geographer and lawyer with over twenty-five years experience in research, teaching, and consulting on land use policy, recounts the evolution of land use management and regulation from its early roots in English common law to contemporary legal approaches and constitutional issues. Topics covered include: the interaction of geography and law in land use policy historic development of response to urban problems in the nineteenth century important land use legal cases in the United States over the past century, including current takings law strengths and weaknesses of American experience with zoning laws and related measures techniques employed by state and local governments to steer private developers into responsible growth practices the protection of wetlands, floodplains, coastal zones, and agricultural areas what has been accomplished and what remains inadequately addressed in contemporary urban land use management Throughout, the author argues that rational planning and controlled exploitation of natural resources are hindered by fragmented jurisdictions of federal, state, local, and municipal regulatory bodies.
Release

Zoning and the American Dream

Promises Still to Keep

Author: Charles Monroe Haar,Jerold S. Kayden

Publisher: Amer Planning Assn

ISBN: N.A

Category: Political Science

Page: 386

View: 8099

This thoughtful book assesses just how well zoning is meeting its goals six decades after it was introduced. Zoning and the American Dream finds grounds for both optimism and pessimism. Though susceptible to gross misuse, Haar and Kayden argue that zoning is still the most powerful tool available for shaping the environment in which we live and work. The book starts before the Supreme Court's 1926 landmark decision in Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty Company with a look at the battles that prompted litigation. It's a story of strong-willed individuals, surprising political coalitions, and debate on some of the major philosophical issues of the Progressive era. This great drama is recounted with flair and detail. The dusty files of Ambler Realty Company's lawyers are exhumed to reveal the thinking behind the case. We're given a lively first hand perspective of the unfolding trail strategy. There's also a look at the personal backgrounds of major and minor players and an appendix with the complete text of the decision. The book also explores the problematic sides of zoning for example, its use for racial and class discrimination. One chapter uncovers how some communities have even used zoning not only to exclude blacks but to destroy existing viable black neighborhoods by zoning for intrusive commercial and industrial uses. The book casts a skeptical eye on increased judicial intervention in zoning as constitutional battles have involved judges more and more in the planning of American communities. It also examines the pervasive impact of zoning on design and questions the compatibility of zoning and traditional economic theory. Zoning and the American Dream is the first book that looks at zoning from every imaginable perspective: historical, physical design and planning, sociological, legal, economic, and political. It's a useful reference for professionals. And just a good read for anyone interested in the nature of American communities."
Release