The Tools of Mathematical Reasoning

Author: Tamara J. Lakins

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 1470428997

Category: General -- Instructional exposition (textbooks, tutorial papers, etc.)

Page: 217

View: 5141

This accessible textbook gives beginning undergraduate mathematics students a first exposure to introductory logic, proofs, sets, functions, number theory, relations, finite and infinite sets, and the foundations of analysis. The book provides students with a quick path to writing proofs and a practical collection of tools that they can use in later mathematics courses such as abstract algebra and analysis. The importance of the logical structure of a mathematical statement as a framework for finding a proof of that statement, and the proper use of variables, is an early and consistent theme used throughout the book.

Foundations and Applications of Statistics: An Introduction Using R , Second Edition

Author: Randall Pruim

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 1470428482

Category: Mathematical statistics

Page: 820

View: 1619

Foundations and Applications of Statistics simultaneously emphasizes both the foundational and the computational aspects of modern statistics. Engaging and accessible, this book is useful to undergraduate students with a wide range of backgrounds and career goals. The exposition immediately begins with statistics, presenting concepts and results from probability along the way. Hypothesis testing is introduced very early, and the motivation for several probability distributions comes from p-value computations. Pruim develops the students' practical statistical reasoning through explicit examples and through numerical and graphical summaries of data that allow intuitive inferences before introducing the formal machinery. The topics have been selected to reflect the current practice in statistics, where computation is an indispensible tool. In this vein, the statistical computing environment R is used throughout the text and is integral to the exposition. Attention is paid to developing students' mathematical and computational skills as well as their statistical reasoning. Linear models, such as regression and ANOVA, are treated with explicit reference to the underlying linear algebra, which is motivated geometrically. Foundations and Applications of Statistics discusses both the mathematical theory underlying statistics and practical applications that make it a powerful tool across disciplines. The book contains ample material for a two-semester course in undergraduate probability and statistics. A one-semester course based on the book will cover hypothesis testing and confidence intervals for the most common situations. In the second edition, the R code has been updated throughout to take advantage of new R packages and to illustrate better coding style. New sections have been added covering bootstrap methods, multinomial and multivariate normal distributions, the delta method, numerical methods for Bayesian inference, and nonlinear least squares. Also, the use of matrix algebra has been expanded, but remains optional, providing instructors with more options regarding the amount of linear algebra required.

Foundations of Analysis

Author: Joseph L. Taylor

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821889842

Category: Mathematics

Page: 398

View: 8616

Foundations of Analysis is an excellent new text for undergraduate students in real analysis. More than other texts in the subject, it is clear, concise and to the point, without extra bells and whistles. It also has many good exercises that help illustrate the material. My students were very satisfied with it. --Nat Smale, University of Utah I have taught our Foundations of Analysis course (based on Joe Taylor.s book) several times recently, and have enjoyed doing so. The book is well-written, clear, and concise, and supplies the students with very good introductory discussions of the various topics, correct and well-thought-out proofs, and appropriate, helpful examples. The end-of-chapter problems supplement the body of the text very well (and range nicely from simple exercises to really challenging problems). --Robert Brooks, University of Utah An excellent text for students whose future will include contact with mathematical analysis, whatever their discipline might be. It is content-comprehensive and pedagogically sound. There are exercises adequate to guarantee thorough grounding in the basic facts, and problems to initiate thought and gain experience in proofs and counterexamples. Moreover, the text takes the reader near enough to the frontier of analysis at the calculus level that the teacher can challenge the students with questions that are at the ragged edge of research for undergraduate students. I like it a lot. --Don Tucker, University of Utah My students appreciate the concise style of the book and the many helpful examples. --W.M. McGovern, University of Washington Analysis plays a crucial role in the undergraduate curriculum. Building upon the familiar notions of calculus, analysis introduces the depth and rigor characteristic of higher mathematics courses. Foundations of Analysis has two main goals. The first is to develop in students the mathematical maturity and sophistication they will need as they move through the upper division curriculum. The second is to present a rigorous development of both single and several variable calculus, beginning with a study of the properties of the real number system. The presentation is both thorough and concise, with simple, straightforward explanations. The exercises differ widely in level of abstraction and level of difficulty. They vary from the simple to the quite difficult and from the computational to the theoretical. Each section contains a number of examples designed to illustrate the material in the section and to teach students how to approach the exercises for that section. The list of topics covered is rather standard, although the treatment of some of them is not. The several variable material makes full use of the power of linear algebra, particularly in the treatment of the differential of a function as the best affine approximation to the function at a given point. The text includes a review of several linear algebra topics in preparation for this material. In the final chapter, vector calculus is presented from a modern point of view, using differential forms to give a unified treatment of the major theorems relating derivatives and integrals: Green's, Gauss's, and Stokes's Theorems. At appropriate points, abstract metric spaces, topological spaces, inner product spaces, and normed linear spaces are introduced, but only as asides. That is, the course is grounded in the concrete world of Euclidean space, but the students are made aware that there are more exotic worlds in which the concepts they are learning may be studied.

