The Structure of Schooling

Author: Richard Arum,Irenee R. Beattie,Karly Ford

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1452205426

Category: Education

Page: 782

View: 9958

This comprehensive reader in the sociology of education examines important topics and exposes students to examples of sociological research on schools. Drawing from classic and contemporary scholarship, the editors have chosen readings that examine current issues and reflect diverse theoretical approaches to studying the effects of schooling on individuals and society.
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The Structure of Schooling

Readings in the Sociology of Education

Author: Richard Arum,Irenee R. Beattie,Karly Ford

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1483321169

Category: Social Science

Page: 800

View: 5859

The Structure of Schooling: Readings in the Sociology of Education by Richard Arum, Irenee Beattie, and Karly Ford exposes students to examples of sociological research on schools, with a focus on the school as community. Now in its Third Edition, this engaging reader has broadened its scope even more, presenting additional readings in particular related to the sociology of higher education. The book draws from classic and contemporary scholarship to examine current issues and diverse theoretical approaches to studying the effects of schooling on individuals and society. In addition to covering traditional areas such as stratification and racial inequality, the book also veers off the beaten path, including readings on such contemporary topics as bullying, school shootings, school choice, and teen social media use.
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The Structure of Schooling

Readings in the Sociology of Education

Author: Richard Arum,Irenee R. Beattie,Karly Ford

Publisher: Pine Forge Press

ISBN: 1412980399

Category: Education

Page: 619

View: 9187

This second edition of The Structure of Schooling: Readings in the Sociology of Education draws from classic and contemporary scholarship to examine current issues and diverse theoretical approaches to studying the effects of schooling on individuals and society. This engaging reader exposes students to examples of sociological research on schools with a focus on the school as community. It covers a wide range of issues, including the development and application of social and cultural capital; the effects of racial segregation and resource inequality on student outcomes; the effects of tracking; the role of gender, class, and race in structuring educational opportunity; the effects of schooling on life course outcomes; the significance of a school's institutional environment; and the sociology of school reform movements.
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Defining Student Success

The Role of School and Culture

Author: Lisa M. Nunn

Publisher: Rutgers University Press

ISBN: 0813563631

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 5965

The key to success, our culture tells us, is a combination of talent and hard work. Why then, do high schools that supposedly subscribe to this view send students to college at such dramatically different rates? Why do students from one school succeed while students from another struggle? To the usual answer—an imbalance in resources—this book adds a far more subtle and complicated explanation. Defining Student Success shows how different schools foster dissimilar and sometimes conflicting ideas about what it takes to succeed—ideas that do more to preserve the status quo than to promote upward mobility. Lisa Nunn’s study of three public high schools reveals how students’ beliefs about their own success are shaped by their particular school environment and reinforced by curriculum and teaching practices. While American culture broadly defines success as a product of hard work or talent (at school, intelligence is the talent that matters most), Nunn shows that each school refines and adapts this American cultural wisdom in its own distinct way—reflecting the sensibilities and concerns of the people who inhabit each school. While one school fosters the belief that effort is all it takes to succeed, another fosters the belief that hard work will only get you so far because you have to be smart enough to master course concepts. Ultimately, Nunn argues that these school-level adaptations of cultural ideas about success become invisible advantages and disadvantages for students’ college-going futures. Some schools’ definitions of success match seamlessly with elite college admissions’ definition of the ideal college applicant, while others more closely align with the expectations of middle or low-tier institutions of higher education. With its insights into the transmission of ideas of success from society to school to student, this provocative work should prompt a reevaluation of the culture of secondary education. Only with a thorough understanding of this process will we ever find more consistent means of inculcating success, by any measure.
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Ain't No Makin' It

