The Wall Around the West

State Borders and Immigration Controls in North America and Europe

Author: Peter Andreas,Timothy Snyder

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9780742501782

Category: Political Science

Page: 242

View: 2596

Even as economic and military walls have come down in the post-Cold War era, states have rapidly built new barriers to prevent a perceived invasion of 'undesirables.' Nowhere is this more dramatically evident than along the geographic fault lines dividing rich from poor countries: especially the southern border of the United States, and the southern and eastern borders of the European Union. This volume examines the practice, politics, and consequences of building these new walls in North America and Europe. At the same time, it challenges dominant accounts of globalization, in which state borders will be irrelevant to the human experience. In short, the volume brings borders back in to the study of international politics.

Kennedy, Adenauer and the Making of the Berlin Wall, 1958-1961

Author: N.A

Publisher: Stanford University



Page: N.A

View: 1641

Kennedy, Adenauer and the Making of the Berlin Wall, 1958-1961 The Second Berlin Crisis, which began with Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev's threat to sign a separate peace treaty with East Germany in November 1958, has largely been interpreted by foreign policy historians as a conflict between the superpowers, in which the dependent allies - the Federal Republic of Germany and the GDR - had almost no influence on the course of events that led to the erection of the Berlin Wall. This interpretation served the political purposes of the governments involved for most of the Cold War. The Kennedy administration as leading government of the Western world could claim to have successfully managed a difficult crisis; the Adenauer administration and the Ulbricht regime could both point to Washington's and Moscow's responsibility for the division of Germany's capital; and Khrushchev, as leading statesman of the Warsaw pact, could finally deliver on some of his promises made to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. However, recent findings suggest that Ulbricht, not Khrushchev, was the driving force behind the decision to close the East Berlin sector. In the course of the first two years of the Kennedy administration, severe problems arose in West German-American relations. It is time to ask how the West German government's interactions with the Kennedy administration influenced the course of the crisis. President Eisenhower had seemingly managed to avoid an escalation of the Berlin crisis from 1958 to late 1960. This came at the cost of increasing pressure for his successor to find a solution. Ten months into the Kennedy administration, Berlin was divided by a wall, and American and Soviet tanks faced each other at Checkpoint Charlie. This dissertation reexamines the interactions between the Western governments, in particular between West Germany and the United States during the Second Berlin Crisis, and shows how these affected the outcome of the crisis. The first chapter serves as an introduction to the historiography of the Berlin Crisis and German-American relations in the period, especially between the Kennedy and Adenauer governments, and defines the pertinent questions; the second chapter provides an outline of the first two years of the crisis and the Eisenhower administration's approach to Adenauer and Berlin, especially as to Western policy on Berlin when the Eisenhower administration handed over the reins; the third to fifth chapters trace the Kennedy administration's and Chancellor Adenauer's interactions during the crisis in 1961 with particular regard to the actual sealing off of West Berlin, and the last chapter finally serves as an overview of the immediate aftermath. I argue that four key assumptions about the Berlin Wall crisis in 1961 can no longer be upheld: 1. The claim that Kennedy had stood firm on Berlin and merely continued the Eisenhower posture on Berlin is wrong. Instead, the Kennedy administration attempted to find new approaches to Berlin and Germany in line with its general revision of US foreign policy. 2. The notion that the closing of the sector border came as a surprise is not supported by the documents. President Kennedy had been informed numerous times that a closing of the sector border could be expected within the year. 3. Adenauer's policy to prevent diplomatic recognition of the GDR contributed to an escalation of Washington's search for alternative policy options, rather than slowing them. The West German election campaign in 1961 further limited the chancellor's willingness to make changes to his foreign policy. The Kennedy administration eventually sought accommodation with Khrushchev without consulting Bonn. 4. Inherent conceptual mistakes in Kennedy's early foreign policy agenda exacerbated the crisis, rather than contributed to its eventual solution. An additional lack of trust between West Germany and the United States complicated and delayed the attempt to find a more coherent,

Crossing the Berlin Wall

Author: iMinds

Publisher: iMinds Pty Ltd

ISBN: 1921761032

Category: History

Page: 5

View: 9055

Learn about attempts to Cross the Berlin Wall with iMinds insightful knowledge series. The East German guards who patrolled the numerous watchtowers along the famous Berlin Wall had orders to shoot to kill anyone who attempted to scale the boundary from East Berlin to its Western neighbour. Still, there are many tales of daring escapes from East Berlin to West Berlin throughout the wall's history. The Berlin Wall spread all the way around West Berlin. It stretched for about 96 miles, with 27 miles between East and West Berlin. More than a wall, fortified fencing and watch-towers also made up what we refer to as the "Berlin Wall." Escape over it from communist East Berlin to the capitalist West was a dream of many Germans. iMinds brings targeted knowledge to your eReading device with short information segments to whet your mental appetite and broaden your mind.