The Mathematics of Finance

Modeling and Hedging

Author: Victor Goodman,Joseph Gail Stampfli

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 9780821847930

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 250

View: 5462

This book is ideally suited for an introductory undergraduate course on financial engineering. It explains the basic concepts of financial derivatives, including put and call options, as well as more complex derivatives such as barrier options and options on futures contracts. Both discrete and continuous models of market behavior are developed in this book. In particular, the analysis of option prices developed by Black and Scholes is explained in a self-contained way, using both the probabilistic Brownian Motion method and the analytical differential equations method. The book begins with binomial stock price models, moves on to multistage models, then to the Cox-Ross-Rubinstein option pricing process, and then to the Black-Scholes formula. Other topics presented include Zero Coupon Bonds, forward rates, the yield curve, and several bond price models. The book continues with foreign exchange models and the Keynes Interest Rate Parity Formula, and concludes with the study of country risk, a topic not inappropriate for the times. In addition to theoretical results, numerical models are presented in much detail. Each of the eleven chapters includes a variety of exercises.

Advanced Calculus

Author: Patrick Fitzpatrick

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 9780821847916

Category: Mathematics

Page: 590

View: 2766

Advanced Calculus is intended as a text for courses that furnish the backbone of the student's undergraduate education in mathematical analysis. The goal is to rigorously present the fundamental concepts within the context of illuminating examples and stimulating exercises. This book is self-contained and starts with the creation of basic tools using the completeness axiom. The continuity, differentiability, integrability, and power series representation properties of functions of a single variable are established. The next few chapters describe the topological and metric properties of Euclidean space. These are the basis of a rigorous treatment of differential calculus (including the Implicit Function Theorem and Lagrange Multipliers) for mappings between Euclidean spaces and integration for functions of several real variables. Special attention has been paid to the motivation for proofs. Selected topics, such as the Picard Existence Theorem for differential equations, have been included in such a way that selections may be made while preserving a fluid presentation of the essential material. Supplemented with numerous exercises, Advanced Calculus is a perfect book for undergraduate students of analysis.

An Introduction to Abstract Mathematics

Author: Robert J. Bond,William J. Keane

Publisher: Waveland Press

ISBN: 1478608056

Category: Mathematics

Page: 323

View: 5288

Bond and Keane explicate the elements of logical, mathematical argument to elucidate the meaning and importance of mathematical rigor. With definitions of concepts at their disposal, students learn the rules of logical inference, read and understand proofs of theorems, and write their own proofs all while becoming familiar with the grammar of mathematics and its style. In addition, they will develop an appreciation of the different methods of proof (contradiction, induction), the value of a proof, and the beauty of an elegant argument. The authors emphasize that mathematics is an ongoing, vibrant disciplineits long, fascinating history continually intersects with territory still uncharted and questions still in need of answers. The authors extensive background in teaching mathematics shines through in this balanced, explicit, and engaging text, designed as a primer for higher- level mathematics courses. They elegantly demonstrate process and application and recognize the byproducts of both the achievements and the missteps of past thinkers. Chapters 1-5 introduce the fundamentals of abstract mathematics and chapters 6-8 apply the ideas and techniques, placing the earlier material in a real context. Readers interest is continually piqued by the use of clear explanations, practical examples, discussion and discovery exercises, and historical comments.