Aspirations and Attainment in a Low-Income Neighborhood, Third Edition

Author: Jay MacLeod

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0429975082

Category: Social Science

Page: 552

View: 7863

This classic text addresses one of the most important issues in modern social theory and policy: how social inequality is reproduced from one generation to the next. With the original 1987 publication of Ain?t No Makin? It Jay MacLeod brought us to the Clarendon Heights housing project where we met the `Brothers? and the `Hallway Hangers.? Their story of poverty, race, and defeatism moved readers and challenged ethnic stereotypes. MacLeod?s return eight years later, and the resulting 1995 revision, revealed little improvement in the lives of these men as they struggled in the labor market and crime-ridden underground economy. The third edition of this classic ethnography of social reproduction brings the story of inequality and social mobility into today?s dialogue. Now fully updated with thirteen new interviews from the original Hallway Hangers and Brothers, as well as new theoretical analysis and comparison to the original conclusions, Ain?t No Makin? It remains an admired and invaluable text. Contents Part One: The Hallway Hangers and the Brothers as Teenagers 1. Social Immobility in the Land of Opportunity 2. Social Reproduction in Theoretical Perspective 3. Teenagers in Clarendon Heights: The Hallway Hangers and the Brothers 4. The Influence of the Family 5. The World of Work: Aspirations of the Hangers and Brothers 6. School: Preparing for the Competition 7. Leveled Aspirations: Social Reproduction Takes Its Toll 8. Reproduction Theory ReconsideredPart Two: Eight Years Later: Low Income, Low Outcome 9. The Hallway Hangers: Dealing in Despair 10. The Brothers: Dreams Deferred 11. Conclusion: Outclassed and Outcast(e)Part Three: Ain?t No Makin? It? 12. The Hallway Hangers: Fighting for a Foothold at Forty 13. The Brothers: Barely Making It 14. Making Sense of the Stories, by Katherine McClelland and David Karen
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Hopeful Girls, Troubled Boys

Race and Gender Disparity in Urban Education

Author: Nancy López

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415930758

Category: Education

Page: 223

View: 1211

By 2007, it is estimated that 9.2 million girls of colour will be enrolled in US colleges compared to 6.9 million boys of colour. Why the discrepancy? Lopez takes us to the schools, homes and workplaces of Caribbean youth to point out the different expectations that guide behaviour. Now the largest immigrant group in New York City, Lopez focuses in particular on these Caribbean teens to explain how and why US schools and cities are failing boys of colour. This is an ethnographic study on a topic of increasing interest to people in the field of education and anyone concerned about the future of young people.
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Power and Ideology in Education

Author: Jerome Karabel,A. H. Halsey

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780195021394

Category: Education

Page: 670

View: 2517

The thirty-seven articles of this volume provide an interdisciplinary approach to the understanding of educational institutions in modern society. Written by historians, anthropologists, sociologists, and economists, they create a synthesis of the variety of theoretical perspectives and methodological approaches now competing for attention in educational research.
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The Death and Life of the Great American School System

How Testing and Choice Are Undermining Education

Author: Diane Ravitch

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0465097995

Category: Education

Page: 400

View: 3089

A passionate plea to preserve and renew public education, The Death and Life of the Great American School System is a radical change of heart from one of America’s best-known education experts. Diane Ravitch—former assistant secretary of education and a leader in the drive to create a national curriculum—examines her career in education reform and repudiates positions that she once staunchly advocated. Drawing on over forty years of research and experience, Ravitch critiques today’s most popular ideas for restructuring schools, including privatization, standardized testing, punitive accountability, and the feckless multiplication of charter schools. She shows conclusively why the business model is not an appropriate way to improve schools. Using examples from major cities like New York, Philadelphia, Chicago, Denver, and San Diego, Ravitch makes the case that public education today is in peril. Ravitch includes clear prescriptions for improving America’s schools: leave decisions about schools to educators, not politicians or businessmen devise a truly national curriculum that sets out what children in every grade should be learning expect charter schools to educate the kids who need help the most, not to compete with public schools pay teachers a fair wage for their work, not “merit pay” based on deeply flawed and unreliable test scores encourage family involvement in education from an early age The Death and Life of the Great American School System is more than just an analysis of the state of play of the American education system. It is a must-read for any stakeholder in the future of American schooling.
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Parenting to a Degree

How Family Matters for College Women's Success

Author: Laura T. Hamilton

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022618367X

Category: Education

Page: 224

View: 5416

Helicopter parents—the kind that continue to hover even in college—are one of the most ridiculed figures of twenty-first-century parenting, criticized for creating entitled young adults who boomerang back home. But do involved parents really damage their children and burden universities? In this book, sociologist Laura T. Hamilton illuminates the lives of young women and their families to ask just what role parents play during the crucial college years. Hamilton vividly captures the parenting approaches of mothers and fathers from all walks of life—from a CFO for a Fortune 500 company to a waitress at a roadside diner. As she shows, parents are guided by different visions of the ideal college experience, built around classed notions of women’s work/family plans and the ideal age to “grow up.” Some are intensively involved and hold adulthood at bay to cultivate specific traits: professional helicopters, for instance, help develop the skills and credentials that will advance their daughters’ careers, while pink helicopters emphasize appearance, charm, and social ties in the hopes that women will secure a wealthy mate. In sharp contrast, bystander parents—whose influence is often limited by economic concerns—are relegated to the sidelines of their daughter’s lives. Finally, paramedic parents—who can come from a wide range of class backgrounds—sit in the middle, intervening in emergencies but otherwise valuing self-sufficiency above all. Analyzing the effects of each of these approaches with clarity and depth, Hamilton ultimately argues that successfully navigating many colleges and universities without involved parents is nearly impossible, and that schools themselves are increasingly dependent on active parents for a wide array of tasks, with intended and unintended consequences. Altogether, Parenting to a Degree offers an incisive look into the new—and sometimes problematic—relationship between students, parents, and universities.
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Key Sociological Thinkers