The Deserters

Author: Bert Reitter


ISBN: 1411638050

Category: Fiction

Page: 172

View: 6510

Based on actual events, The Deserters is a story of the last days of the Second World War, in a small border community between Austria and Germany. It is the story of a young man's awakening to his own morality and the belated, probably unsuccessful attempt of an old man to atone for his past.

The Panagia Houses at Mycenae

Author: Ione Mylonas Shear

Publisher: UPenn Museum of Archaeology

ISBN: 9780934718844

Category: Architecture

Page: 171

View: 587

Domestic architecture at the site of Mycenae was systematically explored for the first time in a series of investigations sponsored by the Archaeological Society of Athens and Washington University in St. Louis between 1962 and 1966 and again in 1977. The work revealed a block of houses in the area north of the Treasury of Atreus, the so-called Panagia Houses. The author describes the artifacts and reconstructed floor plans, and draws comparisons with other Bronze Age sites. University Museum Monograph, 68

Observing the Moon

Author: Peter Wlasuk

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781852331931

Category: Science

Page: 181

View: 4558

Observing the Moon is a definitive work, written as a reference book for anyone seriously interested in the Moon and its geology. It is of course a perfect companion for practical observers. Detailed and extensively illustrated chapters catalog ail the interesting lunar features visible in modest telescopes. They are preceded by a crash course in modern lunar geology - based on the vast amount we have learned during and since the Apollo missions - and are followed by chapters on photographic and CCD imaging, drawing and lunar topography. A CD-ROM accompanies this book and contains an atlas of lunar images and much more. The CD-ROM requires a PC running Windows 3.1 or higher, a minimum of 16MB (Windows 3.1), 64MB (Windows 95 up) of memory and a 2x or faster CD-ROM player.

Liberal States and the Freedom of Movement

Selective Borders, Unequal Mobility

Author: Steffen Mau,H. Brabandt,L. Laube,Christof Roos

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137016752

Category: Political Science

Page: 262

View: 8147

State borders regulate cross-border mobility and determine peoples' chances to travel, work, and study across the globe. This book looks at how global mobility is defined by borders in 2011 in comparison to the 1970s. The authors trace the transformation of OECD-state borders in recent decades and show how borders have become ever more selective.

Across the Wall

Narratives of Israeli-Palestinian History

Author: Ilan Pappe

Publisher: I.B.Tauris

ISBN: 0857718460

Category: Political Science

Page: 480

View: 6406

Across the Wall arose from a unique collaboration between scholars from Israel and Palestine, seeking to arrive at a shared framework for studying the history of this troubled land. Ilan Pappé and Jamil Hilal, among the top academics in Israel and Palestine respectively, brought historians from both sides of the divide together for dialogue on history, identity, and the meaning of the conflict. In the volume they argue persuasively for the concept of a ‘bridging narrative’: a historiographical discourse which can accommodate seemingly incompatible national meta-narratives. Proceeding from this innovative theoretical framework, Across the Wall then goes onto offer critical examinations of some of the most contested issues in the history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict: the 1948 Nakba, the 1967 war, the occupation, and the formation of the PLO. Not only the history, but the historiography itself is subject to fresh perspectives, looking at, for example, how different generations of Israeli historians have interpreted the Zionist movement, or how women have been written out of the history of Palestine. The result is a radical new take on the history of Israel/Palestine which transcends the biases inherent in both countries’ national narratives and points towards a new model for the historiography of conflicts.

Messengers from the West Mountain

Author: C. R. Truitt

Publisher: Xlibris Corporation

ISBN: 1465333878

Category: Fiction

Page: 303

View: 6790

A Great Fire War had once scorched the earth, leaving it barren for generations and only those who took refuse underground were their childrens children able to live once again upon the surface of the earth. For years the West Mountain people lived pleasantly on the surface of the earth outside of the Mother Cave, until reports from the other Warrior tribes told of attacks from a people who still use the ancient machines to capture and enslave. The Chiefs daughter, Paula was delighted when the Council announced she would lead and be sent with three others as messengers to the other Warrior tribes for a call of unity to stand against these invaders. She set out with her best friend Sissy, a young healer, her cousin Mira, the best warrior of her tribe, and their friend, Peggy. Together they set out to warn the other tribes, but separated to make up for lost time waiting for Paula and Peggy to heal after a battle with mutated men. Paula and Sissy catch a ride in the wasteland and unknowingly find themselves in the enemy territory. There they find danger and unexpected allies. **** All four of us sat erect, pushing our chests out, holding our heads high, riding through the main street with our people cheering us... There is nothing like the adorations of our family and peers. How soon we would come to learn the difference of people who would not see us so, regarding us as their prey or their enemy, to use us whatever way they could. Leaving the tribe behind, we had no knowledge of that. We were sure of our skills and our persons... **** He glared at me, his voice deepened, commanding. You will hand me that chain and then you will strip and put hose dirty rags in this basket. Now!... His retaliation was swift. He slapped me hard enough to bring me to my knees with my eyes watering and my cheek stinging...