Fourier Analysis and Its Applications

Author: G. B. Folland

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 9780821847909

Category: Mathematics

Page: 433

View: 8769

This book presents the theory and applications of Fourier series and integrals, eigenfunction expansions, and related topics, on a level suitable for advanced undergraduates. It includes material on Bessel functions, orthogonal polynomials, and Laplace transforms, and it concludes with chapters on generalized functions and Green's functions for ordinary and partial differential equations. The book deals almost exclusively with aspects of these subjects that are useful in physics and engineering, and includes a wide variety of applications. On the theoretical side, it uses ideas from modern analysis to develop the concepts and reasoning behind the techniques without getting bogged down in the technicalities of rigorous proofs.

Abstract Algebra

Author: Ronald Solomon

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 9780821847954

Category: Mathematics

Page: 227

View: 9514

This undergraduate text takes a novel approach to the standard introductory material on groups, rings, and fields. At the heart of the text is a semi-historical journey through the early decades of the subject as it emerged in the revolutionary work of Euler, Lagrange, Gauss, and Galois. Avoiding excessive abstraction whenever possible, the text focuses on the central problem of studying the solutions of polynomial equations. Highlights include a proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, essentially due to Euler, and a proof of the constructability of the regular 17-gon, in the manner of Gauss. Another novel feature is the introduction of groups through a meditation on the meaning of congruence in the work of Euclid. Everywhere in the text, the goal is to make clear the links connecting abstract algebra to Euclidean geometry, high school algebra, and trigonometry, in the hope that students pursuing a career as secondary mathematics educators will carry away a deeper and richer understanding of the high school mathematics curriculum. Another goal is to encourage students, insofar as possible in a textbook format, to build the course for themselves, with exercises integrally embedded in the text of each chapter.

Mathematical Analysis

An Introduction

Author: Andrew Browder

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461207150

Category: Mathematics

Page: 335

View: 9047

Among the traditional purposes of such an introductory course is the training of a student in the conventions of pure mathematics: acquiring a feeling for what is considered a proof, and supplying literate written arguments to support mathematical propositions. To this extent, more than one proof is included for a theorem - where this is considered beneficial - so as to stimulate the students' reasoning for alternate approaches and ideas. The second half of this book, and consequently the second semester, covers differentiation and integration, as well as the connection between these concepts, as displayed in the general theorem of Stokes. Also included are some beautiful applications of this theory, such as Brouwer's fixed point theorem, and the Dirichlet principle for harmonic functions. Throughout, reference is made to earlier sections, so as to reinforce the main ideas by repetition. Unique in its applications to some topics not usually covered at this level.

Beginning Topology

Author: Sue E. Goodman

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821847961

Category: Mathematics

Page: 236

View: 7880

Beginning Topology is designed to give undergraduate students a broad notion of the scope of topology in areas of point-set, geometric, combinatorial, differential, and algebraic topology, including an introduction to knot theory. A primary goal is to expose students to some recent research and to get them actively involved in learning. Exercises and open-ended projects are placed throughout the text, making it adaptable to seminar-style classes. The book starts with a chapter introducing the basic concepts of point-set topology, with examples chosen to captivate students' imaginations while illustrating the need for rigor. Most of the material in this and the next two chapters is essential for the remainder of the book. One can then choose from chapters on map coloring, vector fields on surfaces, the fundamental group, and knot theory. A solid foundation in calculus is necessary, with some differential equations and basic group theory helpful in a couple of chapters. Topics are chosen to appeal to a wide variety of students: primarily upper-level math majors, but also a few freshmen and sophomores as well as graduate students from physics, economics, and computer science. All students will benefit from seeing the interaction of topology with other fields of mathematics and science; some will be motivated to continue with a more in-depth, rigorous study of topology.