Second Edition

Author: Rob Stones

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN: 1137199601

Category: Philosophy

Page: 408

View: 8767

The second edition of this popular and established text provides a comprehensive guide to 23 of the most influential thinkers in sociology. Written by leading academics in the field, Key Sociological Thinkers 2e provides a clear and contextualized introduction to classical and contemporary theory. Each chapter offers an insightful assessment of a different theorist, exploring their lives, works and legacies. Drawing upon examples from the everyday world, an innovative 'Seeing Things Differently' section in every chapter demonstrates how theoretical ideas can be used to illuminate aspects of social life in new ways. Included in this new edition: • Four new chapters, looking at Theodor Adorno, Michael Mann, Dorothy Smith and Zygmunt Bauman • Chapter updates on recent developments • An important new introduction • Three types of contents page to provide easy navigation of the text • Useful glossary boxes throughout, with their own dedicated contents page, to highlight and explain complex theoretical ideas. Key Sociological Thinkers 2e provides a stimulating overview of the best of sociological thought, from Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim and Georg Simmel to Nancy Chodorow, Michel Foucault and Anthony Giddens. It continues to be an essential text for all students of sociological theory.
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Sociology of Education

A Critical Reader

Author: Alan R. Sadovnik,Ryan W. Coughlan

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781138842977

Category: Educational sociology

Page: 520

View: 6310

This comprehensive and bestselling reader examines the most pressing topics in sociology and education while exposing students to examples of sociological research in schools. Drawing from classic and contemporary scholarship, noted sociologist Alan R. Sadovnik with Ryan W. Coughlan have chosen readings that examine current issues and reflect diverse theoretical approaches to studying the effects of schooling and society. The third edition provides students with nine new readings from some of the best theorists and researchers in education including Sean F. Reardon, Ann Owens, Prudence L. Carter, and Pedro A. Noguera. Through full, rather than excerpted primary source readings, students have the opportunity to read sociological research as it is written and engage in critical analyses of readings in their entirety. This edition features a greater focus on issues of equality and accessibility in schooling for minority students and those with learning disabilities, while an all-new Part IV offers a selection of articles on the shifting social and political factors which have influenced the development of education policy and reform within the last six years. Including comprehensive section introductions, questions for reflection and discussion, and suggested readings, Sociology of Education will stimulate student thinking about the important roles that schools play in contemporary society and their ability to solve fundamental social, economic, and political problems.
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The Case against Education

Why the Education System Is a Waste of Time and Money

Author: Bryan Caplan

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400889324

Category: Education

Page: 416

View: 5184

Why we need to stop wasting public funds on education Despite being immensely popular--and immensely lucrative—education is grossly overrated. In this explosive book, Bryan Caplan argues that the primary function of education is not to enhance students' skill but to certify their intelligence, work ethic, and conformity—in other words, to signal the qualities of a good employee. Learn why students hunt for easy As and casually forget most of what they learn after the final exam, why decades of growing access to education have not resulted in better jobs for the average worker but instead in runaway credential inflation, how employers reward workers for costly schooling they rarely if ever use, and why cutting education spending is the best remedy. Caplan draws on the latest social science to show how the labor market values grades over knowledge, and why the more education your rivals have, the more you need to impress employers. He explains why graduation is our society's top conformity signal, and why even the most useless degrees can certify employability. He advocates two major policy responses. The first is educational austerity. Government needs to sharply cut education funding to curb this wasteful rat race. The second is more vocational education, because practical skills are more socially valuable than teaching students how to outshine their peers. Romantic notions about education being "good for the soul" must yield to careful research and common sense—The Case against Education points the way.
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Schools and Society

A Sociological Approach to Education

Author: Jeanne H. Ballantine,Joan Z. Spade

Publisher: Pine Forge Press

ISBN: 1412979242

Category: Social Science

Page: 538

View: 4360

Offering a wide array of theoretical perspectives and methods, a broad range of resources, and both classic and contemporary studies, this fully updated Fourth Edition uses the open systems approach to provide readers with a framework for understanding and analyzing the book’s disparate topics. Edited by Jeanne H. Ballantine and Joan Z. Spade, both of whom actively teach Sociology of Education courses, this text includes dozens of readable articles that illustrate major concepts and theoretical perspectives in the field.
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Teacher