Women and Immigration Law

New Variations on Classical Feminist Themes

Author: Thomas Spijkerboer,Sarah Van Walsum

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135308365

Category: Law

Page: 288

View: 2788

This book examines immigration law from a gender perspective. It shows how immigration law situates gender conflicts outside the national order, projecting them onto non-western countries, exotic cultures, clandestine labour and criminal organizations. In doing so, immigration law sustains the illusion that gender conflicts have moved beyond the pale of European experience. In fact, the classical feminist themes of patriarchy, the gendered division of labour and sexual violence are still being played out at the heart of Europe's societies, involving both citizens and migrants. This collection of essays demonstrates how the seemingly marginal perspective of immigration law highlights Europe's unresolved gender conflicts and how a gender perspective can help us to rethink immigration law.


Travels Along the Barricades

Author: Marcello Di Cintio

Publisher: Union Books

ISBN: 1908526386

Category: Travel

Page: 288

View: 1904

DIV The world’s walls are supposed to be coming down. We speak of globalization, international markets and global villages; barriers to trade keep falling, and it is now possible to communicate instantly from nearly anywhere in the world. But just as these virtual walls come down, real walls rise. In this evocative blend of travel writing, history and politics, Marcello Di Cintio visits the world’s most disputed edges to meet those who live alongside the razor wire, concrete and steel. Along the way he shares tea with refugees on the wrong side of Morocco’s desert wall; he encounters illegal immigrants circumventing high-tech fencing around the Spanish enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla; he walks Arizona’s migrant trails, visits fenced-in villages in India, and stands with those who protest against Israel’s security barrier to understand what these structures say about those who build them, and how they influence the cultures that they pen in. Venturing beyond politics, he encounters the infiltrators who circumvent the walls, the artists who transform them, and the fenced-in ignored and forgotten people who live in their shadow. The walls discussed are: 1. ‘The Wall of Shame’ in the Western Sahara, built by the Morrocans in 1987 following their defeat by the Spanish. 2. A high-tech ‘fence’ around the Spanish enclaves of Ceuta and Meilla. 3. The Indo Bangladesh ‘fence’, erected in 1947. 4. The West Bank Wall. 5. The ‘green line’ that separates the Greek from the Turkish-Cypriot quarters in Nicosia, the capital of Cypress, and Lefkosa, the capital of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. 6. The US-Mexico border. 7. The various barriers throughout Belfast. 8.The l’Acadie fence in Montreal, erected as a wall built of chains in 1960. /div

Ghost Strasse

Germany's East Trapped Between Past and Present

Author: Simon Burnett

Publisher: Black Rose Books Ltd.

ISBN: 9781551642901

Category: History

Page: 242

View: 3734

The story of Eastern Germany--and a people lost between two cultures.

Great House Communities Across the Chacoan Landscape

Author: John Kantner,Nancy M. Mahoney

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 9780816520725

Category: History

Page: 192

View: 4415

Beginning in the tenth century, Chaco Canyon emerged as an important center whose influence shaped subsequent cultural developments throughout the Four Corners area of the American Southwest. Archaeologists investigating the prehistory of Chaco Canyon have long been impressed by its massive architecture, evidence of widespread trading activities, and ancient roadways that extended across the region. Research on Chaco Canyon today is focused on what the remains indicate about the social, political, and ideological organization of the Chacoan people. Communities with great houses located some distance away are of particular interest, because determining how and why peripheral areas became associated with the central canyon provides insight into the evolution of the Chacoan tradition. This volume brings together twelve chapters by archaeologists who suggest that the relationship between Chaco Canyon and outlying communities was not only complex but highly variable. Their new research reveals that the most distant groups may have simply appropriated Chacoan symbolism for influencing local social and political relationships, whereas many of the nearest communities appear to have interacted closely with the central canyon--perhaps even living there on a seasonal basis. The multifaceted approach taken by these authors provides different and refreshing perspectives on Chaco. Their contributions offer new insight into what a Chacoan community is and shed light on the nature of interactions among prehistoric communities.