Complex Variables

Author: Joseph L. Taylor

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821869019

Category: Mathematics

Page: 305

View: 4007

The text covers a broad spectrum between basic and advanced complex variables on the one hand and between theoretical and applied or computational material on the other hand. With careful selection of the emphasis put on the various sections, examples, and exercises, the book can be used in a one- or two-semester course for undergraduate mathematics majors, a one-semester course for engineering or physics majors, or a one-semester course for first-year mathematics graduate students. It has been tested in all three settings at the University of Utah. The exposition is clear, concise, and lively. There is a clean and modern approach to Cauchy's theorems and Taylor series expansions, with rigorous proofs but no long and tedious arguments. This is followed by the rich harvest of easy consequences of the existence of power series expansions. Through the central portion of the text, there is a careful and extensive treatment of residue theory and its application to computation of integrals, conformal mapping and its applications to applied problems, analytic continuation, and the proofs of the Picard theorems. Chapter 8 covers material on infinite products and zeroes of entire functions. This leads to the final chapter which is devoted to the Riemann zeta function, the Riemann Hypothesis, and a proof of the Prime Number Theorem.

Mathematical Analysis and Its Inherent Nature

Author: Hossein Hosseini Giv

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 1470428075

Category: Calculus

Page: 348

View: 726

Mathematical analysis is often referred to as generalized calculus. But it is much more than that. This book has been written in the belief that emphasizing the inherent nature of a mathematical discipline helps students to understand it better. With this in mind, and focusing on the essence of analysis, the text is divided into two parts based on the way they are related to calculus: completion and abstraction. The first part describes those aspects of analysis which complete a corresponding area of calculus theoretically, while the second part concentrates on the way analysis generalizes some aspects of calculus to a more general framework. Presenting the contents in this way has an important advantage: students first learn the most important aspects of analysis on the classical space R and fill in the gaps of their calculus-based knowledge. Then they proceed to a step-by-step development of an abstract theory, namely, the theory of metric spaces which studies such crucial notions as limit, continuity, and convergence in a wider context. The readers are assumed to have passed courses in one- and several-variable calculus and an elementary course on the foundations of mathematics. A large variety of exercises and the inclusion of informal interpretations of many results and examples will greatly facilitate the reader's study of the subject.

Introduction to the Foundations of Applied Mathematics

Author: Mark H. Holmes

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387877657

Category: Mathematics

Page: 468

View: 9814

FOAM. This acronym has been used for over ?fty years at Rensselaer to designate an upper-division course entitled, Foundations of Applied Ma- ematics. This course was started by George Handelman in 1956, when he came to Rensselaer from the Carnegie Institute of Technology. His objective was to closely integrate mathematical and physical reasoning, and in the p- cess enable students to obtain a qualitative understanding of the world we live in. FOAM was soon taken over by a young faculty member, Lee Segel. About this time a similar course, Introduction to Applied Mathematics, was introduced by Chia-Ch’iao Lin at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Together Lin and Segel, with help from Handelman, produced one of the landmark textbooks in applied mathematics, Mathematics Applied to - terministic Problems in the Natural Sciences. This was originally published in 1974, and republished in 1988 by the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, in their Classics Series. This textbook comes from the author teaching FOAM over the last few years. In this sense, it is an updated version of the Lin and Segel textbook.

The Art of Proof

Basic Training for Deeper Mathematics

Author: Matthias Beck,Ross Geoghegan

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781441970237

Category: Mathematics

Page: 182

View: 2318

The Art of Proof is designed for a one-semester or two-quarter course. A typical student will have studied calculus (perhaps also linear algebra) with reasonable success. With an artful mixture of chatty style and interesting examples, the student's previous intuitive knowledge is placed on solid intellectual ground. The topics covered include: integers, induction, algorithms, real numbers, rational numbers, modular arithmetic, limits, and uncountable sets. Methods, such as axiom, theorem and proof, are taught while discussing the mathematics rather than in abstract isolation. The book ends with short essays on further topics suitable for seminar-style presentation by small teams of students, either in class or in a mathematics club setting. These include: continuity, cryptography, groups, complex numbers, ordinal number, and generating functions.

Groups and Symmetry

Author: Mark A. Armstrong

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475740344

Category: Mathematics

Page: 187

View: 1902

This is a gentle introduction to the vocabulary and many of the highlights of elementary group theory. Written in an informal style, the material is divided into short sections, each of which deals with an important result or a new idea. Includes more than 300 exercises and approximately 60 illustrations.