Two Years in the Mississippi Delta

Author: Michael Copperman

Publisher: Univ. Press of Mississippi

ISBN: 1496805860

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 220

View: 1390

When Michael Copperman left Stanford University for the Mississippi Delta in 2002, he imagined he would lift underprivileged children from the narrow horizons of rural poverty. Well-meaning but naïve, the Asian American from the West Coast soon lost his bearings in a world divided between black and white. He had no idea how to manage a classroom or help children navigate the considerable challenges they faced. In trying to help students, he often found he couldn’t afford to give what they required—sometimes with heartbreaking consequences. His desperate efforts to save child after child were misguided but sincere. He offered children the best invitations to success he could manage. But he still felt like an outsider who was failing the children and himself. Teach For America has for a decade been the nation’s largest employer of recent college graduates but has come under increasing criticism in recent years even as it has grown exponentially. This memoir considers the distance between the idealism of the organization’s creed that “One day, all children in this nation will have the opportunity to attain an excellent education and reach their full potential” and what it actually means to teach in America’s poorest and most troubled public schools. Copperman’s memoir vividly captures his disorientation in the divided world of the Delta, even as the author marvels at the wit and resilience of the children in his classroom. To them, he is at once an authority figure and a stranger minority than even they are—a lone Asian, an outsider among outsiders. His journey is of great relevance to teachers, administrators, and parents longing for quality education in America. His frank story shows that the solutions for impoverished schools are far from simple.
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Exploring Education

An Introduction to the Foundations of Education

Author: Alan R. Sadovnik,Peter W. Cookson, Jr.,Susan F. Semel,Ryan W. Coughlan

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131540852X

Category: Education

Page: 592

View: 759

This much-anticipated fifth edition of Exploring Education offers an alternative to traditional foundations texts by combining a point-of-view analysis with primary source readings. Pre- and in-service teachers will find a solid introduction to the foundations disciplines -- history, philosophy, politics, and sociology of education -- and their application to educational issues, including school organization and teaching, curriculum and pedagogic practices, education and inequality, and school reform and improvement. This edition features substantive updates, including additions to the discussion of neo-liberal educational policy, recent debates about teacher diversity, updated data and research, and new selections of historical and contemporary readings. At a time when foundations of education are marginalized in many teacher education programs and teacher education reform pushes scripted approaches to curriculum and instruction, Exploring Education helps teachers to think critically about the "what" and "why" behind the most pressing issues in contemporary education.
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Ending Extreme Inequality

An Economic Bill of Rights to Eliminate Poverty

Author: Scott Myers-Lipton

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317260511

Category: Social Science

Page: 198

View: 9909

Poverty and inequality are at record levels. Today, forty-seven million Americans live in poverty, while the median is in decline. The top 20 percent now controls 89 percent of all wealth. These conditions have renewed demands for a new economic Bill of Rights, an idea proposed by F. D. Roosevelt, Truman and Martin Luther King, Jr. The new Economic Bill of Rights has a coherent plan and proclaims that all Americans have the right to a job, a living wage, a decent home, adequate medical care, good education, and adequate protection from economic fears of unemployment, sickness and old age. Integrating the latest economic and social data, Ending Extreme Inequality explores each of these rights. Each chapter includes: an analysis of the social problems surrounding each right; a historical overview of the attempts to right these wrongs; and assessments of current solutions offered by citizens, community groups and politicians. These contemporary, real-life solutions to inequality can inspire students and citizens to become involved and open pathways toward a more just society.
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The Science of Reading

A Handbook

Author: Margaret J. Snowling,Charles Hulme

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118712307

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 680

View: 8460

The Science of Reading: A Handbook brings together state-of-the-art reviews of reading research from leading names in the field, to create a highly authoritative, multidisciplinary overview of contemporary knowledge about reading and related skills. Provides comprehensive coverage of the subject, including theoretical approaches, reading processes, stage models of reading, cross-linguistic studies of reading, reading difficulties, the biology of reading, and reading instruction Divided into seven sections:Word Recognition Processes in Reading; Learning to Read and Spell; Reading Comprehension; Reading in Different Languages; Disorders of Reading and Spelling; Biological Bases of Reading; Teaching Reading Edited by well-respected senior figures in the field
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Judging School Discipline