Driving the Soviets up the Wall

Soviet-East German Relations, 1953-1961

Author: Hope M. Harrison

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400840724

Category: Political Science

Page: 368

View: 7337

The Berlin Wall was the symbol of the Cold War. For the first time, this path-breaking book tells the behind-the-scenes story of the communists' decision to build the Wall in 1961. Hope Harrison's use of archival sources from the former East German and Soviet regimes is unrivalled, and from these sources she builds a highly original and provocative argument: the East Germans pushed the reluctant Soviets into building the Berlin Wall. This fascinating work portrays the different approaches favored by the East Germans and the Soviets to stop the exodus of refugees to West Germany. In the wake of Stalin's death in 1953, the Soviets refused the East German request to close their border to West Berlin. The Kremlin rulers told the hard-line East German leaders to solve their refugee problem not by closing the border, but by alleviating their domestic and foreign problems. The book describes how, over the next seven years, the East German regime managed to resist Soviet pressures for liberalization and instead pressured the Soviets into allowing them to build the Berlin Wall. Driving the Soviets Up the Wall forces us to view this critical juncture in the Cold War in a different light. Harrison's work makes us rethink the nature of relations between countries of the Soviet bloc even at the height of the Cold War, while also contributing to ongoing debates over the capacity of weaker states to influence their stronger allies.

Arts of Power

Three Halls of State in Italy, 1300-1600

Author: Randolph Starn,Loren W. Partridge

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520073838

Category: Art

Page: 374

View: 7113

Jacob Burckhardt claimed that the state in Renaissance Italy became a work of art. In this book, the authors illiminate the corollary: that art in Italy became a work of state. They study centres of power under three distinctive governments - a civic republic of the 14th century, a princely court of the 15th, and an absolutist state of the 16th. The authors argue that, no less than armies, laws and taxes, painted halls of state were strategic instruments, tactical weapons and technical machines of government.

Traveling with Philosophes

Author: Ken Ewell

Publisher: iUniverse

ISBN: 0595853617

Category: Humor

Page: 572

View: 1786

Join a fellow traveler on a walkabout through Paris and London, and then travel with him across England, Scotland and Wales. After those walkabouts, accompany him as he journeys across America and follows the equator to Australia. Finally, wander with him along the corridors of modern and postmodern philosophy, and as he travels with old and new Philosophes, who all voiced an opinion as regards this travel book. It is a book that people won't buy, won't read and won't praise. Mark Twain After reading only a few pages, I gave up the study of philosophy forever. Voltaire I cannot look upon the book without shedding tears. Bertrand Russell If I could only make a travel book like that, I would be perfectly willing to die-even anxious. John Dewey I have seen a great many travel books in my time, but none that this one reminds me of. Will Durant This travel book is one-third fabrication, one-third prevarication and one-third barefaced lies. However, the rest of the book is the unadulterated truth. Dr. Morris A. Nussbaum

Household and City Organization at Olynthus

Author: Nicholas Cahill

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300084955

Category: History

Page: 383

View: 8693

"The book, which is illustrated with plans and photographs, is supported by a Web site containing a database of the architecture and finds from the excavations linked to plans of the site."--BOOK JACKET.

Born in the GDR

Living in the Shadow of the Wall

Author: Hester Vaizey

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191028835

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 8980

The changes that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 were particularly dramatic for East Germans. With the German Democratic Republic effectively taken over by West Germany in the reunification process, nothing in their lives was immune from change and upheaval: from the way they voted, the newspapers they read, to the brand of butter they bought. But what was it really like to go from living under communism one minute, to capitalism the next? What did the East Germans make of capitalism? And how do they remember the GDR today? Are their memories dominated by fear and loathing of the Stasi state, or do they look back with a measure of fondness and regret on a world of guaranteed employment and low living costs? This is the story of eight citizens of the former German Democratic Republic, and how these dramatic changes affected them. All of the people in the book were born in East Germany after the Berlin Wall was put up in August 1961, so they knew nothing other than living in a socialist system when the GDR fell apart. Their stories provide a fascinating insight not only into everyday life in East Germany, but also into how this now-vanished state is remembered today, a quarter of a century after the fall of the Wall.

Creative Country Construction

Building & Living in Harmony with Nature

Author: Robert Inwood,Christian Bruyère

Publisher: Sterling Publishing Company, Inc.

ISBN: 9780806971155

Category: House & Home

Page: 288

View: 1966

“Recommended for academic collections, public library collections and individuals interested in homesteading in a nature-friendly manner.”—Library Journal. “A copious compendium of old timey skills and ambitious projects...beautifully illustrated.”—Mother Earth News. “Beautifully detailed....I strongly recommend this book.”—Last Whole Earth Catalog.