Undergraduate Algebra

Author: Serge Lang

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387274758

Category: Mathematics

Page: 389

View: 2204

The companion title, Linear Algebra, has sold over 8,000 copies The writing style is very accessible The material can be covered easily in a one-year or one-term course Includes Noah Snyder's proof of the Mason-Stothers polynomial abc theorem New material included on product structure for matrices including descriptions of the conjugation representation of the diagonal group

An Introduction to Mathematical Reasoning

Author: Peter J. Eccles

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521597180

Category: Mathematics

Page: 350

View: 4319

This book eases students into the rigors of university mathematics. The emphasis is on understanding and constructing proofs and writing clear mathematics. The author achieves this by exploring set theory, combinatorics, and number theory, topics that include many fundamental ideas and may not be a part of a young mathematician's toolkit. This material illustrates how familiar ideas can be formulated rigorously, provides examples demonstrating a wide range of basic methods of proof, and includes some of the all-time-great classic proofs. The book presents mathematics as a continually developing subject. Material meeting the needs of readers from a wide range of backgrounds is included. The over 250 problems include questions to interest and challenge the most able student but also plenty of routine exercises to help familiarize the reader with the basic ideas.

Mathematical Reasoning

Writing and Proof Version 2.0

Author: Ted Sundstrom

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781500143411


Page: 608

View: 5199

Mathematical Reasoning: Writing and Proof is a text for the ?rst college mathematics course that introduces students to the processes of constructing and writing proofs and focuses on the formal development of mathematics. The primary goals of the text are to help students: Develop logical thinking skills and to develop the ability to think more abstractly in a proof oriented setting; develop the ability to construct and write mathematical proofs using standard methods of mathematical proof including direct proofs, proof by contradiction, mathematical induction, case analysis, and counterexamples; develop the ability to read and understand written mathematical proofs; develop talents for creative thinking and problem solving; improve their quality of communication in mathematics. This includes improving writing techniques, reading comprehension, and oral communication in mathematics; better understand the nature of mathematics and its language. Another important goal of this text is to provide students with material that will be needed for their further study of mathematics. Important features of the book include: Emphasis on writing in mathematics; instruction in the process of constructing proofs; emphasis on active learning.There are no changes in content between Version 2.0 and previous versions of the book. The only change is that the appendix with answers and hints for selected exercises now contains solutions and hints for more exercises.

Introduction to Calculus and Classical Analysis

Author: Omar Hijab

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319284002

Category: Mathematics

Page: 427

View: 7493

This text is intended for an honors calculus course or for an introduction to analysis. Involving rigorous analysis, computational dexterity, and a breadth of applications, it is ideal for undergraduate majors. This third edition includes corrections as well as some additional material. Some features of the text include: The text is completely self-contained and starts with the real number axioms; The integral is defined as the area under the graph, while the area is defined for every subset of the plane; There is a heavy emphasis on computational problems, from the high-school quadratic formula to the formula for the derivative of the zeta function at zero; There are applications from many parts of analysis, e.g., convexity, the Cantor set, continued fractions, the AGM, the theta and zeta functions, transcendental numbers, the Bessel and gamma functions, and many more; Traditionally transcendentally presented material, such as infinite products, the Bernoulli series, and the zeta functional equation, is developed over the reals; and There are 385 problems with all the solutions at the back of the text.

Partial Differential Equations and Boundary-value Problems with Applications

Author: Mark A. Pinsky

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821868896

Category: Mathematics

Page: 526

View: 7055

Building on the basic techniques of separation of variables and Fourier series, the book presents the solution of boundary-value problems for basic partial differential equations: the heat equation, wave equation, and Laplace equation, considered in various standard coordinate systems--rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical. Each of the equations is derived in the three-dimensional context; the solutions are organized according to the geometry of the coordinate system, which makes the mathematics especially transparent. Bessel and Legendre functions are studied and used whenever appropriate throughout the text. The notions of steady-state solution of closely related stationary solutions are developed for the heat equation; applications to the study of heat flow in the earth are presented. The problem of the vibrating string is studied in detail both in the Fourier transform setting and from the viewpoint of the explicit representation (d'Alembert formula). Additional chapters include the numerical analysis of solutions and the method of Green's functions for solutions of partial differential equations. The exposition also includes asymptotic methods (Laplace transform and stationary phase). With more than 200 working examples and 700 exercises (more than 450 with answers), the book is suitable for an undergraduate course in partial differential equations.