The Crisis of Moral Authority

Author: Richard. ARUM,Richard Arum

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674020294

Category: Education

Page: 336

View: 6446

Reprimand a class comic, restrain a bully, dismiss a student for brazen attire--and you may be facing a lawsuit, costly regardless of the result. This reality for today's teachers and administrators has made the issue of school discipline more difficult than ever before--and public education thus more precarious. This is the troubling message delivered in Judging School Discipline, a powerfully reasoned account of how decades of mostly well-intended litigation have eroded the moral authority of teachers and principals and degraded the quality of American education. Judging School Discipline casts a backward glance at the roots of this dilemma to show how a laudable concern for civil liberties forty years ago has resulted in oppressive abnegation of adult responsibility now. In a rigorous analysis enriched by vivid descriptions of individual cases, the book explores 1,200 cases in which a school's right to control students was contested. Richard Arum and his colleagues also examine several decades of data on schools to show striking and widespread relationships among court leanings, disciplinary practices, and student outcomes; they argue that the threat of lawsuits restrains teachers and administrators from taking control of disorderly and even dangerous situations in ways the public would support. Table of Contents: Preface 1. Questioning School Authority 2. Student Rights versus School Rules With Irenee R. Beattie 3. How Judges Rule With Irenee R. Beattie 4. From the Bench to the Paddle With Richard Pitt and Jennifer Thompson 5. School Discipline and Youth Socialization With Sandra Way 6. Restoring Moral Authority in American Schools Appendix: Tables Notes Index Reviews of this book: This interesting study casts a critical eye on the American legal system, which [Arum] sees as having undermined the ability of teachers and administrators to socialize teenagers...Arum, it must be pointed out, is adamantly opposed to such measures as zero tolerance, which, he insists, often results in unfair and excessive punishment. What he wisely calls for is not authoritarianism, but for school folks to regain a sense of moral authority so that they can act decisively in matters of school discipline without having to look over their shoulders. --David Ruenzel, Teacher Magazine Reviews of this book: Arum's book should be compulsory reading for the legal profession; they need to recognise the long-term effects of their judgments on the climate of schools and the way in which judgments in favour of individual rights can reduce the moral authority of schools in disciplining errant students. But the author is no copybook conservative, and he is as critical of the Right's get-tough, zero-tolerance authoritarianism as he is of what he eloquently describes as the 'marshmallow effect' of liberal reformers, pushing the rules to their limits and tolerating increased misconduct. --John Dunford, Times Educational Supplement [UK] Reviews of this book: [Arum] argues that discipline is often ineffective because schools' legitimacy and moral authority have been eroded. He holds the courts responsible, because they have challenged schools' legal and moral authority, supporting this claim by examining over 6,200 state and federal appellate court decisions from 1960 to 1992. In describing the structure of these decisions, Arum provides interesting insights into school disciplinary practices and the law. --P. M. Socoski, Choice Reviews of this book: Arum's careful analysis of school discipline becomes so focused and revealing that the ideological boundaries of the debate seem almost to have been suspended. The result is a rich and original book, bold, important, useful, and--as this combination of attributes might suggest--surprising...Many years in the making, Judging School Discipline weds historical, theoretical, and statistical research within the problem-solving stance of a teacher working to piece together solutions in the interest of his students. The result is a book that promises to shape research as well as practice through its demonstration that students are liberated, as well as oppressed, by school discipline. --Steven L. VanderStaay, Urban Education Reviews of this book: [Arum's] break with education-school dogma on student rights is powerful and goes far toward explaining why so many teachers dread their students--when they are not actually fighting them off. --Heather MacDonald, Wall Street Journal
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The Truly Disadvantaged

The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy, Second Edition

Author: William Julius Wilson

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226924653

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 3686

Renowned American sociologist William Julius Wilson takes a look at the social transformation of inner city ghettos, offering a sharp evaluation of the convergence of race and poverty. Rejecting both conservative and liberal interpretations of life in the inner city, Wilson offers essential information and a number of solutions to policymakers. The Truly Disadvantaged is a wide-ranging examination, looking at the relationship between race, employment, and education from the 1950s onwards, with surprising and provocative findings. This second edition also includes a new afterword from Wilson himself that brings the book up to date and offers fresh insight into its findings. “The Truly Disadvantaged should spur critical thinking in many quarters about the causes and possible remedies for inner city poverty. As policymakers grapple with the problems of an enlarged underclass they—as well as community leaders and all concerned Americans of all races—would be advised to examine Mr. Wilson's incisive analysis.”—Robert Greenstein, New York Times Book Review
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